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2015 soybeans pest management guide


South Dakota
Pest Management Guide
A guide to managing weeds, insects, and diseases. Paul O. Johnson Darrell L. Deneke Leon J. WrageInsects: Ada Szczepaniec Amanda Bachmann GrayScaleFont: Museo Sans 300 and 500 South Dakota Pest Management Guide

A guide to managing weeds, insects, and diseases. This book was published by iGrow, a service of SDSU Extension. For more information in the fields of agriculture, farming and rural living available in print, electronical y, or on-line, visit iGrow.org. Information in this book is intended to be a guideline for label information, but not a label substitute. Pesticide product (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides) labels can change at any time. Applicators must follow label procedures when applying a pesticide product (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides). It is particularly important to be sure pesticide products (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides) are being applied in the correct environments as described on the label (e.g. Right-of-way, pasture, cropland, non-crop, etc.), environmental precautions are being followed (rate restrictions, applications on or near surface water or shallower water tables, applications near trees, etc.), grazing/haying restrictions, and others. See the "Herbicide use restrictions" section near the back of this publication for more detailed information regarding restrictions associated with specific 2014 South Dakota Board of Regents, South Dakota State University. All rights reserved.
South Dakota State University is an Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer and offers all benefits, services, education, and employment opportunities without regard for race, color, creed, religion, national origin, ancestry, citizenship, age, gender, sexual orientation, disability, or Vietnam Era Veteran status.
2000 copies, $1.67 each, SDSU Extension. Printed on recycled paper. FS525B


Contents
South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans

Weed Control in Soybeans 4 Paul O Johnson, SDSU Extension Weed Science Coordinator Darrell L Deneke, SDSU Extension IPM CoordinatorDavid Vos, SDSU Ag Research Manager Jill Alms, SDSU Ag Research Assistant Leon J Wrage, SDSU Distinguished Professor – EmeritusContributions by Mike Moechnig, Adjunct Associate Professor Insecticides for Foliar Application on Soybeans in South Dakota 36 Ada Szczepaniec, SDSU Extension Entomology Specialist Kelley Tilmon, SDSU Extension Soybean Entomology Specialist Soybeans Seed Treatments 51 Emmanuel Byamukama, Assistant Professor/SDSU Extension Plant Pathologist Kay Ruden, SDSU Extension/Research Associate I, Extension Plant Pathology Soybeans Foliar Fungicides 58 Emmanuel Byamukama, Assistant Professor/SDSU Extension Plant Pathologist Kay Ruden, SDSU Extension/Research Associate I, Extension Plant Pathology Weed Control in Soybeans
Paul O. Johnson, Extension Weed Science Coordinator
Darrell Deneke, SDSU IPM Coordinator
David Vos, SDSU Ag Research Manager
Jill Alms, SDSU Ag Research Manager
Leon J. Wrage, SDSU Distinguished Professor Emeritus
Contributions by Dr. Mike Moechnig, Adjunct Associate Professor
Information in this publication is based on South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station research and other research or observations. Herbicides are included only after the chemical is registered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as to residue tolerances in crops used for food or feed.
There is no intent to specify product performance guarantees; such agreements involve the labeler and user. Users are responsible for following all label directions and precautions.
Rates. Rates for each treatment are stated as the amount of product per acre. All rates are on a broadcast basis. Labeled rates for
the range in soil types and suggested rates based on SDSU tests are stated.
Cost. The cost per acre is based on current price information. The cost for low and high rates is listed. Cost does not include
additives. Consult your dealer for actual price.
Tank-Mixes and Combinations. Selected tank-mixes are listed for several herbicides where specific products and rates are given
on the label. Most interpretations allow mixing unless prohibited; however, the user assumes responsibility if the specific combination is not shown. Tank-mixes having the most promise for local situations are included with at least one of the products. Check the section for each product alone and each product label for the complete listing of combinations for that specific product.
Resistance Management. Refer to the table on page 7 for a brief description of each herbicide site of action. Repeated use of similar
herbicide modes of action over multiple years may result in herbicide resistant weed populations or shifts in populations toward weed species that are difficult or costly to control. Maintaining the efficacy of herbicide chemistries through herbicide rotations may be an effective long-term strategy to reduce weed control costs as herbicide patents expire and weed control technology becomes less expensive. To facilitate proper herbicide rotation, the herbicide site of action number is listed next to the herbicide products in this Buffers. Many labels now have buffer zone recommendations for applying herbicides. Check individual product labels for specific
Safety First
Follow the Label. It is a violation of federal pesticide laws to use an herbicide in a manner inconsistent with its
labeling. Read the entire label before using.
Applicator Safety. The most serious risk of exposure is during handling and mixing the concentrated product. Use
protective equipment specified on the label. Use chemical resistant gloves, eye shield, long-sleeved clothing, rubber boots, and appropriate respirator as required. In case of emergency, contact the Poison Control Center via 24 hour Poison Control Center – 1-800-222-1222
Water Protection. Water quality is a public concern. Preventing spills and accidents reduces risk of groundwater and
surface water contamination. Mix herbicides away from wells and water sources. Prevent back siphoning. Install anti- backflow devices in irrigation equipment used for pesticides. Triple rinse containers. Store herbicides properly. Identify high-risk areas such as coarse soils or areas where the water table is near the surface. Be aware of herbicide properties that increase the risk of contamination in the critical area. Some treatments have specific restrictions requiring buffer strips and border areas around wells, lakes, and streams.
Trade names for herbicides are used in this publication to aid reader recognition. The common name is also listed and is
used for herbicides that are available in many labeled products. Examples of other product names are listed where possible
based on information available. As patents expire and marketing agreements are formed, additional products may be
marketed. Be sure crop use and application directions are followed for the product being used.
Affinity products (thifensulfuron + tribenuron) . . . . . . . . 23
Outlook (dimethenamid) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Accolade (flumetsulam). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Panoflex (thifensulfuron + tribenuron) . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Aim EC (carfentrazone) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Panther (flumioxazin). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Anthem (fluthiacet + pyroxasulfone) . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Parallel (metolachlor). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Arrow (clethodim) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Parazone (paraquat) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Assure II (quizalofop). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Authority Assist (sulfentrazone + imazethapyr) . . . . . . . 15
Acumen, Framework, Pendant, PendiPro, Prowl,Stealth . . . 8
Authority First (sulfentrazone + cloransulam) . . . . . . . . 15
Phenomenon (metolachlor). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Authority Elite (sulfentrazone + s-metolachlor) . . . . . . . 16
Phoenix (lactofen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Authority MTZ (sulfentrazone + metribuzin) . . . . . . . . . 15
Poast (sethoxydim) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Autumn (iodosulfuron). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Poast Plus (sethoxydim) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Autumn Super (iodosulfuron + thiencarbazone). . . . . . . 23
Prefix (s-metolachlor + fomesafen) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Avalanche Ultra (acifluorfen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Propel (dimethenamid) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Axiom (flufenacet + metribuzin). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Prowl H O (pendimethalin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Basagran (bentazon). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Pummel (metolachlor + imazethapyr) . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Bashazon (bentazon) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Pursuit (imazethapyr) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Battle Star (fomesafen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Pursuit Plus (imazethapyr + pendimethalin). . . . . . . . . 20
Boundary (metribuzin + s-metolachlor) . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Python (flumetsulam). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Brawl (s-metolachlor). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Raptor (imazamox) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Butyrac 200 (2,4-DB). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Reflex (fomesafen). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Cadet (fluthiacet) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Resource (flumiclorac). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Charger Basic(s-metolachlor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Rezult (sethoxydim + bentazon) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Cinch(s-metolachlor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Rhythm (fomesafen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Classic (chlorimuron). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Ringside (fomesafen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Cleanse (clethodim). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Rumble (fomesafen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Clethodim (clethodim) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Scepter (imazaquin). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Cobra (lactofen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Section (clethodim) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Command (clomazone) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Section Three (clethodim). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Commit (dimethenamid) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Select (clethodim) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Curio (chlorimuron) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Select Max (clethodim) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Dakota (clethodim). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Sequence (metolachlor + glyphosate). . . . . . . . . . . 11
Dawn (fomesafen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Sethoxydim SPC (sethoxydim) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Dicamba products
Shadow (clethodim). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Clarity, Clash, Detonate, Sterling Blue, Strut, Vision . . . . 32
Sharpen (saflufenacil) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Dimetric (metribuzin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Slider (dimethenamid).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Dual II Magnum (s-metolachlor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Sonalan (ethalfluralin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Encompass (flumioxazin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Sonic (sulfentrazone + cloransulam) . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Enlite (chlorimuron + flumioxazin + thifensulfuron) . . . . . . 17
Sortie (dimethenamid) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Establish (dimethenamid) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Spartan (sulfentrazone) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
ET (pyraflufen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Spartan Charge (sulfentrazone + carfentrazone) . . . . . . . 14
Extreme (imazethapyr + glyphosate). . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Stalwart (metolachlor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Fierce (flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone). . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Statement (metolachlor + fomesafen) . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Firestorm (paraquat) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Storm (acifluorfen + bentazon) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
FirstRate (cloransulam) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Surveil (flumioxazin + cloransulam). . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Flexstar GT 3.5 (fomesafen + glyphosate) . . . . . . . . . 25
Synchrony XP (thifensulfuron + chlorimuron) . . . . . . . . 22
Flexstar 2L (fomesafen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Tailwind (metolachlor + metribuzin). . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Forfeit 280 (glufosinate). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Tapout (clethodim). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Fusilade DX (fluazifop) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Targa (quizalofop) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Fusion (fluazifop + fenoxaprop). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Thief (thifensulfuron) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Gangster (flumioxazin + cloransulam). . . . . . . . . . . 16
Thunder (imazethapyr) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Glory (metribuzin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Thunder Master (imazethapyr + glyphosate) . . . . . . . . 20
Glyphosate products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Treaty (thifensulfuron) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Gramoxone (paraquat) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Treflan (trifluralin). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Harass (thifensulfuron). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
TriCor (metribuzin). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Harmony SG (thifensulfuron). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Top Gun (fomesafen). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Intensity (clethodim) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Torment (fomesafen + imazethapyr) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Intimidator (s-metolachlor + metribuzin + fomesafen) . . . . . 25
Ultra Blazer (acifluorfen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Intrro (alachlor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Valor SX (flumioxazin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Ledger (metribuzin + s-metolachlor) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Verdict (saflufenacil+dimethenamid) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Liberty (glufosinate). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Vida (pyraflufen). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Marvel (fluthiacet + fomesafen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Vise (metolachlor + fomesafen) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Matador (metolachlor + metribuzin + imazethapyr) . . . . . . 10
Volta (thifensulfuron) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Medal (s-metolachlor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Volunteer (clethodim) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Metri (metribuzin). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Warrant (acetochlor) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Metribuzin (metribuzin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Zidua (pyroxasulfone) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Microtech (alachlor). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2,4-D (ester and amine) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
OpTill (saflufenacil + imazethapyr) . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
OpTill Pro (saflufenacil + imazethapyr + dimethenamid). . . . 18
Outflank (flumioxazin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Weed ResponseTable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 5 Glyphosate-resistant weeds are becoming more common in South Dakota. The following list includes weed species that are known or suspected to be glyphosate resistant. Early detection of resistance will greatly improve your ability to manage the resistant population. The best solution is to minimize selection for resistant weed species, which may be done by using preemergence herbicides or rotating different crop species that allow alternative herbicide programs (chemistries), such as Liberty Link or conventional.
Kochia: Several locations in central SD. One option may be rotating to Liberty Link or conventional soybeans. In Roundup Ready
soybeans, consider using a full rate of a preemergence herbicide such as Valor (flumioxazin) or Authority products (sulfentrazone). In no-till, burndown options may include Cobra (lactofen), Liberty (glufosinate), or Gramoxone (paraquat). Cobra (lactofen) may be the most effective post-emergence option, but it should not be applied during stressful growing conditions. Plan on scouting fields closely after soybean emergence and making any post-emergence herbicide applications prior to the third soybean trifoliate. Common waterhemp: Several confimed sites in eastern SD. The best management option may be to use preemergence herbicides
such as flumioxazin products (Valor, Fierce, Gangster) or sulfentrazone products (Authority products or Sonic). Flexstar/Reflex (fomesafen), Avalanche Ultra/Ultra Blazer (acifluorfen), and Cobra (lactofen) may be the most effective postemergence tank-mix partners. Liberty will control glyphosate-resistant waterhemp in Liberty Link soybeans, but applications must be made to small (less than 4 inches) waterhemp plants. Common ragweed: Some reports in eastern SD. In Roundup Ready soybeans, consider using a preemergence herbicide that contains
cloransulam (Authority First/Sonic or Gangster), metribuzin (Authority MTZ), fomesafen (Prefix), or flumioxazin (Valor) followed by a glyphosate tank-mix partner such as FirstRate (cloransulam) or Flexstar (fomesafen). Do not apply Flexstar postemergence if Prefix was applied preemergence. Consider rotating to Liberty Link or conventional soybean varieties.
Horseweed (marestail): Several reports in southeastern and northcentral SD. In Roundup Ready soybeans, use 2,4-D ester in the
burndown application before planting or use a preemergence herbicide that also has foliar activity such as saflufenacil (Sharpen or OpTill) or cloransulam (Authority First/Sonic or Gangster). For postemergence, consider tank-mixing FirstRate (cloransulam) with Common lambsquarters: May be tolerant during adverse conditions, but resistance has not been confirmed in SDSU trials. The
best management option may be to use preemergence herbicides such as Valor (flumioxazin), Authority products (sulfentrazone), or Sharpen/OpTill (saflufenacil). Harmony (thifensulfuron) may be the most effective postemergence tank-mix partner, but it may stunt soybeans during periods of rapid growth. Cadet (fluthiacet) or Resource (flumiclorac) may be moderately effective. Abbreviations and Definitions
EPP: Surface applications usually 2-6 weeks before planting in no-till systems.
PPI: Before the crop is planted, incorporated.
PPS: Before the crop is planted, surface applied (not incorporated)
PRE: After planting, but before crop or weeds emerge.
POST: After crop or weeds emerge.
pt = pint
L = liquid, flowable, or EC DG, DF = dry flowable WDG = water dispersible granule OM = organic matter ae = acid equivalent COC = crop oil concentrate ai = active ingredient NIS = non-ionic surfactant and/+ = split application (and) or as a tank-mix (+) N = liquid nitrogen fertilizerAMS = ammonium sulfate MSO = metholated seed oil gpa = gallon per acre SG = soluble granule psi = pounds per square inch pressure ME = microencapsulated UAN = urea+ammonium nitrate liquid fertilizer % v/v = percent volume per volume Group Numbers Associated with Herbicide Sites of Modes of Action
WSSA Group Number
Site or Mode of Action
fluazifop, sethoxydim imazamox, cloransulam Microtubule inhibitor Photosynthesis inhibitor (triazine) Photosynthesis inhibitor (contact) Glutamine synthetase inhibitor Cell membrane disrupter (PPO inhibitor) carfentrazone, lactofen Seedling shoot inhibitor acetochlor, metolachlor Cell membrane disrupter (PSI inhibitor) South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 7 TRIFLURALIN PRODUCTS (trifluralin) Site of Action: 3
Trifluralin is available in several brand name products, including Treflan, Trifluralin, Trust, Triflurex, and others. Formulation and use may vary. Follow directions for product used.
1-2 pt trifluralin 4L (0.5-1.0 lb ai)
5-10 lb Treflan 10G
Dinitroanaline herbicide. Excellent control of most annual grasses and fair control of small-seeded annual broadleaves such as pigweed and lambsquarters. Gives partial waterhemp control. Does not control mustard, nightshade, smartweed, or large-seeded annual broadleaves. Consistent performance. Very good crop tolerance. Rates of 1.5 pt 4L per acre have been satisfactory in most SDSU tests. Minimum carrier is 5 gpa for ground or air. Carryover may damage oats or sorghum planted the following year. No restriction on use of vines for feed.
FALL. Liquid or granule formulation may be applied in late fall and incorporated with 1 fall tillage and 1 pass in the spring.
Spray forms preferred for spring application. Granules perform best in fall. Weed control with fall-applied granules has been equal to that for spring-applied liquid.
PPI. Spring application. Immediate incorporation preferred, but may be delayed up to 24 hours if soil surface is dry and
wind is under 10 mph. Incorporate into the top 2-3 inches. A second incorporation improves uniformity, especially under wet, lumpy, or trashy conditions. Follow with a harrow or leveling device.
PENDIMETHALIN PRODUCTS (pendimethalin) Site of Action: 3
1.8-3.6 pt pendimethalin 3.3L (0.5-1.5 lb ai)
1.5-3.0 pt Prowl H O 3.8L (0.7-1.5 lb ai)
There are several pendimethalin 3.3L products available including Prowl 3.3EC, Acumen, Framework 3.3EC, Pendant
3.3EC, PendiPro 3.3EC, Stealth and others.
Dinitroanaline herbicide. Excellent control of most annual grasses and fair control of small-seeded annual broadleaves such as pigweed and lambsquarters. Does not control mustard, nightshade, smartweed, or large-seeded annual broadleaves. Consistent performance as a preplant incorporated treatment. Very good crop tolerance; less tolerance if left on the surface. Prowl H2O is a water-based formulation with less odor and staining and has shown improved performance in high residue tests. Rates of 3 pt 3.3L or 2.5-3 pt 3.8L per acre have been satisfactory in most SDSU tests. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground and 5 gpa for air. No label restrictions for crops planted the following year if normal crop was produced. No use restrictions on vines for feed.
FALL. Pendimethalin may be surface applied or incorporated in the fall. Follow-up weed program required. Apply after
October 1 and before freeze-up. EPP. Apply up to 15 days before planting. One inch rainfall or mechanical incorporation required.
PPI. Apply up to 60 days before planting. Immediate incorporation preferred but may be delayed up to 7 days. Incorporate
into the top 1-2 inches. A second incorporation improves uniformity, especially if no rain was received, or under lumpy, trashy conditions. Follow with a harrow or leveling device.
SONALAN (ethalfluralin) Site of Action: 3
1.5-3.5 pt Sonalan 3L or 5.5-13 lb Sonalan 10G (0.55-1.3 lb ai)
Dinitroanaline herbicide. Excellent control of most annual grasses; fair to good control of small-seeded annual broadleaves such as pigweed and lambsquarters. Gives partial waterhemp control. Does not control mustard, smartweed, or large-seeded annual broadleaves. Consistent performance. Good crop tolerance in most situations. Performance has been similar to Treflan when amount of product is adjusted to label rates. Rate of 3-3.5 pt is for eastern black nightshade suppression and added broadleaf control. Rate of 2.5 pt per acre has been satisfactory in most SDSU tests. Minimum carrier is 5 gpa. Less soil residual than Treflan; no label limitations for common crops the following year. Do not feed vines to livestock.
PPI. Apply within 3 weeks before planting. Incorporate into top 2-3 inches. Immediate incorporation preferred; however,
incorporation may be delayed up to 48 hours. Second incorporation improves uniformity.
INTRRO or MICRO-TECH (alachlor) Site of Action: 15
2-3 qt Intrro or Micro-Tech 4L (2-3 lb ai)
Chloroacetamide herbicide. Very good to excellent control of several annual grasses and fair control of pigweed with high rates and favorable conditions. Useful for special weed problems such as nightshade, nutsedge, or waterhemp. Consistent on annual grasses when rainfall is adequate. Excellent crop tolerance. Rates of 2.5-3 qt 4L per acre have been satisfactory in most preemergence SDSU tests. Use the higher rates for preplant incorporated or high residue, reduced till systems. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground or 3 gpa for air. Intrro is an emulsifiable liquid and Micro-Tech is a microencapsulated alachlor formulation. No carryover. Do not feed forage, hay, or straw or harvest for silage. Restricted Use Pesticide.
EPP. For Micro-Tech only. Apply 60% as the first part of a split application if treating 30-45 days before planting and the
remainder at planting. Split application preferred when applying more than 14 days before planting.
PPI. Incorporate into top 2 inches of soil within 7 days of planting. Use a field cultivator, shallow disk, or multi-weeder, or
other suitable equipment during final seedbed preparation. Rate of 3 qt 4L per acre has been used in most tests. Furrow planters move treated soil from row area.
PRE. Requires 0.5-0.75 inch rain within 1 week.
METOLACHLOR PRODUCTS Site of Action: 15
DUAL II MAGNUM (s-metolachlor)
1-2 pt Dual II Magnum 7.64L (0.95-1.95 lb ai) ($10.05-33.90)
6-12 lb Dual IIG Magnum 16G
Additional 7.62L s-metolachlor products include Dual Magnum, Medal, Brawl, and Charger Basic, and 7.64L s-metolachlor
products include Dual II Magnum, Medal II, Brawl II, Charger Max and Cinch. Very good to excellent control of several
grasses and fair control of pigweed. Useful for special weed problems such as nightshade, nutsedge, or waterhemp. Consistent on annual grasses when rainfall is adequate. Excellent crop tolerance. Rates of 1.7-2 pt per acre have been satisfactory in most SDSU tests. S-metolachlor products contain a resolved form of metolachlor. Labeling includes higher rates for certain grass problems. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground and 2 gpa for air. No carryover. Vines may be used for livestock feed.
FALL. Apply after September 30. For minimum and no-till systems on soil having greater than 2.5% OM. Use 1.7-2 pt or
8-10 lb Dual IIG Magnum per acre on medium-textured soil. Use the high rate for fine-textured soil. Apply before ground freezes. Performs best in early, dry spring seasons where grass pressure is moderate to light.
EPP. Intended for early-season annual grasses and residual control into the season. Rain required. Does not control
emerged weeds. Weed control has been acceptable except in seasons with heavy, early rain that delays planting.
PPI. Incorporate into top 2 inches within 14 days before planting. Deep incorporation reduces grass control. Use maximum
rate for soil type.
PRE. Requires 0.5-0.75 inch rain within 1 week after application.
POST. May be applied alone from emergence up to the third soybean trifoliate at 1-1.33 pt/A. Do not make a postemergence
application if any s-metolachlor product was also applied preemergence. Do not graze or feed forage to livestock after a postemergence application. Make postemergence applications at least 90 days before harvest.
STALWART or PARALLEL PCS or PARALLEL (metolachlor)
1-2 pt Stalwart, Parallel PCS 8L or Parallel, Phenomenon 7.8L (1-2 lb ai)

Products contain metolachlor. EPA required labeling at the same product rate as for s-metolachlor products. Higher rates are labeled for certain grassy weed problems. FALL, EPP, PPI, and PRE. Apply as listed above.
South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 9 BOUNDARY, LEDGER or TAILWIND (s-metolachlor + metribuzin) Site of Action: 15+5
1.2-3.6 pt Boundary 6.5EC (0.79-2.36 + 0.19-0.56 lb ai)
Boundary is a premix containing 5.25 lb s-metolachlor (Dual) +1.25 lb metribuzin per gallon. Rates vary depending on soil texture and organic matter. The 1.5 pt rate provides the equivalent of 1 pt Dual II Magnum + 5 oz metribuzin 75 DF or 7.5 fl oz 4F and provides early-season residual for specific weeds including waterhemp. Winter wheat and alfalfa may be planted in 4.5 months; corn, peas, barley, and spring wheat in 8 months; forage grasses and other crops in 12 months. Treated soybean plants cannot be grazed or fed to livestock for 40 days after application. Do not apply to calcareous soils or soils with pH of 7.5 or higher.
PPS, PPI, PRE. Application rate of 1.5-1.8 pt per acre when used as a foundation in a sequential program.
PREFIX (s-metolachlor + fomesafen) Site of Action: 15+14
VISE or STATEMENT (metolachlor + fomesafen)
2-2.33 pt Prefix or Vise (1.1-1.3 + 0.24-0.28 lb ai)

2 pt Statement (1.1 + 0.23 lb ai)
Prefix at 2 pt/A is equivalent to 1.1 pt/A Dual II Magnum + 0.95 pt/A Flexstar. Provides residual control of several common grass weed species such as crabgrass, barnyardgrass, foxtails, and witchgrass. Also controls several broadleaf weed species such as common lambsquarters, pigweed, purslane, common ragweed, and waterhemp. May provide approximately 5 weeks residual control. Maximum application rate is 2.33 pt once every 2 years.
Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground applications or 5 gpa for aerial applications. Rotation restriction is 4.5 months for wheat, barley, oat, or rye; 12 months for corn; 18 months for sunflower or sorghum.
Limited region for application in South Dakota includes land east of I-29 from North Dakota to Watertown, east of Hwy 81 from Watertown to Madison, and all areas east and south of State Road 34 and Hwy 281 down to the Nebraska border. Do not apply Flexstar or Reflex (fomesafen) postemergence if Prefix is applied preemergence at 2 pt/A.
EPP. Apply within 15 days prior to planting. Minimize soil movement at planting.
PPI. Incorporate into the top 2 inches of soil within 7 days after application.
PRE. Apply during or after planting but before weeds or soybeans emerge.
EPOST. Apply 2-2.33 pt/A between cracking and the third trifoliate. Temporary spotting, bronzing, or growth deformity may
occur on the soybeans. If tank-mixing with a glyphosate that does not have an adjuvant, NIS may be added at 0.25% v/v. Do not use COC.
PUMMEL (metolachlor + imazethapyr) Site of Action: 15+2
1.6-2 pt Pummel 5.25L (1-1.25 + 0.05-0.06 lb ai) Premix containing 5 lb metolachlor (Dual) and 0.25 lb imazethapyr
(Pursuit) per gallon. Rates vary depending on soil texture and organic matter. Rainfall within 7 days is necessary to activate the herbicide. Do not apply products containing chlorimuron, imazaquin, or imazethapyr during the same year. Do not tank- mix herbicides containing clomazone. Pummel can only be applied once per year with a maximum of 1.25 lb/A.
Minimum carrier rate is 10 gpa for ground and 5 gpa for air. Add NIS at 1 qt/100 gal and UAN at 1-2 qt/A or AMS at 4 lb/A for optimum burndown activity on emerged weeds. Do not graze or feed forage, hay or straw from treated areas. Rotation interval is 4.5 months for alfalfa and wheat; 9.5 months for barley and corn; 18 months for oats, safflower, and sorghum; 26 months for potatoes; 40 months for canola, flax, and sugarbeets; and 18 months for most other crops.
EPP Apply up to 30 days before planting in minimum till or no-till systems.
PPI Apply up to 14 days before planting. Incorporate into the top 2 inches of soil within 7 days after application.
PRE. Apply during or after planting but before soybeans emerge.
MATADOR (metolachlor + metribuzin + imazethapyr) Site of Action: 15+5+2
1.6-4 pt Matador 4.7L (0.8-2.0 + 0.11-0.28 + 0.026-0.065 lb ai) Matador is a premix containing 4.01 lb metolachlor, 0.56
lb metribuzin, and 0.13 lb imazethapyr per gallon. Rates vary with soil texture and organic matter. Controls lambsquarters, kochia, mustard species, pigweed/waterhemp, common ragweed, velvetleaf, and several annual grass weed species. Minimum carrier rate is 10 gpa for ground applications or 5 gpa for aerial applications. Risk of injury if soil has a calcareous surface and pH > 7.5, with soils with less than 0.5% organic matter, in water-saturated soils, or soybeans planted less than 1.5 inches deep. See label for additional precautions. Rotation restriction is 4.5 months for winter wheat; 8 months for peas or spring wheat; 8.5 months for corn; 12 monhs for edible beans; 18 months for oats, sunflower, safflower, and sorghum; and 40 months for lentils.
PPS, EPP. May be applied 15-30 days prior to planting. May add glyphosate or 2,4-D if weeds have emerged prior to
PPI. Incorporate in to the upper 2 inches of soil within 14 days prior to planting.
PRE. Must be applied prior to soybean emergence.
SEQUENCE (s-metolachlor + glyphosate) Site of Action: 15+9
2.5-4 pt Sequence 5.25L (0.94-1.5 + 0.7-1.13 lb ai) Sequence is a premix containing 3 lb s-metolachlor plus 2.25 lb ae
glyphosate per gallon. It provides preemergence residual control for some annual grasses and certain small-seeded annual broadleaves and non-selective burndown of emerged weeds. The 4 pt rate provides the equivalent of 1.2 pt Dual Magnum plus 48 oz glyphosate 3L ae product. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground or 3 gpa for air. Do not feed treated forage or hay for 30 days.
EPP and PRE. Apply up to 30 days before planting but before crop emergence.
TANK-MIXES Sequence may be tank-mixed with several herbicides labeled for preemergence use in soybeans.
OUTLOOK, PROPEL, ESTABLISH, SLIDER, COMMIT or SORTIE (dimethenamid-p) Site of Action: 15
8-21 oz Outlook 6L (0.4-1 lb ai)
Chloroacetamide herbicide chemically related to Intrro or Dual. Very good to excellent control of several annual grasses. Sandbur and wild proso millet are partially controlled. Fair to good control of certain annual broadleaves such as pigweed, waterhemp, or black nightshade. Crop tolerance appears adequate under conditions in SDSU tests.
Rates of 16-21 oz 6L per acre are suggested for most situations. In South Dakota see Sec. 24(c) label for list of vulnerable soil types where application is prohibited when ground water is within 30 feet from the surface. Minimum carrier is 2 gpa for ground or air. There are no crop rotation restrictions for the next season. Winter wheat can be planted 4 months after application. Do not graze or feed forage.
EPP. Apply up to 45 days before planting. A split application (2/3 early and 1/3 at planting) is preferred if applying more than
30 days before planting.
PPI. Apply within 2 weeks of planting and incorporate shallowly into the top 1-2 inches. Avoid deep incorporation. Incorporated
applications not recommended for coarse soils with less than 1.5% OM.
PRE. Requires rain prior to weed emergence.
POST. May be applied early postemergence through trifoliate stage. Avoid late application. Emerged weeds are not
TANK-MIXES May be applied as a tank-mix or sequentially with other herbicides including but not limited to: pendimethalin
(Prowl), trifluralin (Treflan), Sonalan, glyphosate, Liberty and several post emergence grass herbicides.
WARRANT (acetochlor) Site of Action: 15
1.25-2 qt Warrant 3L (0.94-1.5 lb ai)
May be applied preplant, preemergence, or early postemergence for residual control of annual grasses, such as foxtails, barnyardgrass, crabgrass, and wild oats and broadleaf weed species such as waterhemp, lambsquarters, purslane, and others. Rates vary with soil texture and OM. Do not apply more than a total of 4 qt/A per year. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground applications. Do not apply with aerial equipment. For best performance, 0.5-0.75 inch precipitation is required within 1 week after application.
Rotation restriction is 4 months for wheat, 9 months for alfalfa, or 12 months for sunflower, pulse crops (beans and peas), and other crops.
South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 11 Do not apply within 100 feet of a well or areas where the ground water is less than 30 feet below the soil surface. Do not apply on sand soils with less than 3% organic matter (OM), loamy sands with less than 2% OM, or sandy loams with less than 1% OM. Do not mix or load within 50 feet of a well, sink hole, or surface water (lakes, reservoirs, streams, etc.) unless done on a properly designed impervious pad. PPS, PRE. Supplemental label for PPS and PRE applications. Incorporation not recommended. Risk of crop injury if
conditions slow plant growth, such as cool temperatures or excessive moisture, occur after application but prior to soybean emergence. Recommeded rates vary with soil texture and OM (1.25- 2 qt/A with average of 1.5 qt/A).
EPOST. Only controls weeds not yet emerged. Apply after soybean emergence but prior to the R2 (full bloom) soybean
growth stage. Optimal timing may be V2-V3 soybeans. Early applications are recommended to take advantage of the soil residual activity. Canopy cover may inhibit soil contact at later application dates. Several tank mix options available (see ZIDUA (pyroxasulfone) Site of Action: 15
1-3.5 oz Zidua 85DF (0.053-0.186 lb ai)
Selective herbicide that provides control of annual grasses, sedges and annual broadleaves. Rates vary depending on soil texture. After application, at least 0.5 inches of rain is needed to activate the herbicide. Maximum use rate per season is 2.1 oz/A for coarse soils and 3.5 oz/A for medium/fine soils. Supplemental labeling does not allow more than one spring application. Minimum carrier volume is 5 gpa ground. Do not apply Zidua aerially.
Corn can be planted anytime. Rotation interval is 4 months for sunflower, 4 months for wheat (< 3 oz/acre), 6 months for lentil and dry field pea (< 3 oz/acre), 10 months for alfalfa, 11 months for edible peas and edible dry bean, 11 months for other small grains (< 3 oz/acre), and 18 months for most other crops.
FALL Only on medium (2.5-3.5 oz/A) or fine (3.5 oz/A) soils.
EPP 2.1-3.5 oz/A 15 to 45 days before planting. Not recommended on coarse soils.
PPS, PPI 1.5-3.5 oz/A up to 14 days before planting on all soil types.
PRE 1.5-3.5 oz/A applied after planting and before crop emergence.
EPOST 1-3.5 oz/A applied to 1-3 trifoliate soybeans. May result in temporary leaf burn or stunting of soybeans. Do not
apply from crop emergence to unifoliate stage. Emerged weeds are not controlled.
COMMAND (clomazone) Site of Action: 13
1.3-2.6 pt Command 3ME (0.5-1 lb ai)
Command 3ME is a 3 lb/gal encapsulated formulation intended for preemergence or shallow incorporation. Command gives excellent control of velvetleaf and very good to excellent control of annual broadleaves such as lambsquarters and Venice mallow. Smartweed and ragweed require high rates. Pigweed and nightshade control is less consistent; cocklebur is partially controlled. Foxtail control is very good in some tests but has been variable. Excellent crop tolerance. There are no restrictions for high soil pH; however, carryover potential may increase at pH below 6. Velvetleaf control is usually satisfactory with 2 pt in most soils; use 2.6 pt per acre for heavy, high-organic-matter soil or for less susceptible weeds. Combination with other herbicides improves pigweed and grass control. Affected plants show chlorosis or bleaching of leaf tissue. Crop rotation restriction is 9 months for field corn, sorghum, and peas; 12 months for wheat and sweet corn; and 16 months for crops not listed on the label. Treated fields may be rotated to corn or sorghum. Temporary whiteness may be noted, especially in spray overlaps or if it is very dry. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground equipment.
Avoid application when spray may move to non-target vegetation. Ornamental and fruit trees, shrubs, evergreens, oats, alfalfa, and several garden plants are sensitive and will show whitening. Do not apply within 1200 feet of housing areas and commercial nurseries. Do not exceed 30 psi. Wind should not exceed 10 mph. Do not graze or harvest forage from clomazone treated field.
EPP, PRE. Preemergence or shallow incorporated application allows use in bands, no-till, and other conservation tillage.
Experience suggests the 3ME formulation can be applied preemergence if extra precautions are followed to prevent TANK-MIXES Command can be tank-mixed with Metolachlor Products, Intrro, Micro-Tech, or Boundary to improve grass
control. It can also be tank-mixed with metribuzin or used preplant followed by labeled postemergence herbicides.
PYTHON or ACCOLADE (flumetsulam) Site of Action: 2
0.8-1.33 oz Python or Accolade 80WDG (0.04-0.07 lb ai)
Python is a soil-applied broadleaf herbicide. Rates vary according to weed species and soil texture. Python and Accolade are packaged in 1-oz packets. Rates of 0.8-1 oz per acre are for the most susceptible weeds including Russian thistle, lambsquarters, Venice mallow, mustard, redroot pigweed, waterhemp, and kochia. Rates of 0.9-1.33 oz per acre are required for sunflower, marestail, nightshade, smartweed, and others. Python does not control ALS-resistant biotypes. Results in SDSU tests with grass control combinations have been good to excellent for velvetleaf, pigweed, waterhemp, mustard, and lambsquarters. Cocklebur and common ragweed are suppressed, but require additional herbicide for best results.
Crop tolerance has been good in SDSU tests. Temporary leaf chlorosis and stunting may be noted on calcareous soils. Varieties with tolerance to iron chlorosis should be used in fields with a history of early season chlorosis.
Alfalfa, dry beans, peas, and small grain may be planted after 4 months; forage grasses and cover crops 9 months; grain sorghum 12 months; sunflower 18 months; and canola and all other crops not listed on label after 26 months and successful Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground equipment; 20 gpa for reduced till systems. Preharvest interval is 85 days. Do not apply to soils with a pH exceeding 7.8. Do not graze or feed forage, hay, or straw to livestock.
FALL. Intended to reduce need for burndown. Apply late fall after soil temperature drops below 50º F.
PPI and PRE. Apply from 30 days before planting to after planting but before soybeans emerge.
TANK-MIXES/SEQUENTIAL Mixes with burndown herbicides may be used for no-till. Python may be used with preplant or
preemergence grass herbicides. Basagran, Cobra, and other similar herbicides may be used sequentially postemergence for additional broadleaf control.
FIRSTRATE (cloransulam) Site of Action: 2
0.3-0.75 oz FirstRate 85WDG (0.016-0.04 lb ai)
Cloransulam is a soil-applied or postemergence ALS-inhibitor herbicide used for broadleaf weed control. There is root and foliar uptake. Soil and postemergence applications provide good to excellent control of cocklebur, sunflower, velvetleaf, marestail, common ragweed, giant ragweed, and Venice mallow. Soil applications also control redroot pigweed and lambsquarters. Nightshade is suppressed. Sunflower and cocklebur control in SDSU tests with postemergence applications has been excellent; velvetleaf control has been satisfactory.
Product is packaged in 1.5-oz soluble bags; 1 bag will treat 5 acres at the postemergence rate. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground equipment. For postemergence application, add NIS at 1-2 pt/100 gal plus 28% N at 2.5 gal/100 gal or 2 lb AMS per acre. COC plus 28% N may be used under adverse conditions. Do not harvest forage for 14 days; do not harvest soybeans for 65 days after application. Crop tolerance is very good. There are no soil pH restrictions. Iron chlorosis may increase under stress conditions with soil applications. Wheat may be planted after 4 months; alfalfa, corn, dry beans, oats, peas, or sorghum after 9 months; barley after 12 months; sweet corn after 18 months; sunflower after 30 months and successful bioassay; other crops not listed on label after 18 months.
PPI, EPP, PRE. Rate is 0.6 oz for soils less than 3% OM or 0.75 oz per acre for higher OM. Apply within 2 weeks of planting.
Incorporate into the top 1-3 inches or apply to soil surface prior to crop emergence. Rain required for preemergence.
POST. Rate is 0.3 oz per acre. Apply from emergence to flowering. Crop tolerance best after first trifoliate leaf is emerged.
TANK-MIXES FirstRate may be tank-mixed with burndown herbicides for no-till or tank-mixed with postemergence broadleaf
herbicides (Basagran, Cobra, Flexstar, Raptor, Pursuit, Ultra Blazer, and others) or grass herbicides (Select, Poast Plus, Assure II, Fusion, and others) or with glyphosate (Roundup Ready). Grass antagonism may be noted with tank-mixes with postemergence grass herbicides.
METRIBUZIN, METRI, DIMETRIC, GLORY, TRICOR (metribuzin) Site of Action: 5
0.5-0.75 pt Glory 4L, Metri, TriCor 4F or ($4.85-7.35)
0.33-0.5 lb Metribuzin, Dimetric, Glory, TriCor 75DF (0.25-0.34 lb ai)
Triazine herbicide. Metribuzin is usually used with other soil-applied herbicides. It gives good to excellent control of small- South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 13 seeded annual broadleaves and fair to good control of certain large-seeded broadleaves. Aids in early season waterhemp control. Foxtail control is variable. Mustard is very sensitive; also used for kochia, lambsquarters, Russian thistle, and wild buckwheat. Metribuzin at 0.5 pt 4F or 0.33 lb 75DF per acre is usually satisfactory for light infestations of many small-seeded broadleaves with reduced risk of crop injury. Higher rates are intended for fine texture soils with pH < 7.5.
Fair crop tolerance. Risk of injury from metribuzin on variable, sandy, high pH, low-organic-matter soils or on clay knolls. Do not use on soil that is sandy, has a pH over 7.4, or has less than 1% OM. Cold, wet soil conditions that slow crop emergence increase risk of injury. Combined effects of metribuzin with atrazine carryover can produce serious crop injury. Rotation interval is 4 months for alfalfa, barley, corn, forage grasses and wheat; 8 months for peas, and lentils; 12 months for potato; and 18 months for most other crops. Fields treated with metribuzin should not be grazed or harvested for 40 days after PRE. Metribuzin provides improved burndown and some residual control. Labeling may include special burndown rates;
higher rates may be used for preemergence application. Tank-mixes with glyphosate in SDSU tests improve control of seedling dandelion and kochia.
TANK-MIXES Several tank-mix options available, including trifluralin, Prowl (pendimethalin), Pursuit (imazethapyr), Dual
(s-metolachlor), and others. Check the label for specific instructions regarding the rates and application timings for each tank-mix option.
SPARTAN (sulfentrazone) Site of Action: 14
4.5-12 oz Spartan 4F (0.141-0.375 lb ai)
Sulfentrazone is a soil-applied herbicide used primarily for broadleaf weeds. It is root or shoot absorbed, and is translocated, causing cell membrane disruption in susceptible species. It is non-volatile and does not photo-degrade. Pigweed and waterhemp control has been excellent in SDSU trials; kochia control has been very good. Black nightshade is also controlled. Other herbicides are required to control grass and broadleaf weeds such as velvetleaf, sunflower, ragweed, and cocklebur.
Application rates are based on soil organic matter and texture. The 6-oz rate is suggested for most preemergence applications. Applications made near or after crop emergence may cause severe crop injury. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground or 5 gpa for aerial applications. There are no pH restrictions. Do not apply more than 12 oz per acre per 12-month Crop rotation restrictions are 4 months for wheat, barley, triticale, and rye; 10 months for corn or sorghum; 12 months for alfalfa, oats, and millet; 18 months for sorghum (rates above 8 oz/A), popcorn, and sweetcorn; and 24 months for canola.
FALL. Spartan 4F may be applied as a fall treatment to the stubble of harvested crops for the burndown of existing vegetation
and preemergence control of labeled weeds the following spring in no-till and conservation till systems. Apply after harvest when the sustained soil temperature is 55º F and falling at a 4-inch soil depth. Applications can be made after September 30 in areas north of Interstate 90 and after October 15 in areas south of Interstate 90. If weeds are emerged at time of application, use a suitable tank-mix burndown herbicide partner at labeled rates. Use a minimum of 20 gpa per acre of carrier to ensure adequate weed coverage. COC or MSO is suggested.
PPI. Incorporation must be uniform and no deeper than 2 inches. Improper soil incorporation increases the chance for
erratic weed control and/or crop injury.
PRE. Apply up to 3 days after planting but before soybean emergence. Rain (0.5-1 inch) required.
TANK-MIXES Spartan 4F may be tank-mixed with other herbicides for the control of additional weed species. Conduct
appropriate compatibility tests prior to tank-mixing. Follow all precautions and restrictions on the tank-mix partner label.
SPARTAN CHARGE (sulfentrazone + carfentrazone) Site of Action: 14+14
5.75-8.5 oz Spartan Charge 3.5L (0.14-0.21 + 0.016-0.023 lb ai)
The mix with carfentrazone improves foliar activity on emerged seedlings at the time of application. Provides preemergence control of pigweed, waterhemp, kochia, lambsquarters, Russian thistle, nightshade, and other weed species. Rate range depends on the soil texture. Do not use on sandy soils with less than 1% organic matter. Temporary soybean stunting or discoloration may occur in soils with a high pH (above 7.5), cool temperatures, excessive soil moisture, and other conditions that inhibit vigorous growth. Do not apply to frozen soils or over snow cover. Thorough coverage is important for foliar activity. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground applications or 5 gpa for aerial applications. When applied alone, add MSO or COC. When applied with glyphosate, add a NIS.
BURNDOWN, PREPLANT, and PRE. Do not apply after soybean emergence. If applying prior to soybean planting, minimize
soil disturbance when planting. If applying after planting, it is important to have closed furrows to avoid soybean injury.
AUTHORITY FIRST or SONIC (sulfentrazone + cloransulam) Site of Action: 14+2
3-8 oz Authority First or Sonic 70DF (0.12-0.31 + 0.015-0.04 lb ai) Rate range is 6.45-8 oz/A in all soybeans. Reduced
rates of 3-6 oz/A in RR soybean may be used when followed by a preplanned postemergence glyphosate application without resistant biotypes. Authority First DF and Sonic are premixes that contain 0.62 lb ai sulfentrazone (Spartan) + 0.08 lb ai cloransulam-methyl (FirstRate) per pound of product and is equivalent to 8-10 oz/A Spartan 4F plus 0.61-0.75 oz/A FirstRate. Rates are based on soil organic matter. The higher rate is used on soils with organic matter greater than 3%. Weeds controlled include marestail, waterhemp, lambsquarters, velvetleaf, common and giant ragweed, cocklebur, smartweed, nightshade, sunflower and kochia. Do not make more than 1 soil application in a single season. Do not apply more than 8 oz of Authority First DF or Sonic per season. Do not feed treated soybean forage or soybean hay to livestock. Do not apply to sandy soils containing less than 1% organic matter. Do not harvest for 65 days after application.
BURNDOWN. Apply as a preplant burndown treatment at 6.45-8 oz/A. Use minimum of 10 gpa finished spray volume. Use
NIS at 0.125-0.25% v/v or 1-2 pt/100 gal or COC at 1-2% v/v plus AMS. May be tank-mixed with other herbicides like Aim EW, 2,4-D, glyphosate, paraquat, glufosinate or metribuzin to improve weed spectrum.
PREPLANT and PRE. Apply within 3 days after planting.
AUTHORITY MTZ (sulfentrazone + metribuzin) Site of Action: 14+5
8-20 oz Authority MTZ (0.09-0.23 + 0.14-0.34 lb ai)
Rates in conventional soybeans are 12-20 oz/A and rates for weed suppression in glyphosate-tolerant soybeans are 8-14 oz wt/A depending on soil texture and OM. Authority MTZ at 10 oz/A is equivalent to 3.6 fl oz/A Spartan 4F + 5.4 oz metribuzin 4F. Standard rates control several common broadleaf weed species, such as common lambsquarters, pigweed, waterhemp, velvetleaf, kochia, cocklebur, marestail, and others and provide grass suppression.
Minimum carrier volume is 10 gpa for ground applications or 5 gpa for aerial applications. Continuous agitation during application is required. May use NIS (0.25% v/v), COC (1 qt/A), or MSO (fall applications only) when applying to emerged weeds prior to crop planting, but it is recommended to tank-mix with a herbicide intended for foliar activity.
Risk of crop injury increases in soils with pH greater than 7.5, soils with less than 0.5% OM., planting seed less than 1.5 inches deep, or applying with an organophosphate insecticide. Cool temperatures or heavy rainfall after application may cause stunting or stand reduction.
Rotation restriction is 4 months for wheat, or barley; 10 months for field corn; 12 months for alfalfa, dry beans, sorghum, sunflower; or 18 months for crops not specified on the label.
EPP. For fall applications, apply in the fall after September 30 north of I-90 or October 15 south of I-90 when soils are less
than 55o F. For spring applications, apply within 30-45 days prior to planting. Use higher rates for applications between 30- 45 days prior to planting.
PPI. Do not incorporate deeper than 2 inches.
PRE. May be applied up to 3 days after planting. Application to emerged soybeans may cause severe crop injury. Properly
closed furrows are necessary prior to application.
AUTHORITY ASSIST (sulfentrazone + imazethapyr) Site of Action: 14+2
4-12 oz Authority Assist 4L (0.1-.31 + 0.02-0.06 lb ai)
Rates range from 6-12 fl oz/A in conventional soybeans or 4-6 oz/A in Roundup Ready soybeans. Rates vary depending on soil texture and OM. Do not apply to soils with less than 1% OM. or pH greater than 7.5. Authority Assist at 5 oz/A is equivalent to 4.2 oz/A Spartan 4F and 1.7 oz/A Pursuit 2L. Provides control or suppression of many annual broadleaf weed species such as mustards, pigweeds, kochia, velvetleaf, lambsquarters, wild buckwheat, and several others and some annual grass species, such as foxtails, fall panicum, and shattercane as well as sedges, such as yellow nutsedge.
Use 10-40 gpa carrier for ground applications or 5 gpa for aerial applications. Carrier may be water or liquid fertilizer, but a jar test is recommended to test compatibility if mixing with liquid fertilizer. Rotation restrictions are 4 months for wheat; 10 months for corn, chickpeas or field peas; 12 months for alfalfa; 18 months for sorghum, safflower, sunflower, and oats; and 26 months for flax.
EPP. For use in no-till or conservation tillage systems. For fall applications, the label recommends 15 gpa of carrier. For larger
South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 15 weeds or in adverse growing conditions, COC or MSO may be added. Do not apply to frozen soil. For spring applications, apply up to 45 days prior to planting. If applying earlier than 30 days prior to planting, use the high recommended rates.
PPI. Do not incorporate deeper than 2 inches.
PRE. Apply up to 3 days after planting but before crop emergence. Properly closed seed furrows are necessary prior to
AUTHORITY ELITE (sulfentrazone + s-metolachlor) Site of Action: 14+15
19-38.7 oz Authority Elite 7L (0.10- 0.21 + 0.93-1.90 lb ai)
Controls certain broadleaf, grass, and sedge weeds. Within 7-10 days after application, 0.5-1 inches of rain is needed to activate herbicide. Rates vary depending on soil texture and O.M. Do not use on sand soils with less than 1% O.M. Do not apply to frozen or snow covered soils. Do not apply after germination of crop. Maximum use rate is 38.7 oz/A per crop year. Do not graze or feed forage, hay or straw from treated areas for 30 days.
FALL Apply after September 30 when the soil temperature is less than 55ºF.
PPS, PPI, PRE Apply up to 3 days after planting but before crop emergence. Label suggests preplant surface application on
medium to fine soils with minimum till or no-till systems in South Dakota. Incorporate uniformally no deeper than 2 inches.
VALOR SX, ENCOMPASS, OUTFLANK or PANTHER (flumioxazin) Site of Action: 14
1-3 oz Valor 51WDG (0.032-0.096 lb ai)
Valor is a soil-applied herbicide used primarily to control small-seeded broadleaf weeds. Valor is a PPO herbicide that is non-volatile and is absorbed primarily by shoot and some by root. It does not photo-degrade. Rates of 2-3 oz per acre control waterhemp, nightshades, pigweeds, and lambsquarters. Provides good control of kochia including ALS-resistant biotypes. The 1 oz per acre rate is primarily used to increase speed of spring burndown applications with glyphosate. There are no pH restrictions. For burndown, minimum carrier is 15 gpa for ground or 7 gpa for aerial applications. For preemergence, minimum carrier for is 10 gpa for ground and 5 gpa for aerial applications.
At rates up to 2 oz, corn (conventional tillage), sorghum, sunflower,and wheat can be planted after 1 month with 1 inch rainfall. Barley, dry bean, flax, peas, rye, and safflower after 3 months. Alfalfa, canola, clover, and oats after 4 months if soil is tilled before planting or 8 months for no-till. Interval for lentil is 6 months. Most other crops are 4 months (if tilled) or 8 months (no-till) and a successful soil bioassay. Consult label for rates greater than 2 oz/acre.
BURNDOWN. Tank-mixes with glyphosate provide increased control of wild buckwheat, lambsquarters, wild mustard,
kochia, and waterhemp. Can also be tank-mixed with 2,4-D for control of dandelion, marestail, and other winter annual weeds. Tank-mix with Select if targeting only grasses. Use COC at 1 gal/100 gal when using in burndown applications. EPP. May be applied up to 14 days prior to planting.
PRE. Apply within 3 days after soybean planting. Do not apply after cracking or emergence. Rain (0.5 inch) required for
TANK-MIXES/SEQUENTIAL Valor may be tank-mixed with several other herbcides to control additional weed species. Do
not apply preemergence with acetanilide (e.g., Dual, Intrro, Outlook) herbicides as crop injury may occur. Supplemental labeling allows tankmixes applied early preplant (minimum 14 days) or an early preplant (min. 14 days) application of Valor followed by a preemergence application of products containing Dual, Intrro, or Outlook in no-till or reduced-till soybeans. A sequential program of Cobra/Phoenix, FirstRate, and Select is recommended for control of grasses and large-seeded broadleaf weeds like cocklebur and sunflower.
MULTI-PACK and PREMIXES
GANGSTER or SURVEIL (flumioxazin + cloransulam) Site of Action: 14+2
1.8-3.6 oz Gangster or Surveil (0.048-0.095 + 0.016-0.032 lb ai) Multi-pack containing 51% flumioxazin (Gangster or
Surveil V) and 84% cloransulam (Gangster or Surveil FR). Each unit contains 5 lb of V and 16.2 oz of FR that will treat 26- 32 acres. Rates for conventional soybeans are 3.0-3.6 oz per acre, which equate to 2.5-3 oz of V (Valor) and 0.5-0.6 oz of FR (FirstRate). Rate for Roundup Ready soybeans is 1.8 oz, which equals 1.5 oz of V and 0.3 oz of FR. Gangster or Surveil provides control of most broadleaf weeds including waterhemp, nightshade, lambsquarters, cocklebur, sunflower, ragweed, Venice mallow, pigweed, and velvetleaf and suppression of some annual grasses. Wheat may be planted after 3 months; dry beans, corn, sorghum, and oats after 9 months; alfalfa after 12 months; canola and flax 24 months; and sunflowers after 30 months. For burndown, minimum carrier is 15 gpa for ground or 7 gpa for aerial applications. For preemergence, minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground and 5 gpa for air.
BURNDOWN. Gangster or Surveil provide control of emerged weeds such as cocklebur, marestail, sunflower, velvetleaf,
and Venice mallow. Add NIS at 1-2 pt/100 or COC/MSO at 1-2 pt/A and AMS at 2-2.5 lb/A. EPP. May be applied up to 14 days prior to planting.
PRE. Apply after planting but before soybean emergence or cracking.
FIERCE (flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone) Site of Action: 14+15
3-3.75 oz Fierce 76WDG (0.063-0.078 + 0.08-0.1 lb ai) Rate varies with soil texture and organic matter. Provides residual
control of grass weed species such as foxtails and barnyardgrass and broadleaf species such as lambsquarters, pigweed, waterhemp, common ragweed, velvetleaf, kochia, horseweed (marestail), and others.
Do not apply more than 3.75 oz /A per season. Do not apply to frozen or snow covered soil. Do not graze or feed treated forage or hay. Do not apply Fierce to the same field where flufenacet (Axiom), alachlor (Micro-Tech), metolachlor (Dual), or dimethenamid (Outlook) products will be used preemergence. Rotation interval for the 3 oz rate is 7 days for minimum or no-till corn; 1 month for conventional till corn or wheat; 4 months for sunflower and potatoes; 6 months for field pea and lentil; 10 months for alfalfa; 11 months for edible beans and other small grains; and 18 months for most other crops. For rates over 3 oz see label for rotation intervals.
FALL Apply after October 15 or when soil temperature falls below 50°F
EPP or PRE. May apply up to 3 days after planting but prior to soybean emergence. Do not apply after soybeans reach
cracking stage. Do not irrigate during cracking stage.
ENLITE (chlorimuron+flumioxazin+thifensulfuron) Site of Action: 2+14+2
2.8 oz Enlite 47.9DG (0.005 + 0.063 + 0.015 lb ai) Provides residual control of several annual broadleaf weed species similar
to Valor (flumioxazin) but provides greater control of emerged broadleaf weed species such as mustards, lambsquarters, redroot pigweed, and others.
For burndown applications, add either a COC or NIS (COC recommended). Add COC at 1% v/v under normal conditions or 2% v/v in dry conditions or NIS at 0.25% v/v under normal conditions or 0.5% v/v in dry conditions. Minimum carrier volume is 10 gpa for ground applications in conventional tillage, 15 gpa for ground applications in conservation tillage, or 5 gpa for aerial applications. Follow label restrictions when using Enlite with acetochlor (Warrant), flufenacet (Axiom), alachlor (Micro- Tech), metolachlor (Dual, Cinch, Boundary, Prefix), or dimethenamid (Outlook). Do not apply within 14 days of application of an organophosphate insecticide.
Crop rotation restriction is 3 months for wheat; 4 months for barley, and winter rye; 9 months for dry beans, peas, field corn, and sunflower; 10 months for alfalfa, clover, and oats; 15 months for sorghum; and 18 months for canola, flax, and lentils. Do not graze treated fields or harvest for forage or hay.
FALL. Apply after October 15 or when soil temperature is less than 50o F. Apply when annual broadleaf weeds are less
than 3 inches tall or when perennial weeds are less than 6 inches tall. Tank-mix with 2,4-D or glyphosate for greater weed control. Do not till soil after application.
EPP. Tank mix with glyphosate, paraquat, or 2,4-D for difficult species or if weeds are greater than 1-3 inches tall.
PRE. Applications after soybeans emerge will result in severe soybean injury.
SHARPEN (saflufenacil) Site of Action: 14
1-2 oz Sharpen 2.85L (0.02-0.04 lb ai)
Provides foliar and residual control of broadleaf weed species such as wild buckwheat, common lambsquarters, waterhemp, pigweed, mustard species, Russian thistle, horseweed (marestail), and several others. After application, at least 0.5 inches of rain is needed to activate the herbicide. Sharpen may provide 2-3 weeks of residual weed control. May tank-mix with glyphosate, Clarity (dicamba), Pursuit (imazethapyr), or Prowl (pendimethalin) for control of additional weed species. Follow label application interval restrictions when tankmixed or applied sequentially with Group 14 herbicides such as sulfentrazone (e.g., Authority products) or flumioxazin (e.g., Valor products).
South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 17 For foliar activity, add either MSO (1% v/v) or COC (1% v/v) and either AMS (8.5-17 lb per 100 gallons) or UAN (1.25-2.5% v/v). Minimum carrier volume is 5 gpa for ground applications or 3 gpa for aerial applications. Crop rotation restriction is 4 months or less for most crops.
EPP. 1-2 oz/A For most soils, soybeans may be planted at any time after application with the 1 oz rate, but on coarse soils
with less than 2% OM, applications must be made 30 days prior to planting. Planting intervals for rates above 1 oz vary from 14-44 days depending on soil type and organic matter.
PRE. 1 oz/A Do not apply after soybeans begin to emerge. Make sure seeds are completely covered prior to application.
Do not use on coarse soils with less than 2% organic matter.
OPTILL (saflufenacil + imazethapyr) Site of Action: 14+2 ($15.05)
2 oz Optill 68WDG (0.022 + 0.063 lb ai)
Premix containing 0.178 lb saflufenacil (Sharpen) and 0.502 lb imazethapyr
(Pursuit) per gallon. Provides foliar and residual control of several broadleaf species and grass species such as foxtail. After application, at least 0.5 inches of rain is needed to activate the herbicide. Crop injury may occur during stressful conditions such as extreme hot or cold conditions, excessive moisture or drought, high soil pH, or disease injury. Do not tank-mix or apply sequentially with Group 14 herbicides such as sulfentrazone (e.g., Authority products), or flumioxazin (e.g., Valor), within 30 days of planting.
For foliar activity, add either MSO (1% v/v or 1 gallon per 100 gallons) or COC (1% v/v) and either AMS (8.5-17 lb per 100 gallons) or UAN (1.25-2.5% v/v or 1.25-2.5 gallons per 100 gallons). Minimum carrier volume is 5 gpa for ground applications or 3 gpa for aerial applications. Crop rotation restriction is 4 months for wheat or alfalfa, 8.5 months for corn, 18 months for oats, sorghum, sunflower, or safflower, or 26 months for flax.
EPP. For most soils, soybeans may be planted at any time after application but on coarse soils with less than 2% OM,
applications must be made 30 days prior to planting.
PRE. Do not apply after soybeans begin to emerge. Make sure seeds are completely covered prior to application.
OPTILL PRO (saflufenacil + imazethapyr + dimethenamid) Site of Action: 14+2+15
Co-pack containing a dry component (0.178 lb saflufenacil (Sharpen) + 0.502 lb imazethapyr (Pursuit)) and a liquid component (6.0 lb dimethenamid (Outlook)). Each unit contains 2.5 lb of the dry component and 1.56 gallons of the liquid which will treat 20 acres. To treat an area smaller than 20 acres use a ratio of 2 oz/A dry to 10 oz/A liquid. Provides foliar and residual control of broadleaf and grass species. After application, at least 0.5 inches of rain is needed to activate the herbicide. Crop injury may occur during stressful conditions. Do not tank-mix or apply sequentially with Group 14 herbicides such as sulfentrazone (e.g., Authority products), or flumioxazin (e.g., Valor products) within 30 days of planting. Do not apply Group 14 herbicides labeled for postemergence until 14 days after emergence. Do not harvest for 85 days after application. Do not graze or feed soybean forage, hay, or straw. In South Dakota see Sec. 24(c) label for list of vulnerable sandy soil types where Optill Pro application is prohibited when ground water is within 30 feet from the surface.
Rotation interval is 4 months for wheat, rye, edible beans, and peas (other than Southern); 8.5 months for corn; 9 months for alfalfa and Southern peas; 9.5 months for barley, Clearfield canola, and Clearfield sunflowers; 18 months for oats, safflower, sorghum and sunflower; 26 months for flax and potatoes; and 40 months and a successful field bioassay for most other Add MSO (1% v/v or 1 gal per 100 gallons) and either AMS (8.5-17 lb per 100 gallons) or UAN (1.25-2.5% v/v or 1.25-2.5 gallons per 100 gallons). Minimum carrier volume is 5 gpa for ground applications or 3 gpa for aerial applications.
FALL. Apply prior to first killing frost.
EPP or PRE. Do not apply after soybeans reach cracking stage or begin to emerge. Make sure seeds are completely
covered prior to application. For most soils, soybeans may be planted at any time after application but on coarse soils with less than 2% OM, applications must be made 30 days prior to planting.
VERDICT (saflufenacil + dimethenamid) Site of Action: 14+15
5-10 oz Verdict 5.57L (0.022-0.044 + 0.2-0.39 lb ai) Premix containing 0.57 lb saflufenacil (Sharpen) and 5.0 lb dimethenamid
(Outlook) per gallon. Provides foliar and residual control of several broadleaf weed species and residual control of grass species such as foxtail and barnyardgrass. Temporary crop injury may occur if applied during stressful conditions that reduce soybean growth. Properly closed furrows will help minimize the chance of seedling injury from PRE applications. Minimum carrier volume is 3 gpa for ground or aerial applications. If weeds are emerged at the time of application and foliar activity is desired, add AMS (8.5-17 lb/100 gal.) or UAN (1.25-2.5 gal/100 gal.) and MSO (1 gal/100 gal). Rainfast 1 hour after application. There are no crop rotation restrictions for the spring following application. In South Dakota see Sec. 24(c) label for list of vulnerable sandy soil types where Verdict application is prohibited when ground water is within 30 feet from the surface. Do not tankmix or apply sequentially with Group 14 herbicides such as sulfentrazone (e.g., Authority products), or flumioxazin (e.g., Valor products) within 30 days of planting for Verdict rates of 5-7.5 fl oz/A or within 44 days for 10 fl oz/A. FALL. Apply 5-10 fl oz/A prior to a killing frost.
EPP, or PRE. Apply 5, 7.5, or 10 fl oz/A EPP or 5 fl oz/A PRE. A minimum preplant interval of 30 days is required on coarse
soils (sand, loamy sand, or sandy loam) with less than 2% organic matter. Refer to label for preplant interval for higher use rates and other soil types. Verdict may be applied in the spring if another saflufenacil product (Sharpen, OpTill, or Verdict) was applied the previous fall.
RAPTOR (imazamox) Site of Action: 2
4-5 oz Raptor 1L (0.03-0.04 lb ai)
Raptor controls several annual grasses and annual broadleaf weeds. Raptor is an imidazolinone herbicide with foliar and root uptake action. Residual activity is less than for Pursuit. Foxtail control has been very good. Also controls velvetleaf, cocklebur, sunflower, non-ALS kochia, mustard, and black nightshade. Raptor will suppress woolly cupgrass, wild proso millet, and sandbur; however, control will be best if a soil herbicide is included in the program. Perennials (such as Canada thistle), common waterhemp, and ALS-resistant weed biotypes are not controlled. Common ragweed control is variable. Lambsquarters should be treated with the high rate when small.
Treat early when weeds are less than 4-5 inches. Crop tolerance has been adequate in SDSU tests. Stress reduces crop tolerance; avoid application immediately after cold weather. Hot, humid weather may cause temporary response. Apply before bloom stage. Clearfield crops can be planted anytime. For areas East of Highway 83; wheat and alfalfa may be planted in 3 months; rye 4 months; corn 8.5 months; barley, oat, sunflower, sorghum, and several other crops after 9 months; canola and crops not listed on the label 18 months. See label for additional rainfall and pH restrictions for wheat and barley. For areas West of Highway 83 see label for rotation restrictions. Do not apply Pursuit, Classic, Python, Scepter, or products containing similar residual herbicides in the same year as Raptor. Do not harvest for 85 days after application. Do not graze or feed soybean forage, hay, or straw.
POST. Raptor is used only postemergence. The rate is 4 oz/A when used following a soil-applied grass herbicide such as
pendimethalin or 5 oz 1L per acre in a total postemergence program. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground (20 gpa for no-till) or 5 gpa for air. Use COC or MSO at 1-2 gal/100 gal or NIS at 1 qt/100 gal and 2.5 gal/100 gal 28% N or 12-15 lb/100 gal AMS. Aerial application requires an adjuvant and 28% N or AMS.
TANK-MIXES/SEQUENTIAL Raptor may be applied postemergence following a soil-applied grass herbicide or tank-mixed
with postemergence grass herbicides. Use the full complement of COC or MSO plus 28% N for the tank-mixes. Avoid antagonism for grass control by delaying the postemergence grass herbicide for 7 days after applying Raptor; delay Raptor for 3 days if the grass herbicide is applied first.
PURSUIT or THUNDER (imazethapyr) Site of Action: 2
4 oz Pursuit or Thunder 2L (0.06 lb ai)
Pursuit action is by root and foliar uptake. It controls several annual broadleaves and provides some foxtail control. Control of redroot pigweed, mustard, non-ALS kochia, velvetleaf, and black nightshade has been very good to excellent. Velvetleaf is controlled most effectively with preplant incorporated treatments. Cocklebur and sunflower are controlled postemergence. If heavy grass, lambsquarters, or common ragweed is expected, use Pursuit with another herbicide. Not satisfactory for common waterhemp. Crop tolerance is adequate. Delay or stunting has been noted in situations associated with stress. There are no major soil pH or texture limitations. Rain is the primary factor affecting carryover. Early-season stunting of rotational crop has been associated with low precipitation and in turn or overlap areas; however, yield reductions have not been noted. Wheat, alfalfa, rye, edible peas, and beans may be planted 4 months after application; some risk with fall-planted wheat if rain is below normal. Field corn may be planted in 8.5 months; barley in 9.5 months; safflower, sorghum, and sunflower in 18 months; potatoes and flax in 26 months; and other non-listed crops in 40 months. Oats and sorghum have shown considerable injury; do not plant the following year. Apply in a minimum of 10 gpa for ground or 5 gpa for air; use at least 20 gpa when applying soil treatments in liquid fertilizer. Do not apply products containing chlorimuron, imazaquin, and flumetsulam the same year as Pursuit. Do not graze vines or feed to livestock.
South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 19 EPP or PPI. Apply within 45 days of planting. Incorporate before planting or surface apply as an early preplant in no-till.
Incorporate into the top 1-2 inches. Make second pass at an angle to insure uniform mixing.
PRE. Rain required. Control is more variable than for preplant or postemergence applications.
POST. Apply early postemergence when weeds are less than 3 inches and growing actively. Weed size and stress-free
growing conditions are important. Add MSO or COC at 1 gal or NIS at 1 qt/100 gal plus 28% N at 1-2 qt or AMS at 2.5 lb per acre. If weeds are stressed, COC or MSO preferred.
TANK-MIXES Combinations with pendimethalin (Prowl), trifluralin (Treflan), s-metolachlor (Dual) improves preemergence
grass control. Pursuit labeling includes tank-mixes with Basagran or Cobra broadleaf herbicides or grass herbicides including Fusilade DX, Poast Plus, Select, Fusion, and Assure. Activity of grass herbicides may be reduced. Refer to section for each herbicide alone. PURSUIT PLUS (imazethapyr + pendimethalin) Site of Action: 2+2
2.5 pt Pursuit Plus 3L (0.0625 + 0.875 lb ai) PursuitPlus 3L contains 0.2 lb imazethapyr + 2.8 lb pendimethalin per gallon.
The 2.5 pt rate provides the herbicide equivalent of 4 oz Pursuit 2L + 2 pt pendimethalin 3.3L per acre.
EPP, PPI. Apply up to 45 days before planting. Adequate moisture is required. Incorporate within 7 days of application if
rainfall is not received.
EXTREME or THUNDER MASTER (imazethapyr + glyphosate) ($11.25)
3 pt Extreme or Thundermaster 2.17L (0.06 + 0.75 lb ai)
The standard rate for Extreme is 3 pt/A which is equivalent
to 24 oz/A glyphosate (3 lb ae/gallon product) + 4 oz/A Pursuit 2L. For postemergence use in Roundup Ready soybeans. Extreme contains 0.17 lb imazethapyr (Pursuit) plus 2 lb ai glyphosate per gal. Controls several annual broadleaves; especially useful for nightshade and velvetleaf control and residual activity on other weeds. For ground applications, add NIS at 0.125% v/v and AMS at 8.5-17 lb/100 gal in at least 10 gpa carrier. For aerial applications, add NIS at 0.125% v/v and AMS at 2.5 lb/A in at least 5 gpa carrier. Rotational restrictions as for Pursuit.
POST. Apply before bloom and 85 days before harvest.
SCEPTER (imazaquin) Site of Action: 2
1.4-2.8 oz Scepter 70DG (0.06-0.125 lb ai)
Labeling includes use in South Dakota east of Highway 81. Scepter controls several annual broadleaves and gives limited control of annual grasses. Scepter gives excellent control of pigweed, smartweed, lambsquarters, non-ALS kochia, and sunflower. Cocklebur control has been satisfactory but is more variable. Velvetleaf and black nightshade control has been good to very good; these weeds are controlled best with preplant incorporated applications. Crop tolerance appears good. There are no major soil pH or texture limitations.
Soil carryover affects susceptible crops the following season. Scepter labeling prohibits planting field corn, wheat, barley, oats, or other sensitive crops in the fall or spring following a soil application at any rate, or a postemergence application at rates above 1.4 oz per acre. Postemergence applications not exceeding 1.4 oz per acre may be rotated to wheat, barley, oats, field corn, edible beans, or grain sorghum in the fall or the following spring, if at least 10 inches of rainfall occurs from application through October. Do not plant IMI corn for 9.5 months; sorghum for 11 months; wheat, barley, corn, oats, and most other crops for 18 months; and canola or potatoes for 26 months. High rates for all soil applications have additional restrictions. Risk of carryover is greater after dry, cool seasons. Do not graze or harvest vines for feed.
PPI. Incorporate into the top 1-2 inches. Rate is 1.4-2.8 oz per acre; 2.15 oz may be used on light soil. Apply up to 45
days before planting. Double-pass incorporation required if using disk or field cultivator. Preplant results have been most PRE. Apply before crop emergence. Rates as for preplant incorporated.
POST. Apply before weeds reach 12 inches. Rate is 1.4-2.8 oz per acre. The low rate is primarily for cocklebur, sunflower,
and volunteer corn. Control of sunflower has been very good; velvetleaf control has been less than for preplant incorporated applications. Use 20 gpa for ground equipment. Add 1 qt NIS/100 gal.
TANK-MIXES Scepter may be tank-mixed with other soil-applied herbicides such as trifluralin, pendimethalin, or Dual, to
improve grass control. Scepter may also be mixed with postemergence herbicides such as Basagran or Pursuit to improve weed spectrum.
AXIOM (flufenacet + metribuzin) Site of Action: 15+5 ($13.20-24.50)
7-13 oz Axiom 68DF (0.24-0.44 + 0.06-0.11 lb ai)
EPP, PPI, PRE May be applied up to 14 days before planting. Axiom premix controls/suppresses annual grasses and
selected broadleaf weeds in soybeans. Axiom contains 54.4% flufenacet + 13.6% metribuzin. Rates are based on soil texture and organic matter. The 13-oz rate provides extended control of annual grasses and broadleaf weeds on coarse textured soils but provides only early season weed control on medium and fine textured soils. Rates lower than 13 oz per acre provide only early-season weed control. Do not apply more than 13 oz per acre in soybeans. Seed should be planted a minimum of 1-1.5 inches deep.
Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground application. If any crop treated with Axiom is lost, corn or soybeans may be replanted immediately. Do not make a second application of Axiom. Potatoes can be planted after 1 month; alfalfa, barley, buckwheat, proso millet, oats, popcorn, rye, sorghum, and wheat after 12 months. Do not graze or feed forage, hay or straw to livestock.
BASAGRAN or BASHAZON (bentazon) Site of Action: 6
1-2 pt Basagran or BashAzon 4L (0.5-1 lb ai) ($13.60-27.25)
1.2-1.6 pt Basagran 5L (0.75-1 lb ai)
Gives excellent control of cocklebur and very good control of small sunflower and velvetleaf. Pigweed, waterhemp, and kochia usually are not controlled. Weeds should be small. Excellent crop tolerance. Some leaf margin burn may occur if plants are under stress. Best results under good growing conditions; less effective under low humidity or dry conditions. Rain within 4 hours reduces effectiveness.
Use 1.5 pt (4L) or 1.2 pt (5L) for cocklebur under 6 inches, velvetleaf under 2 inches, sunflower under 5 inches or mustard under 4 inches. The high rate is for larger weeds, cocklebur up to 10 inches, velvetleaf to 5 inches, or sunflower or mustard to 8 inches.
Primarily contact action. Good coverage important. Minimum carrier is 20 gpa for ground or 5 gpa for air with minimum of 40 psi pressure. Do not use flood-jet nozzles. Do not cultivate for 3-5 days before or after application.
A COC additive or COC plus UAN is suggested for weeds such as ragweed and lambsquarters. With the 4L; COC rate is 1-2 pt for ground and 1 pt per acre for air. With the 5L; use COC or MSO at 1% v/v or NIS at 0.25-0.5% v/v. For velvetleaf, use 28% N or AMS in addition to COC. Do not graze or cut for forage or hay for 30 days.
POST. Soybeans are tolerant at all growth stages.
SPLIT POST Two applications improve control of weeds such as sunflower, mustard, velvetleaf, and Venice mallow. Apply
1.5 pt (4L) or 1.2 pt (5L) when weeds are small and make a second application at the same rate 4-7 days later. TANK-MIXES Basagran may be tank-mixed with several broadleaf and grass herbicides. Refer to individual herbicide labels
or the section for each herbicide.
ULTRA BLAZER or AVALANCHE ULTRA (acifluorfen) Site of Action: 14
0.5-1.5 pt Ultra Blazer or Avalanche Ultra 2L (0.125-0.38 lb ai)
Good to excellent control of annual broadleaves including black nightshade, pigweed, waterhemp, and wild mustard. Results on velvetleaf and cocklebur are variable. Foliar burn on field bindweed and Canada thistle has been satisfactory in most situations. Some annual grass suppression noted. Fair crop tolerance. Leaf burn or speckling is frequently noted. Crop recovers rapidly under good growing conditions. Most risk is during high humidity and high temperature. Delay cultivation for 7 days before or after application. Rain within 6 hours reduces control.
Primarily a contact herbicide. Good coverage is important. Low rates primarily for susceptible weeds such as wild mustard or pigweed. Add 1 pt NIS/100 gal. Increase NIS to 2-4 pt for lambsquarters, buffalo bur, and other hard to control weeds. Fields may be retreated if necessary. The use of 2 qt 28% N per acre improves velvetleaf control and causes less crop leaf burn that COC. Do not use flood nozzles. Minimum carrier is 20 gpa for ground and 5 gpa for air. Use 40-60 psi pressure. Do not apply within 50 days of harvest. Do not graze or harvest vines for feed.
POST. Apply when weeds are small, at the 2- to 4-leaf stage.
TANK-MIXES Ultra Blazer and Avalance Ultra may be tank-mixed with several broadleaf and grass herbicides. Refer to
South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 21 individual herbicide labels or the section for each herbicide.
STORM (acifluorfen + bentazon) Site of Action: 14+6
1.5 pt Storm 4L (0.25 + 0.5 lb ai) Postemergence control of smartweed, lambsquarters, Venice mallow, ragweed (common
or giant), pigweed, waterhemp, and other weeds 2-6 inches tall. Temporary soybean leaf speckling, yellowing, or bronzing may occur. Rainfast 4 hours after application. Good coverage is important. Minimum carrier volume is 10 gpa for ground applications or 5 gpa for aerial applications. Add 1 of the following: AMS, UAN, NIS, or COC. See label for specific adjuvant rates based on tank mix options. CLASSIC or CURIO (chlorimuron) Site of Action: 2
0.25-0.33 oz Classic or Curio 25DF (0.005 lb ai)
Chlorimuron is used for postemergence annual broadleaf control. The maximum rate is 0.33 oz of 25DF. Adds control of pigweed, cocklebur, and sunflower.
Soil persistence is influenced considerably by pH. Carryover increases with high pH. However, the maximum rate labeled for South Dakota provides considerable rotation flexibility without pH restrictions. Rotation restrictions are 3 months for cereal grains; 9 months for peas, dry beans, corn, alfalfa, and sunflower; 18 months for flax, canola, and lentil; and 30 months for crops not listed on the label guidelines. On all soils, a single application containing up to 0.33 oz/A may be applied. On soils with pH 7.0 or less, two applications may be applied, but total rates for both applications must not exceed 0.75 oz/A. Apply in a minimum of 10 gpa for ground or 3 gpa for air. Add NIS at 2 pt/100 gal. Under dry conditions, COC at 1 gal/100 gal may replace the NIS. An ammonium fertilizer product should be added for velvetleaf. Do not graze or use vines for feed.
POST. Apply after the first trifoliate leaf up to 60 days before maturity.
HARMONY SG (thifensulfuron) Site of Action: 2
0.125 oz Harmony 50SG (0.004 lb ai) ($4.80)
0.083 oz Thief, Treaty, Volta or Harass 75WDG (0.004 lb ai)
Harmony SG is particularly effective on lambsquarters, but also has activity on some other broadleaf weed species, such as pigweed and smartweed. Russian thistle control has been good in SDSU tests. Velvetleaf results are less than for several other treatments. Kochia is often resistant. Crop tolerance is adequate. Stunting and chlorosis on upper leaves may occur under humid, hot conditions.
In STS soybeans, may apply Harmony 50SG at 0.125-0.5 oz/A or 75WDG products at 0.083-0.33 oz/a. Lower rates are often used in combination with other broadleaf herbicides. There are no soil pH or crop rotation restrictions. Do not graze vines or harvest for livestock feed. Do not apply within 60 days of harvest.
Good coverage is important. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground or 5 gpa for air. NIS at 1-2 pt/100 gal is required. Use low NIS rate except for stress conditions. Adding 28% N at 2-4 pt or AMS at 2-4 lb per acre improves control of velvetleaf. COC at 4 pt/100 gal is labeled in place of NIS under dry or cool conditions; however, crop response may increase. If tank- mixing with a grass herbicide, such as Assure II, only use NIS. Do not tank-mix with Poast Plus (sethoxydim) or Select Max (clethodim) or soybean injury may result.
EPP, PPS, PRE. May apply 0.45-0.9 oz/A (50SG) or 0.3-0.6 oz/A (75WDG) before planting or slightly after planting but before emergence.
POST. Apply after the first trifoliate leaf is fully expanded. Weeds should be small and actively growing. Do not cultivate 7 days before or after application.
SYNCHRONY XP (thifensulfuron + chlorimuron) Site of Action: 2+2
0.375 oz Synchrony XP 28.4DG (0.002 + 0.005 lb ai) Synchrony XP contains 6.9% thifensulfuron (Harmony) + 21.5%
chlorimuron (Classic). The 0.375 oz rate provides the equivalent of 0.052 oz Harmony 50SG + 0.33 oz Classic per acre. Synchrony XP may be used on standard, RR, STS, or STS/RR herbicide-resistant soybeans. For standard soybeans, use NIS rather than COC as an additive.
POST. Apply after the first trifoliate leaf is expanded and weeds are 1-4 inches tall.
TANK-MIXES. Synchrony labeling includes tank-mixing with postemergence herbicides for grass control and to improve
waterhemp, nightshade, velvetleaf, or common ragweed control. Use NIS rather than COC or MSO in post grass tank-mix combinations; grass control may be reduced under some conditions.
THIFENSULFURON + TRIBENURON PRODUCTS (thifensulfuron + tribenuron) Site of Action: 2+2
May be applied with a burndown application to help control emerged weeds that may be difficult to control, such as wild
buckwheat or mustard species. Several products are available: Concentration (% of total product wt)
Trade name
Rate (oz wt/A)
Affinity Broadspec Edition Broadspec EPP, PPS. Most must be applied at least 7 days prior to soybean planting or 14 days prior to planting if soil pH > 7.9. Some
products allow for shorter plantback intervals; see individual labels for specific information.
AUTUMN (iodosulfuron) Site of Action: 2
0.3 oz Autumn 10WDG (0.00188 lb ai)
Controls broadleaf weeds such as alfalfa, marestail, dandelions, some mustard species including volunteer canola, and others. Apply when weeds are less than 3 inches tall. Autumn is a foliar herbicide and is not intended for residual weed control. Rainfall within 2 hours after application may reduce control. Do not apply to soils with pH >8.
Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground applications. Add COC (1% v/v) and either UAN (28 or 32% N at 1.5-2 qt/A) or AMS (1.5-3 lb/A). Agitation required during application.
Rotation restriction is 30 days for corn; 90 days for soybeans; 4 months for winter wheat, winter barley or winter rye; 8 months for spring wheat or spring barley; 9 months for sorghum or oats; 18 months for sunflower, alfalfa, canola, dry beans, peas, snap beans, or other crops not specified on the label.
EPP (Fall). Apply after fall harvest or up to 90 days prior to soybean planting. Do not apply to frozen ground.
AUTUMN SUPER (iodosulfuron + thiencarbazone) Site of Action: 2+2
0.5 oz Autumn Super 51WDG (0.002 + 0.014 lb ai) Maximum use rate is 0.5 oz wt/A. Relative to Autumn, the addition of
thiencarbazone may increase activity on some grass and broadleaf weed species. When tank-mixed with glyphosate in the fall, 0.5 oz Autumn Super increased foxtail barley control relative to a 1X rate of glyphosate alone in one SDSU trial. Mostly for foliar activity, so apply to small (broadleaf weeds less than 3 inches tall and grasses less than 1 inch tall), actively growing weeds if possible.
Minimum carrier rate is 10 gpa for ground applications. Use higher carrier rates for dense weed populations or high residue. Add a surfactant such as COC or MSO at 1% v/v (1 gallon per 100 gallons spray solution) and a nitrogen fertilizer (28 or 32% UAN at 1.5-2 qt/A or AMS at 1-3 lb/A). Rainfast after 2 hrs. Rotation restrictions are 1 month for field corn, 2 months for soybeans, 3 months for wheat, and 18 months for crops not listed on the label. Rotation intervals increase on high pH soils (7.5 or greater). EPP (Fall). Apply in the fall after harvest but up to 60 days prior to soybean planting. Do not apply to frozen ground. Do not
apply prior to soybeans on high pH soil (7.5 or above) as rotation interval is 9 months. This interval may be decreased to 4 months if STS soybeans are planted.
South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 23 COBRA or PHOENIX (lactofen) Site of Action: 14
8-12.5 oz Cobra or Phoenix 2L (0.125-0.195 lb ai)
Cobra and Phoenix are selective 2L formulations for postemergence control of certain broadleaf weeds. Phoenix has a built-in adjuvant system developed to reduce crop response. Rates are based on weed species and height. Primarily a contact herbicide. Apply when weeds are small, usually at the 2- to 4-leaf stage. Labeling includes suppression of tall weeds including common ragweed, giant ragweed, and velvetleaf 15-36 inches tall. Good to excellent control of several annual broadleaves including pigweed, wild mustard, nightshade, kochia, and buffalo bur. Common ragweed control has been excellent, even with low rates. Results on cocklebur and velvetleaf have been variable. Fair to marginal crop tolerance. Leaves show some speckling or discoloration; newest leaves may show some crinkling. Leaf burn is greatest in humid, hot weather. Crop recovers under good growing conditions. Do not apply to stressed plants. Poor conditions, such as drought, may delay recovery. Do not cultivate within 5 days of treating. Rainfast 30 minutes after application. Do not apply more than 25 fl oz product per season. For Cobra COC is the preferred adjuvant. Crop response is greater with COC/MSO than for other additives. NIS at 0.25% v/v or COC/MSO at 1 pt/A is used with high humidity (over 80%). COC/MSO at 1.5 pt/A is used for moderate (60-80%) humidity. Use COC/MSO at 2 pt/A with low humidity (under 60%). The addition of AMS at 2.5 lb/A or 28% N at 1 qt/A will enhance weed control. For velvetleaf under ideal conditions, use minimum of 1 pt per acre COC; for other situations use NIS at 2 pt/100 gal plus 28% N at 1 gal per acre or AMS at 2.5 lb per acre. With Phoenix use NIS at 1-2 pt/100 gal at the 8-12.5 oz rate until weeds reach maximum weed height; then COC at 1 pt per acre is an option. Minimum carrier is 20-30 gpa for ground and 5-10 gpa for aerial application. COC at 1 qt per acre has been approved for aerial application. Use 40-60 psi to insure good coverage. Do not apply within 45 days of harvest. Do not graze or harvest vines for feed.
PPS or PRE. Controls emerged weeds.
POST. May apply up to 14-21 days after planting or when soybeans are in the first to second trifoliate stage. Although the
registration allows applications up to the R6 growth stage (full seed), the soybean canopy may interfere with weed exposure after the third trifoliate.
TANK-MIXES Several tank-mix options available. Rates for Cobra or Phoenix range from 4-12.5 oz depending on tank-mix
partner. Refer to label section for each product.
FLEXSTAR or BATTLE STAR, DAWN, RHYTHM, REFLEX, TOP GUN, RUMBLE, RINGSIDE
(fomesafen)
Site of Action: 14
0.75-1 pt Flexstar, Battle Star, Rhythm, Rumble 1.88L; Reflex, Ringside, Dawn, Top Gun 2L
(0.18-0.25 lb ai)
Flexstar and Reflex are postemergence contact herbicides for annual broadleaf weeds. Rates and use in South Dakota are limited to defined geographical areas (see label for regional maps). The maximum rate of 1 pt per acre may be used east of I-29 from North Dakota to Watertown, east of Hwy 81 from Watertown to Madison, and south of Hwy 34 and east of Hwy 281 to Nebraska. In addition to the above area, a maximum of 0.75 pt per acre may be applied east of Hwy 281. Depending on the application region in South Dakota, a maximum of 0.75-1 pt Flexstar or 0.19-0.25 lb ai/A fomesafen from any source is allowed only in alternate years.
Flexstar has demonstrated good activity on wild mustard, Venice mallow, common ragweed, wild mustard, pigweed, common waterhemp, and smartweed at the low rate. Weeds should be at the 2- to 3-true leaf stage. Nightshade and lambsquarters control may not be satisfactory, kochia control has been fair. The higher rate improves control, especially under less favorable conditions. Crop tolerance is adequate; temporary leaf burn will be noted under stress conditions. Coverage is important. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground or 5 gpa for air. Use 30-60 psi pressure. Reflex is similar to Flexstar except it contains less adjuvant. Flexstar contains surfactant; however, 28% N at 1 gal/100 or 4 lb AMS per acre plus COC or MSO at 0.5-1% v/v is required.
Rotation restriction is 4 months for wheat, barley, or rye; 10 months for corn or peas; 18 months for alfalfa, sunflowers, sorghum or most other crops. Do not graze or harvest forage or straw from small grain planted on treated areas. Do not graze or harvest soybeans for forage.
POST. Apply from emergence to before bloom stage.
TANK-MIXES Flexstar can be tank-mixed with several postemergence grass and broadleaf herbicides. Several programs
include: Fusion, Classic, Pursuit, Resource, Basagran and others.
FLEXSTAR GT (fomesafen + glyphosate)
2.68-3.5 pt Flexstar GT 3.5 2.8L (0.19-0.25 + 0.76-1 lb ai) Provides control of waterhemp, pigweed, nightshade, common
ragweed, and others. The application rate of 3.5 pt/A contains similar quantity of active ingredient as 30 fl oz Touchdown Total (4.17 lb ae) and 1 pt Flexstar 2L. Rates and use in South Dakota are limited to defined geographical areas (see label for regional maps). Depending on the application region in South Dakota, a maximum of 2.68-3.5 pt Flexstar GT 3.5 or 0.19- 0.25 lb ai/A fomesafen from any source is allowed only in alternate years. Do not use other fomesafen products during the same year as Flexstar GT.
Add AMS at 8.5-17 lb per 100 gal spray solution. Adjuvants are not necessary for most situations but may be added for difficult weeds or adverse growing conditions. Adjuvant options include NIS (0.25-0.5% v/v or 1-2 qt per 100 gal), or a COC or MSO (0.5-1% v/v or 2-4 qt per 100 gal). COC or MSO may reduce crop tolerance. Be sure to use adjuvants that do not antagonize glyphosate. Recommended carrier rate is 15-20 gpa for ground applications or 5 gpa for aerial applications.
Rotation restriction is 4 months for wheat, barley, or rye; 10 months for corn or peas; 18 months for alfalfa, sunflowers, sorghum or most other crops. Do not graze or harvest treated areas for forage.
EPP or PRE. Residual weed control may be reduced if adequate moisture (at least 0.25 in) is not received within 7 days
after application.
POST. Glyphosate resistant soybeans only. Avoid applications when the crop is stressed from drought, extreme temperatures,
excessive water, low humidity, low soil fertility, or mechanical/chemical injury.
TORMENT (fomesafen + imazethapyr) Site of Action: 14+2
0.75-1 pt Torment 2.5L (0.188-0.25 + 0.047-0.0625 lb ai)
Observe geographic application restrictions described for Flexstar or Reflex. A maximum of 1 pt/A may be applied on alternate years. Rainfast 1 hour after application. Add COC (0.5-1% v/v), MSO (0.5-1% v/v), or NIS (0.25-0.5% v/v). Minimum carrier is 15 gpa for ground and 5 gpa for air. Do not graze or harvest treated areas for forage or hay. Do not apply within 85 days of harvest. Rotation interval is 4 months for small grains, wheat, and rye; 9.5 months for barley; 10 months for corn and peas; 18 months for alfalfa, sunflowers, and sorghum; 26 months for flax and potatoes; and 40 months for most other crops.
EPP, PPI, PRE May apply up to 45 days before planting until after planting before crop emergence. Thoroughly incorporate
EPOST Apply to actively growing weeds smaller than 3 inches. Temporary soybean leaf crinkling, spotting, or bronzing may
Intimidator (s-metolachlor + metribuzin + fomesafen) Site of Action: 15+5+14
2.4-3 pt Intimidator 4.8L (1-1.27 + 0.22-0.28 + 0.2-0.25 lb ai)
Limited use areas to east of I-29 from North Dakota to Watertown, east of Hwy 81 from Watertown to Madison and south of Hwy 34 and east of Hwy 281 to Nebraska. Do not use more than 2.5 pts on soils over 7.0 pH. Injury to soybeans may occur on soils with calcareous surface area or ≥7.5 pH. Soybean injury may also occur when planted less than 1.5 inches deep. Minimum 10 gpa for ground and 5 gpa for aerial applications. Do not harvest for 90 days. Do not graze or feed forage to PPI, PRE Do not use poor quality seed or seed sensitive to metribuzin. Do not use fomesafen (Flexstar) postemergence.
RESOURCE (flumiclorac) Site of Action: 14
4-12 oz Resource 0.86L (0.027-0.08 lb ai)
Resource is a foliar active herbicide used to control certain annual broadleaf weeds. It has contact activity; effects become apparent within 1-2 days. Resource is usually used in a tank-mix to provide broadspectrum control. Crop tolerance has Velvetleaf is one of the most sensitive weeds. Control has been very good to excellent in SDSU tests. Common ragweed is South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 25 also sensitive. Rates are 4 oz for velvetleaf up to 6-leaf and ragweed up to 2-leaf; 6 oz for velvetleaf (8 lf), ragweed (4 lf), lambsquarters (2-3 lf); and 8 oz per acre for velvetleaf (10 lf), ragweed (6 lf), lambsquarters (3 lf), and cocklebur (3 lf). Rate of 12 oz per acre is used for velvetleaf up to 30 inches.
Use COC at 1 pt per acre when using Resource alone. Addition of 28% N at 2 gal/100 gal improves velvetleaf activity, especially on larger weeds. Minimum carrier is 15 gpa for ground; not labeled for air. Do not apply if rain is expected in 1 hour. Do not graze or harvest forage from treated fields. There are no crop rotation restrictions for the next season.
POST. May be applied up to 60 days before harvest.
TANK-MIXES Resource may be used as a sequential after most soil-applied herbicides; or in a tank-mix with Select,
Assure, Poast and others for postemergence grass control. It may be tank-mixed with Basagran, Classic, Cobra, Firstrate, Flexstar and others to improve weed spectrum. Refer to section and labeling for each product.
CADET (fluthiacet-methyl) Site of Action: 14
0.4-0.9 oz Cadet 0.91L (0.003-0.006 lb ai)
Cadet is a PPO-inhibiting herbicide with a similar mechanism of action as Resource, Reflex, or Cobra. The standard rate range is 0.6-0.9 fl oz/A depending on the size of the weeds. When tank-mixing with glyphosate, use 0.5 fl oz/A for many weed species or 0.4 fl oz/A for velvetleaf. Controls some common broadleaf weed species, such as pigweed, waterhemp, lambsquarters, velvetleaf, and nightshade. Generally controls broadleaf weeds 2-6 inches tall, but may control velvetleaf up to 36 inches tall. Controls or injures weeds within 48 hours. Control may decline if weeds are large or not actively growing. May be tank-mixed with several broadleaf or grass herbicides. Some soybean leaf spotting or bronzing may occur.
Thorough coverage is important to optimize control. Minimum carrier is 15 gpa. Use up to 40 gpa if canopy is dense. Minimum carrier is 5 gpa for aerial applications. May use NIS (0.25% v/v or 1 qt per 100 gallons), COC up to 2.5% v/v (recommended during dry conditions), or a silicone-based surfactant (0.25% v/v or 1 qt per 100 gallons). May also add UAN at 1-2 qt/A or AMS. Do not irrigate or apply within 4 hours of precipitation. Do not apply within 60 days of harvest. Do not feed treated foliage to livestock.
EPP, POST. May be applied prior to planting or up to full flowering.
MARVEL (fluthiacet-methyl + fomesafen) Site of Action: 14+14
5-7.25 oz Marvel 3L (0.005-0.007 + 0.11-0.16 lb ai)
Marvel is a premix containing 0.117 lb fluthiacet (Cadet) and 2.883 lb fomesafen (Flexstar) per gallon. Rates and use in South Dakota are limited to defined geographical areas (see regional maps on label). A maximum rate of 9.75 oz/A in alternate years may be used East of I-29 from North Dakota to Watertown, East of Hwy 81 from Watertown to Madison, and South of Hwy 34 and East of Hwy 281 to Nebraska. All areas East of Hwy 281 except those previously mentioned have a maximum rate of 8.25 oz/A in alternate years. Apply Marvel to actively growing weeds with thorough coverage to optimize control. Some temporary soybean leaf crinkling, spotting or bronzing may occur. May be tank-mixed with other registered herbicides. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground and 5 gpa for air. Add NIS (0.25-0.5% v/v), COC (0.5-1% v/v) or MSO (0.5-1% v/v). During dry conditions and low relative humidity COC or MSO are recommended. May also add UAN (1-2 qt/A) or AMS. Do not apply within 60 days of harvest. Do not graze or feed treated forage or hay to livestock. Dry beans and potatoes can be planted anytime. Rotation interval is 4 months for wheat, barley and rye; 10 months for corn and peas; and 18 months for alfalfa, sunflowers, sugarbeets, sorghum and most other crops.
EPP, POST. May be applied preplant through full flowering stage.
ANTHEM (fluthiacet + pyroxasulfone) Site of Action: 14+15
4-11 oz Anthem 2.15L (0.002-0.005 + 0.07-0.18 lb ai)
Anthem contains 0.063 lb fluthiacet (Cadet) and 2.087 lb pyroxasulfone (Zidua) per gallon. Rates range from 5-11 fl oz/A depending on soil texture and organic matter for preplant or preemergence applications. For early postemergence, the rate range is 4-11 fl oz/A depending on soil texture. A preplant or preemergence treatment provides residual control of most grasses, pigweed, waterhemp, nightshade, and suppression of several other broadleaves. A burndown or early post treatment controls many broadleaf weeds up to 2-4 inches. Some temporary crop response may occur with high moisture conditions. Anthem can be tankmixed with several herbicides to control emerged grasses and larger broadleaves. Follow adjuvant recommendations for use with the tank mix partner.
Minimum carrier for postemergence application is 10 gpa. Use up to 40 gpa if canopy is dense. Do not apply aerially. Can add NIS (0.25% v/v), COC or MSO (1-2 pt/A – maximum 2.5% v/v), or silicone based surfactant (0.25% v/v) for burndown and postemergence applications. UAN (1-2 qt/A) or AMS can also be used in addition to adjuvants. Do not apply when crop foliage is wet or if crop is under stress. Do not mix with clopyrifos insecticides postemergence. Do not graze or feed treated forage. Rotation interval for 9.75 oz/A or less is 4 months for wheat and sunflower, 6 months for lentils and peas, 10 months for alfalfa, 11 months for edible beans and other small grains, and 18 months for other crops. Corn can be planted anytime. See label for rotation interval with higher use rates.
EPP, PRE, POST May be applied up to 45 days before planting through the V3 growth stage. Plant soybeans a minimum
of 1 inch deep.
ASSURE II or TARGA (quizalofop) Site of Action: 1
5-10 oz Assure II or Targa 0.88L (0.03-0.06 lb ai)
POST. Good to excellent control of foxtail, volunteer corn, and wild proso millet. Corn, shattercane, and wild proso millet are
controlled at the lower rates. Does not control broadleaves. Excellent crop tolerance. Weed growth is reduced soon after application. Symptoms usually appear in 1-2 weeks. Moisture stress reduces activity.
For volunteer corn, apply 4 oz for 1-12 inch corn, 5 oz for 12-18 inch corn, or 8 oz for 18-30 inch corn. May be tank-mixed with glyphosate for volunteer corn control. For weeds, rates are 5-8 oz for shattercane (6-12 inches), and wild proso millet (2-6 inches); 7-8 oz for green, yellow, and bristly foxtail, giant foxtail, fall panicum, sandbur, wheat, barley, rye, oats, and wild oat (2-6 inches); 8-10 oz for barnyardgrass and crabgrass (2-6 inches); 9-10 oz for woolly cupgrass (2-4 inches); 10-12 oz for downy brome (cheatgrass) and jointed goatgrass (2-6 inches); and 10-12 oz per acre for quackgrass (6-10 inches).
Add NIS at 1 qt/100 gal or non-vegetable base COC at 4-8 qt/100 gal for ground or 2 qt/100 gal for air. Crop oil preferred. Do not apply if rain is expected within 1 hour after application. Do not cultivate within 7 days before or after application.
Coverage is important. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground and 3 gpa for air. Tank-mixing with other herbicides, except as noted on label, can reduce effectiveness. Allow 7 days or more between sequential applications. Do not apply within 80 days of harvest. Do not rotate to other crops for 120 days. Do not graze or harvest vines for feed.
TANK-MIXES Follow directions to reduce antagonism response. Allow at least 24 hours after applying Assure II before
applying a broadleaf herbicide. If applying the broadleaf herbicide first, allow 7 days before applying Assure II. Reduced grass control can be expected due to antagonism with tank-mixes. Increase Assure II rate 2 oz from the rate used alone except for volunteer corn, shattercane, or giant foxtail.
FUSILADE DX (fluazifop) Site of Action: 1
6-12 oz Fusilade DX 2L (0.1-0.2 lb ai)
POST. Good to excellent control of wild proso millet, wild cane, and volunteer corn. Fair to good control of annual grasses.
Provides suppression of quackgrass. Does not control broadleaved weeds. Excellent crop tolerance. Weeds show leaf yellowing or browning 10-14 days after treatment. Control of foxtail has been variable under stress conditions. Volunteer corn control is more consistent.
Use 6 oz for wild proso (4-8 inches), wild cane (6-12 inches), and volunteer corn (12-24 inches); 8 oz for wild oat and volunteer small grain (2-6 inches); and 12 oz for barnyardgrass (2-3 inches), foxtail, woolly cupgrass, and witchgrass (2-4 inches) per acre. For quackgrass (6-10 inches), apply 12 oz and make a second application of 8 oz per acre 2-3 weeks after the first application if required.
Use 2-4 qt COC or 1-2 qt NIS/100 gal with all Fusilade ground applications. Use 1 pt COC or NIS per acre with air applications. Avoid cultivation for 1 week before and 1 week after application. Rain within 1 hour after application reduces effectiveness. Coverage is important. Do not use flood nozzles. Minimum carrier is 5 gpa for ground or aerial application. Use 40-60 psi. Tank-mixing with other herbicides can reduce effectiveness.
Do not apply after soybeans begin to bloom or within 55 days of harvest. Do not plant crops other than soybeans for 60 days after application. Do not graze or harvest vines for feed.
TANK-MIXES Some tank-mix options include Flexstar, Basagran, Ultra Blazer, glyphosate and others. Refer to the section
for each broadleaf herbicide used alone to determine weed size, rate, and application precautions. Fusilade DX 2L rates South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 27 vary according to the tank-mix partner to allow for antagonistic reactions. Some combinations may also be used sequentially. For sequential use, allow 7-10 days time for grasses to resume growth and develop new leaves if grass herbicide is applied first. If Fusilade is applied first, allow 2-3 days before applying a broadleaf herbicide or mixture. FUSION (fluazifop + fenoxaprop) Site of Action: 1+1
0.38-0.75 pt Fusion 2.56L (0.12-0.25 lb ai)
POST. Fusion is a premix containing 2 lb fluazifop-butyl (Fusilade) + 0.56 lb fenoxaprop-ethyl per gal. Good to excellent
control of foxtail, volunteer corn, and wild proso millet. Does not control broadleaves. Excellent crop tolerance.
Weed growth is reduced soon after application. Symptoms appear somewhat later. Moisture stress reduces activity. Rates are 0.38 pt for shattercane (6-12 inches), volunteer corn (12-24 inches), and wild proso millet (4-8 inches); 0.5 pt for foxtail species, woolly cupgrass, sandbur, barnyardgrass (2-4 inches), crabgrass (1-4 inches), fall panicum, volunteer cereals, and wild oat (2-6 inches).
For quackgrass, apply 0.75 pt per acre when quackgrass is 6-10 inches. Make a second application using 0.5 pt per acre 2-3 weeks later if required. Add COC at 2-4 qt/100 gal or NIS at 1-2 qt/100 gal for ground application. Add 1 pt per acre COC or NIS for air. In addition to COC or NIS, UAN can be added at 4 gal/100 gal. Do not apply more than 1.5 pt of Fusion per year. Coverage is important. Use a minimum of 40 psi and 5 gpa for ground or air. Increase carrier and pressure if grass is dense. Do not cultivate 7 days before or after application. Do not graze or harvest for forage or hay. Do not plant grass crops for 60 days after application. Do not spray after bloom. Rain within 1 hour reduces results.
TANK-MIXES Some tank-mix options include Basagran, Cobra, Firstrate, Flexstar, Ultra Blazer, glyphosate, glufosinate,
2,4-D and others. Refer to the section for each broadleaf herbicide used alone to determine weed size, rate, and application precautions. For sequential use, allow 7-10 days time for grasses to resume growth and develop new leaves if grass herbicide is applied first. If Fusion is applied first, allow 2-3 days before applying a broadleaf herbicide or mixture. Follow restrictions, application directions, and requirements for tank-mix partner.
POAST PLUS or POAST (sethoxydim) Site of Action: 1
0.75-2.25 pt Poast Plus, Sethoxydim SPC 1L or 0.5-1.5 pt Poast 1.5L (0.1-0.3 lb ai)
POST. Very good to excellent control of annual grasses. Provides suppression of quackgrass. Does not control broadleaves.
Excellent crop tolerance. Poast Plus contains activating agents to enhance herbicide uptake.
Rates for Poast Plus and maximum grass size are 0.75 pt for wild proso millet (10 inches); 1.5 pt for green and yellow foxtail (8 inches), barnyardgrass (8 inches), wild oat (4 inches), volunteer corn (20 inches), and woolly cupgrass (8 inches); 1.9 pt for sandbur (3 inches); 2.25 pt for volunteer cereals (4 inches), stinkgrass (6 inches); and 3 pt for downy brome (3 inches) per acre. For quackgrass, use 2.25 pt at 6-8 inches and retreat with 1.5 pt per acre if necessary. Poast 1.5L rates are approximately 67% of Poast Plus 1L product rates.
COC at 1 qt per acre is required. AMS at 2.5 lb per acre or 0.5-1 gal 28% N may be used in addition to COC to improve control of quackgrass, volunteer corn and cereals, wild oat, or crabgrass. Avoid cultivation for 1 week before and 1 week following application. Rain within 1 hour after application reduces effectiveness. Control after drought stress is diminished.
Coverage is important. Use flat-fan or hollow-cone nozzles. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground and 5 gpa for air. Tank- mixing with other herbicides, except as noted on the label, can reduce effectiveness. Pressure should be 40-60 psi. Do not apply within 75 days of harvest. Avoid drift to sensitive crops such as corn, sorghum, or cereals. Do not graze or ensile vines; soybean hay may be fed to livestock. Clean sprayer thoroughly before mixing.
TANK-MIXES May be tank-mixed with Basagran, Pursuit, Raptor, Firstrate, Flexstar, glyphosate, Liberty and others. Do not
use MSO with Basagran, Pursuit, or Raptor tank-mixes. Refer to the section for each product alone.
REZULT (Poast Plus+Basagran) Site of Action: 1+6
1.6 pt each of Rezult G and Rezult B with duplex system.
POST. Rezult is available in plastic duplex jug or Prodigy mini-bulk system. The Prodigy system delivers Rezult at 1.6 pt
Poast Plus + 1.6 pt Basagran 5L per acre. Provides higher Basagran rate with grass control. Add 1 pt COC + 1-2 qt 28% N TANK-MIXES Labelled tank-mixes include Ultra Blazer, Raptor, Pursuit, Classic, and Firstrate. Refer to individual product
SELECT or SELECT MAX (clethodim) Site of Action: 1
6-16 oz Select 2L or 12-32 oz Select Max 0.97L or
4-10.67 oz Section Three 3L (0.09-0.25 lb ai)
POST. Additional clethodim products include Arrow 2EC, Cleanse 2EC, Clethodim 2E, Dakota, Intensity 2L, Intensity One
0.97L, Section 2EC, Shadow 2EC, Shadow 3EC, Tapout, and Volunteer 2L. Good to excellent control of several annual grasses and volunteer corn. Use high rates for quackgrass suppression. Excellent crop tolerance. Apply 6-8 oz/A of Select or 12-16 oz/A of Select Max or 4-5.33 oz/A Section Three for annual grasses (2-6 inches) including foxtail, sandbur, wild oat, barnyardgrass, and volunteer cereals. Use the high rate for heavy weed pressure. Use 8-16 oz/A of Select or 16-24 oz/A of Select Max or 5.33-10.67 oz/A of Section Three for quackgrass and retreat if necessary. Weed control has been consistent in SDSU tests. Symptoms appear 7-14 days after application.
Clethodim Rate for Volunteer Corn Control (oz/A)
Clethodim
Volunteer Corn Height (in)
Use COC at 1 gal/100 gal with Select or either COC or MSO with Select Max. For Section Three use COC at 1% v/v or 1 qt/A or MSO at 1% v/v or 1.5 pt/A by ground and COC at 1 pt/A by air. Use 28% N at 1-2 qt per acre to speed activity. Avoid cultivation 1 week before or after application. Rain within an hour of application may reduce control. Apply in a minimum of 10 gpa carrier for ground or 3 gpa for air. Do not graze treated fields or feed treated forage to livestock. Do not apply within 60 days of harvest.
TANK-MIXES Several combination treatments are listed on the label. Refer to the section for each broadleaf herbicide used
alone to determine weed size, rate, and application directions. High rates used to override antagonistic reaction. Higher rates are recommended for suppression of perennial grass. See label for proper COC rates for each tank-mix partner and for ground or air equipment. Do not tank-mix if broadleaf weeds will prevent proper spray coverage of grasses.
BUTYRAC 200 (2,4-DB) Site of Action: 4
0.7-0.9 pt Butyrac 200 2L (0.18-0.23 lb ae)
2,4-DB may be applied alone or in tank-mixes. Intended to control emerged weeds including cocklebur, marestail, or other annuals. Apply Butyrac in a minimum of 10 gpa for ground or 5 gpa for aerial equipment.
PRE: Apply to emerged weeds before planting to before soybeans emerge.
2,4-D Site of Action: 4
0.75-2 pt 2,4-D ester or 2,4-D amine 3.8L (0.38-1 lb ai)
Provides no-till burndown of emerged annual broadleaf weeds, especially for marestail, winter annual mustards, and prickly lettuce. Also controls topgrowth on broadleaf perennials prior to planting. Less effective for kochia when used alone. Apply no-till burndown as near as possible to planting; however, follow minimum time interval or injury risk increases. Ester forms preferred; interval to planting is less. Frequently mixed with glyphosate for grass. Check 2,4-D product for labeling. Plant seed at least 1.5 inches deep.
BURNDOWN. Application to planting interval for 0.75-1 pt of ester 4L per acre is 7 days or 15 days for amines. For rates of
1-2 pt, the interval is 30 days for both ester and amine forms.
South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 29 GLYPHOSATE in CONVENTIONAL SOYBEANS Site of Action: 9
0.38-3.75 lb ae/A
Glyphosate is available in several products having different formulations and different amounts (lb) of acid equivalent (ae) and active ingredient (ai).
Glyphosate rates in this section are listed
for products having 3 lb acid equivalent (4 lb ai).
Use the chart below to adjust for other concentrations.
Amount of product for equivalent lb ae
3 ae
3 lb ae (4 lb ai) 3.75 lb ae (5 lb ai) 4 lb ae (5.4 lb ai) 4.5 lb ae (5.5 lb ai) The amount required varies according to weed species and size. Green foxtail, mustard, sandbur seedlings, and volunteer wheat seedlings are more susceptible than many other species. Suggested rate is 16 oz per acre for most small annuals; 12 oz may be adequate for some situations. Use 20-24 oz for larger or more tolerant annuals or for post-harvest stubble burndown. Rates of 32-64 oz are used for perennials.
Glyphosate is a non-selective, translocated, foliage-applied herbicide used in reduced tillage systems. Glyphosate is applied before planting up to emergence, used as a spot treatment, applied in special equipment, or used as a perennial treatment. Refer to section for Herbicide Resistant Soybeans for in-crop glyphosate programs.
Carrier is 3-40 gpa for ground and 3-15 gpa for air. Maximum rate is 1 qt of 3 lb ae product. Use precaution to avoid droplet drift to non-target crops. Follow cleanup procedures to avoid damage from equipment contamination.
BURNDOWN. Weeds should be growing actively. Preharvest application is especially effective for perennials. Water having
more than 500 ppm combined calcium, magnesium, or iron may reduce activity, especially at high carrier volumes. Daytime temperatures below 55o F may also reduce activity. Avoid tillage for 1 day after treating annuals; 3-7 days for perennials.
SPOT TREATMENT. Use 2-4 qt 3 lb ae per acre to control small patches of perennial weeds such as quackgrass or Canada
thistle. Crop contacted by spray or drift will be damaged or killed.
PREHARVEST. Apply glyphosate 3 lb ae at 1-6 qt per acre preharvest to control annual and perennial weeds. Apply after
soybean pods have lost all green color. Allow a minimum of 7 days before harvest. Do not apply more than 1 qt per acre by air. Not recommended for seed fields.
TANK-MIXES Glyphosate products may be tank-mixed with many early preplant or preemergence herbicides labeled for
use in soybeans. This combines the burndown herbicide with a soil-applied residual herbicide used in no-till programs. Follow directions for each herbicide.
GRAMOXONE SL, FIRESTORM or PARAZONE (paraquat) Site of Action: 22
2-4 pt Gramoxone 2SL or 1.3-2.7 pt Firestorm, Parazone 3L (0.5-1.0 lb ai)
BURNDOWN. Paraquat is a non-selective, contact herbicide used to control emerged weeds at planting. May be applied
preplant or preemergence. Gramoxone rate range is 2-2.5 pt/A for weeds 1-3 inches tall, 2.5-3 pt/A for weeds 3-6 inches tall, or 3-4 pt/A for weeds 6 inches tall. Add NIS at a minimum of 0.125% v/v (1 pt/100 gallons) for ground application or 0.25% v/v for aerial applications or add COC at 1% v/v (1 gal/100 gal) for ground application or 1 pt/A for aerial application. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground or 5 gpa for air. Thorough coverage is very important. Several tank-mix options. Follow handling precautions as paraquat is toxic if ingested. Restricted Use Pesticide.
8-16 fl oz Gramoxone 2SL or 5.4–10.7 fl oz Firestorm, Parazone 3L (0.13-0.25 lb ai)
HARVEST AID. Apply when at least 65% of the seed pods have reached a mature color or when seed moisture is under
30%. The purpose is to dry weeds to facilitate harvest. Less effective on large kochia than on other actively growing weeds. Contact action. Minimum carrier is 20 gpa for ground or 5 gpa for air. Add NIS at a minimum of 0.125% v/v (1 pt/100 gallons) for ground application or 0.25% v/v for aerial applications or add COC at 1% v/v (1 gal/100 gal) for ground application or 1 pt/A for aerial application. Do not harvest for 15 days. Do not graze or harvest for forage or hay. Follow handling precautions, as paraquat is highly toxic when ingested.
1-2 pt Gramoxone 2SL (0.25-0.5 lb ai)
3-5.3 fl oz Firestorm, Parazone 3L (0.07-0.13 lb ai)
HOODED or DIRECTED SPRAY. Nonselective, non-residual treatment to control emerged weeds between the rows. Apply
when weeds are actively growing and less than 6 inches tall. Severe damage or complete kill can occur if spray contacts soybean plants. Do not apply to soybeans less than 8 inches tall and do not exceed 30 psi nozzle pressure when using direct spray. Some visual crop speckling should be expected. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground application. Add NIS at a minimum of 0.125% v/v or COC at 1% v/v. Do not graze or harvest forage or hay until 46 days after application.
TANK-MIXES Gramoxone may be tank-mixed with several preemergence herbicides. Refer to the section for each herbicide
or combination for rates and application/rotation restrictions.
AIM EC (carfentrazone) Site of Action: 14
0.25-1.5 oz Aim 2L (0.004-0.023 lb ai)
Aim is a contact herbicide used to control certain broadleaf weeds. It controls kochia (including ALS and glyphosate resistant) and velvetleaf; also gives control of redroot pigweed, nightshade, and lambsquarters. Weeds should be 1-4 inches. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa. Results on small, susceptible weeds has been very good; stressed weeds or large weeds are affected less.
PREPLANT BURNDOWN. Rate is 0.5-1.5 oz Aim 2L per acre. Add NIS at 2 pt/100 gal or COC at 1.5-2 pt per acre; 28%
N at 2-4 gal/100 gal may also be added. Burndown of small weeds has been effective in SDSU tests. May tank-mix 0.5-1 fl oz/A with glyphosate, glufosinate, or 2,4-D.
POST. Rate is 0.25 fl oz/A Aim 2L for Group 2.1-3.4 maturity soybeans. Do not apply to soybeans between emergence and
V2, but apply between V3 and V10 soybean growth stages. Add NIS at 0.25% v/v (2 pt/100 gal). Soybeans may show some leaf burn or speckling, but plant may outgrow these symptoms. Do not apply when conditions are cool, high humidity, or foliage is wet.
DIRECTED. Rate is 0.5-1.5 oz Aim 2L per acre. Rates vary with weed species. Direct spray or use shields to avoid foliage
contact on the crop. Use 10-20 gpa carrier. Add NIS at 0.25% v/v (2 pt/100 gal) alone or with liquid fertilizer at 2-4% v/v (2-4 gal/100 gal) in dry conditions.
HARVEST AID. Rate is 1-1.5 fl oz Aim 2L per acre. Apply when soybeans are mature and have begun to dry down. May
desiccate broadleaf weeds such as morningglory, pigweed, and velvetleaf. Do not harvest for 3 days. Minimum spray volume is 10 gpa for ground application or 5 gpa for aerial applications. Add NIS at 0.25% v/v (2 pt/100 gal) or COC or MSO at 1-2% v/v (1-2gal/100 gal). UAN (2-4% v/v) or AMS (2-4 lb/A) may be added to the NIS, COC, or MSO.
VIDA or ET (pyraflufen) Site of Action: 14
0.5-2 oz Vida 0.2L (0.0008-0.0032 lb ai)
Vida is a contact herbicide with a similar mode of action as Aim (carfentrazone). It has activity on broadleaf weeds including cocklebur, sunflower, lambsquarters, pigweed, Russian thistle, wild buckwheat, and wild mustard. Vida is used primarily in a tank-mix with glyphosate. Results used alone have been variable; especially for kochia. Do not graze forage or cut for hay within 7 days of application. Do not harvest grain within 70 days of application.
PREPLANT BURNDOWN. Apply 1-2 fl oz/A of Vida or 0.5-2 fl oz/A of ET. Recommended adjuvants include NIS, COC, or
MSO at 0.5-2% v/v. Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground application or 5 gpa for aerial application. Do not apply more than 2 fl oz/a per crop season.
POST. Apply 0.5-1 fl oz/A of Vida or 0.5-0.75 fl oz/A of ET from emergence to the V6 growth stage. Do not use COC or MSO.
Minimum carrier rate is 10 gpa for ground application or 5 gpa for aerial application. Some temporary leaf speckling may occur. Do not apply more than 1 fl oz/A or more than 2 applications per crop season.
South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 31 DICAMBA PRODUCTS (dicamba) Site of Action: 4
4-32 oz dicamba 4L (0.125-1 lb ai)
There are several dicamba products available including Clarity, Clash, Detonate, Sterling Blue, Strut, Vision and others.
Dicamba may be applied as a preplant or preharvest application in soybeans for the control of broadleaf weeds. May be tank-mixed with other registered herbicides for both preplant and preharvest applications.
PREPLANT. 4-16 oz/A Following application a minimum rainfall of 1 inch and a 14 day interval for 8 oz/A or less or a 28-day
interval for 16 oz/A is required before planting. PREHARVEST. 8-32 oz/A Apply once soybean pods have reached a mature brown color and at least 75% leaf drop has
occurred. Do not harvest soybean for 7-14 days depending on individual product label. Do not feed soybean fodder or hay. Do not use treated soybeans for seed unless tested for germination resulting in a 95% germination or better. HERBICIDE RESISTANT SOYBEANS
GLYPHOSATE PRODUCTS (Roundup Ready Soybeans) Site of Action: 9
Only glyphosate products licensed and labeled for use with glyphosate-resistant seed may be used. Several products are

listed below, representing amount (lb) of acid equivalent (ae) and active ingredient (ai). Examples include:
Glyphosate
Trade Names
(0.38-1.5 lb ae/A) (0.38-1.5 lb ae/A)
3 ae, 3.4 ai
Abundit Extra, Alecto (41HL) (S), Buccaneer (Plus), Cornerstone (Plus), Credit 41 (Extra), Four Power Plus, Gly Star Gold, Glyfos X-tra, Glyphogan (Plus), Honcho (Plus), Mad Dog (Plus), Makaze (Yield Pro), Meychem 41%, Mirage (Plus), Rascal Plus, Rattler (Plus), Showdown, Wise Up Plus Glyphosate 4 ae, 5.4 ai
Cinco, Duramax, Durango DMA, Gly Star 5 Extra, Glyphomax XRT Touchdown CT, Touchdown Total, Traxion 4.5 ae, 4.5 ai
4.5 ae, 5.5 ai
Roundup Powermax, Roundup Weathermax Glyphosate rates in this section are listed for products having 3 lb acid equivalent (4 lb ai).
Use the chart below to adjust for other concentrations.
Amount of Product for similar lb ae/A
3 ae
3 lb ae (4 lb ai) 3.75 lb ae (5 lb ai) 4 lb ae (5.4 lb ai) 4.5 lb ae (5.5 lb ai) Apply postemergence through flowering. There is flexibility for timing burndown. The maximum rate for any single in-crop application is 2 qt of 3 lb ae per acre. Allow 14 days from last application to harvest. Maximum rates for application timings are listed below: Maximum Rates of Glyphosate Allowed for Glyphosate Resistant Soybean
CRACKING to
APPLICATION PREHARVEST TOTAL/SEASON
3.75 lb ae Products 4.17 lb ae Products 4.5 lb ae Products Narrow row or drill-planted crop provides important early canopy to reduce late flushes; wide row planting may require a sequential treatment. Glyphosate rate can be adjusted to control most annual weeds. It is an effective option for perennials such as Canada thistle, quackgrass, field bindweed, and milkweed. It has performed well in SDSU tests for biennial wormwood and ALS-resistant kochia. Sequential application is frequently required for weeds such as velvetleaf, black nightshade, woolly cupgrass, or waterhemp. Waterhemp control will be most consistent if initial application is made before weeds reach 6-8 inches. Perennials require 1-2 qt 3L ae per acre for control or suppression.
Use 5-20 gpa for ground or 3-15 gpa for air application. Be aware of wind conditions that may cause droplet drift. Follow other mixing and application directions for the product being used.
VOLUNTEER ROUNDUP READY CORN
Glyphosate + Assure II, Fusion, Fusilade DX, Select/Select Max, or Poast/Poast Plus.
POST. SDSU trials indicate that only 1 volunteer corn plant in a 10 m2 area can reduce soybean yield by 2.5%. Tank-mixes
required for volunteer RR corn control. Application at 6-10 inches is more effective than treating later at 16-20 inches. Add AMS. Adding COC or MSO not required with the higher rates of the post grass herbicide. Adding COC or MSO may reduce glyphosate activity if the glyphosate rate is marginal for the other weed problems.
LIBERTY 280 (Liberty Link Soybeans) Site of Action: 10
22-36 fl oz Liberty 280 or Forfeit 280 2.34L (0.4-0.66 lb ai)
Liberty 280 (glufosinate) may only be applied to Liberty Link soybeans. Provides broadspectrum grass and broadleaf weed control. Controls glyphosate-resistant weeds. Apply to young, actively growing weeds. Applications during full sunlight, warm temperature, and high humidity may improve control. Apply between dawn and 2 hours before sunset. Adverse weather conditions, such as drought or cool temperatures, may reduce Liberty efficacy more than glyphosate. Heavy dew or fog may reduce efficacy. Rainfast within 4 hours after application.
Adding AMS at 1.5-3 lb/A may improve control. Coverage is important for Liberty as the recommended carrier rate is 15 gpa for ground applications or 10 gpa for aerial applications. Do not use nitrogen solutions as spray carriers. Do not use nozzles or pressures that result in coarse spray droplets. Rotation restriction is 70 days for small grains. Applying a preemergence herbicide is recommended to reduce weed competition. Several tank-mix options for residual herbicides, grass herbicides (Assure II, Select Max, Fusilade (DX), PPO-inhibiting herbicides (Cobra, Phoenix, Flexstar, Reflex, Resource, Ultra Blazer), ALS-inhibiting herbicides (Pursuit, Raptor, Harmony, FirstRate, Synchrony XP), and others. Additional surfactants are not necessary when tank-mixing with Liberty.
BURNDOWN. The recommended rate for burndown applications is 29-36 fl oz/A. Since only 65 fl oz may be applied per
acre per season, only 1 application of 22-29 fl oz/A may be applied postemergence if a burndown is applied.
POST. Apply 22-29 fl oz/A from emergence up to but not including the soybean bloom growth stage. All applications must
not exceed 65 fl oz/A per year. Therefore, 1 application of 36 fl oz/A may be followed by another application with a rate up to 29 fl oz/A. Do not apply more than 36 fl oz/A in a single application. Two postemergence applications of 22 fl oz/A has provided very good weed control in SDSU trials. Sequential applications should be made 10-14 days apart.
South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 33 SYNCHRONY XP (STS or STS/RR Soybeans) Site of Action: 2
0.375-0.75 oz Synchrony XP 28.4DF (thifensulfuron + chlorimuron) (0.007-0.013 ai)
Synchrony XP may be used at greater rates (0.375-1.125 oz/A) on STS herbicide resistant than standard soybeans (0.375 oz/A). Synchrony XP contains 6.9% thifensulfuron (Harmony) + 21.5% chlorimuron (Classic). The 0.375 oz rate provides the equivalent of 0.052 oz Harmony 50SG plus 0.33 oz Classic per acre. The 0.375 oz rate controls cocklebur, sunflower, and pigweed. Rates of 0.75 oz/A may provide control of buffalobur, velvetleaf, and common/giant ragweed. Synchrony labeling includes tank-mixing with postemergence herbicides for grass control and to improve waterhemp, nightshade, velvetleaf, or common ragweed control.
Minimum carrier is 10 gpa for ground or 3 gpa for air. Add COC at 1 gal/100 gal solution plus 28% N at 2-4 qt or AMS at 2-4 lb per acre. Small grain may be planted after 3 months; corn, alfalfa, sunflowers, and sorghum after 9 months. Canola, flax, and lentil require an 18-month interval.
POST. Apply after first trifoliate leaf stage but 60 days before maturity.
WEED RESPONSE to SOYBEAN HERBICIDES
Weed control percentages are intended as a guide for comparing alternatives. Percentages are estimated based on favorable conditions.
Usually over 90% Best choice for weed Sometimes over 80% Usually satisfactory Sometimes under 70% Sometimes unsatisfactory Seldom satisfactory Usually under 50% ild mustard
Kochia (ALS)
PPI/PRE:Authority Assist Authority First/Sonic Dual II Mag.
Intrro, Micro-Tech South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 35 Insecticides for Foliar Application on Soybean in South Dakota
Ada Szczepaniec, SDSU Extension Entomology Specialist
Pesticide resistance is emerging as the critical issue in weed management. A lot of attention is given to managing herbicide application to alleviate the problem of herbicide resistance. In reality, the same resistance problem can occur among insect pest populations. Insecticide resistance can be defined as the selection of heritable traits in a pest population that results in the repeated failure of an insecticide product to provide the intended level of control when used as recommended. One of the most common catalysts in resistance development is a long-term repeated use of insecticides that constantly target the same site within the insect body, or in technical parlance, "using insecticides with the same Mode of Action (MoA) repeatedly." The repeated use of insecticides with the same MoA promotes the selection of resistance traits within the insect population that culminates with the dominance of resistant individuals in a given location. Wise use of insecticide by making sure that an application is needed by scouting and utilizing the economic thresholds helps to slow down the development of resistance. Additionally, rotation of insecticides using products that target various sites within the insect body will break the cycle of resistance development within an insect population. International Resistance Action Committee, a group of technical experts from insecticide industry, facilitated the implementation of insecticide rotation by categorizing each insecticide active ingredient into several groups with each group referring to a specific site or mode of action. The MoA groups of active ingredients commonly used in wheat are presented in Table 1. Rotation of insecticide using an array of products from different MoA groups is highly recommended both annually and, if more than one application per season is warranted, within a given planting season. Table 1. Mode of Action groups of active ingredients commonly used in soybean.
Action Group
Insecticide
Examples of active ingredients
commonly used in soybean
Carbaryl, Methomyl, Thiodicarb Chlorpyrifos, Dimethoate Beta-cyfluthrin, Cyfluthrin, Gamma-cyhalothrin, Deltamethrin, Esfenvalerate, Bifenthrin, Lambda-cyhalothrin, Permethrin, Zeta-cypermethrin Imidacloprid, Thiamethoxam Another avenue to manage the development of resistant traits in an insect population is to use insecticides with more than one active ingredient, each targeting a different site within the insect body. Inclusion of additional active ingredient(s) with different MoA slows down resistance development considerable. Even in this situation, rotation with a product from a unique MoA group is still recommended. In the sample list of insecticides registered for wheat we include the information on the MoA group to facilitate product rotation by the readers. Additionally, a few products containing more than one active ingredient are also listed.
Examples of Insecticides Labeled for
Foliar Application on Soybean in South Dakota*
(in ‘fl oz/A'
(re-entry
Listed Pests
Harvest MoA1
Notes & Restrictions
Class) and
interval
in hours)
• Do not apply more than 6 pt of Lesser cornstalk borer Nufos 4E (3 lb ai chlorpyrifos) per acre per season.
Green cloverworm • Do not make a second application of Nufos 4E or Velvetbean caterpillar other product containing chlorpyrifos within 14 days of Bean leaf beetle the first application.
• Do not make more than 3 applications per year of Mexican bean beetle Nufos 4E or other products Potato leafhopper Saltmarsh caterpillar and other woolly bears • Maximum single application rate is 1 lb of ai (chlorpyrifos) Thistle caterpillar European corn borer • Do not allow meat or dairy Southern green stink bug animals to graze in treated areas or otherwise feed treated soybean forage, hay and straw to meat or dairy animals.
• Do not apply more than 6 Lesser cornstalk borer pt of Nufos 4E (3 lb of ai chlorpyrifos) per acre per Green cloverworm • Do not make a second Velvetbean caterpillar application of Nufos 4E or other product containing Bean leaf beetle chlorpyrifos within 14 days of the first application.
• Do not make more than Mexican bean beetle 3 applications per year of Potato leafhopper Nufos 4E or other products Saltmarsh caterpillar and other woolly bears • Maximum single application Thistle caterpillar rate is 1 lb ai chlorpyrifos per European corn borer Southern green stink bug • Do not allow meat or dairy animals to graze in treated areas or otherwise feed treated soybean forage, hay and straw to meat or dairy animals.
Mexican bean beetle • Do not feed or graze within 5 days of last application.
• Maximum application rate: 0.5 Bean leaf beetle lb ai/A, 7-day reapplication Three-cornered alfalfa hopper • Maximum total application rate per year: 1 lb ai/A.
South Dakota 2014 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 37 Examples of Insecticides Labeled for
Foliar Application on Soybean in South Dakota*
(in ‘fl oz/A'
(re-entry
Listed Pests
Harvest MoA1
Notes & Restrictions
Class) and
interval
in hours)
Chlorpyrifos (Organophosphate) & Gamma-cyhalothrin (Pyrethroid)
Cobalt2
1B; 3 • Do not apply more than 85 Lesser corn stalk borer fl oz of Cobalt per acre per Green cloverworm • Do not make a second Velvetbean caterpillar application of Cobalt or other Blister beetle spp.species product containing chlorpyrifos within 14 days of the first Painted lady caterpillar • Do not make more than 3 Saltmarsh caterpillar applications per year of Cobalt Silverspotted skipper or other products containing • Do not allow meat or dairy Webworm spp.species animals to graze in treated Wollybear caterpillar areas or otherwise feed treated Yellowstriped armyworm soybean forage, hay, and Bean leaf beetle straw to meat or dairy animals.
Japanese beetle (adult) Mexican bean beetle Mexican corn rootworm (adult beetle) Northern corn rootworm (adult beetle) Potato leafhopper Southern corn rootworm (adult beetle) Stink bug spp.species Three-cornered alfalfa hopper Thrips spp.species Western corn rootworm (adult beetle) European corn borer Lesser cornstalk borer • Minimum gallonage requirements: For aerial Green cloverworm applications, use a minimum of 2 gallons of water per acre. Three-cornered alfalfa hopper For ground applications, use a Velvetbean caterpillar minimum of 5 gallons of water Armyworm (all species) per acre for thorough coverage Bean leaf beetle of the foliage.
• Do not apply more than 8.5 fl oz of Decis 1.5EC per acre Corn rootworm beetles (adult beetle) (0.1 lb ai/A) on soybeans in European corn borer one growing season.
Grape colaspis (adult) • Do not allow livestock to graze treated forage, or feed treated Japanese beetle (adult) hay to livestock.
Mexican bean beetle Saltmarsh caterpillar Tarnished plant bug Yellow woollybear Examples of Insecticides Labeled for
Foliar Application on Soybean in South Dakota*
(in ‘fl oz/A'
(re-entry
Listed Pests
Harvest MoA1
Notes & Restrictions
Class) and
interval
in hours)
Green cloverworm • Do not feed or graze livestock Mexican bean beetle on treated fields.
Potato leafhopper • Do not apply more than 0.2 lb Saltmarsh caterpillar ai per acre per season.
Velvetbean caterpillar Woollybear caterpillar Bean leaf beetle Southern green stink bug Three-cornered alfalfa hopper Permethrin (Pyrethroid)
Arctic 3.2 EC
Bean leaf beetle • Maximum single application rate is 0.2 lb ai/A (8 fl. oz/A).
Corn rootworm (adult beetle) • Retreatment interval is 10 • Do not graze treated areas or Green cloverworm feed soybean forage or hay.
Mexican bean beetle Potato leafhopper Saltmarsh caterpillar (woolybear caterpillar) Thistle caterpillar Velvetbean caterpillar South Dakota 2014 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 39 Examples of Insecticides Labeled for
Foliar Application on Soybean in South Dakota*
(in ‘fl oz/A'
(re-entry
Listed Pests
Harvest MoA1
Notes & Restrictions
Class) and
interval
in hours)
Bean leaf beetle (growth stage VC-V2) • Pre-Harvest Interval (PHI) for seed: 21 days; dry vines (hay) Potato leafhopper and green forage may be fed 15 days after last application.
Green cloverworm • Maximum Baythroid XL Armyworm (1st and 2nd instar) allowed per 7-day interval: 2.8 Bean leaf beetle fluid oz/A (0.022 lb ai/A).
Beet armyworm (1st and 2nd instar) • Maximum Baythroid XL allowed per crop season: 11.2 fluid oz/A (0.088 lb ai/A).
Click beetle (adult) Corn rootworms (adult beetle) European corn borer Fall armyworm (1st and 2nd instar) Grape colaspis (adult) Japanese beetle (adult) June beetle (adult) Masked chafer (adult) Mexican bean beetle Saltmarsh caterpillar Silverspotted skipper Southern armyworm (1st and 2nd Instar) Tarnished plant bug Three-cornered alfalfa hopper Velvetbean caterpillar Woolybear caterpillar Yellowstriped armyworm (1st and 2nd Lesser cornstalk borer Examples of Insecticides Labeled for
Foliar Application on Soybean in South Dakota*
(in ‘fl oz/A'
(re-entry
Listed Pests
Harvest MoA1
Notes & Restrictions
Class) and
interval
in hours)
Alfalfa caterpillar • Apply in a minimum of 10 gallons per acre with ground Aster leafhopper equipment or 2 gallon per acre Bean leaf beetle by aircraft at a minimum of 30- day intervals.
• Do not apply more than 0.3 lb of ai per acre per season.
Corn rootworms (adult beetle) Cucumber beetles European corn borer Imported cabbageworm Japanese beetle (adult) Mexican bean beetle (adult) Saltmarsh caterpillar Southern armyworm Tarnished plant bug Western bean cutworm Yellowstriped armyworm Twospotted spider mite South Dakota 2014 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 41 Examples of Insecticides Labeled for
Foliar Application on Soybean in South Dakota*
(in ‘fl oz/A'
(re-entry
Listed Pests
Harvest MoA1
Notes & Restrictions
Class) and
interval
in hours)
Zeta-cypermethrin (Pyrethroid)
Mustang MAX
Cutworm spp.species • Do not make applications less Painted lady (thistle) caterpillar than 7 days apart.
Saltmarsh caterpillar • Do not graze or harvest treated Silverspotted skipper soybean forage, straw, or hay Alfalfa caterpillar for livestock feed.
Armyworm, southern • Do not apply more than 0.15 lb of ai per acre per season.
Armyworm, yellowstriped Bean leaf beetle Blister beetle spp.species Colorado potato beetle Corn borer, European Corn rootworm (adult beetle) European corn borer Green cloverworm Imported cabbageworm Leafhopper spp.species Leafminers (adult) Mexican bean beetle Plant bug spp.species Potato leafhopper Seedcorn maggot (adult) Three-cornered alfalfa hopper Velvetbean caterpillar Webworm spp.species Woollybear caterpillar Grasshopper spp.species Lesser cornstalk borer Looper spp.species Stink bug spp.species Thrips spp.species Whitefly spp.species Examples of Insecticides Labeled for
Foliar Application on Soybean in South Dakota*
(in ‘fl oz/A'
(re-entry
Listed Pests
Harvest MoA1
Notes & Restrictions
Class) and
interval
in hours)
Cutworm spp.species • Do not make applications less Painted lady (thistle) caterpillar than 7 days apart.
Saltmarsh caterpillar • Do not graze or harvest treated Silverspotted skipper soybean forage, straw, or hay Alfalfa caterpillar for livestock feed.
Armyworm, southern • Do not apply more than 24.0 fl oz product (0.15 lb ai) per acre Armyworm, yellowstriped Bean leaf beetle Blister beetle spp.species Colorado potato beetle Corn borer, European Corn rootworm (adult beetle) European corn borer Green cloverworm Imported cabbageworm Leaf skeletonizer spp.species Leafhopper spp.species Leafminers (adult) Mexican bean beetle Plant bug spp.species Potato leafhopper Seedcorn maggot (adult) Three-cornered alfalfa hopper Velvetbean caterpillar Webworm spp.species Woollybear caterpillar Grasshopper spp.species Lesser cornstalk borer Looper spp.species Stink bug spp.species Thrips spp.species Whitefly spp.species South Dakota 2014 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 43 Examples of Insecticides Labeled for
Foliar Application on Soybean in South Dakota*
(in ‘fl oz/A'
(re-entry
Listed Pests
Harvest MoA1
Notes & Restrictions
Class) and
interval
in hours)
Zeta-cypermethrin & Bifenthrin (Pyrethroids)
Hero
Bean leaf beetle • Apply by ground or air equipment using sufficient water to obtain full coverage of foliage (minimum of 10 g/A by Green cloverworm ground and 2 g/A by air).
Painted lady (thistle) caterpillar • Do not apply more than 10.3 Silverspotted skipper oz of product or 0.10 lb ai per Alfalfa caterpillar • Do not apply more than 41.2 Armyworm, southern oz of product or 0.40 lb ai per acre per season.
Armyworm, yellowstriped • Refer to the maximum usage Blister beetle spp.species tables when applying more than one product containing Corn rootworm (adult beetle) either zeta-cypermethrin or bifenthrin to this crop.
Cucumber beetle (adult) • Do not make applications less Dectes stem borer than 30 days apart.
European corn borer • Do not graze or harvest treated False chinch bug soybean forage, straw, or hay Grape colaspis (adult) for livestock feed.
Imported cabbageworm Japanese beetle (adult) Leaf skeletonizer spp.species Leafminers (adult) Lesser cornstalk borer Mexican bean beetle Saltmarsh caterpillar Seedcorn maggot (adult) Three-cornered alfalfa hopper Velvetbean caterpillar Woollybear caterpillar Twospotted spider mite Examples of Insecticides Labeled for
Foliar Application on Soybean in South Dakota*
(in ‘fl oz/A'
(re-entry
Listed Pests
Harvest MoA1
Notes & Restrictions
Class) and
interval
in hours)
Bean leaf beetle • Do not graze or harvest treated soybean forage, straw, or hay for livestock feed.
Cutworm spp.species • Do not apply more than 0.03 Green cloverworm lb ai (0.48 pt) per acre per Mexican bean beetle Mexican corn rootworm (adult beetle) Northern corn rootworm (adult beetle) Painted lady (thistle) caterpillar Potato leafhopper Saltmarsh caterpillar Southern corn rootworm (adult beetle) Three-cornered alfalfa hopper Thrips spp.species Velvetbean caterpillar Western corn rootworm (adult beetle) Woollybear caterpillar Blister beetle spp.species European corn borer Grasshopper spp.species Japanese beetle (adult) Plant bug spp.species Silverspotted skipper Stink bug spp.species Webworm spp.species Yellowstriped armyworm Lesser cornstalk borer Spider mite spp.species South Dakota 2014 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 45 Examples of Insecticides Labeled for
Foliar Application on Soybean in South Dakota*
(in ‘fl oz/A'
(re-entry
Listed Pests
Harvest MoA1
Notes & Restrictions
Class) and
interval
in hours)
Bean leaf beetle • Do not apply more than 0.06 lb of ai (0.48 pt of product) per acre per season.
Cutworm spp.species • Do not graze or harvest treated Green cloverworm soybean forage, straw, or hay Mexican bean beetle for livestock feed.
Mexican corn rootworm (adult beetle) Northern corn rootworm (adult beetle) Painted lady (thistle) caterpillar Potato leafhopper Saltmarsh caterpillar Southern corn rootworm (adult beetle) Three-cornered alfalfa hopper Thrips spp.species Velvetbean caterpillar Western corn rootworm (adult beetle) Woolly bear caterpillar Blister beetle spp.species European corn borer Grasshopper spp.species Japanese beetle (adult) Plant bug spp.species Silverspotted skipper Stink bug spp.species Webworm spp.species Yellowstriped armyworm Lesser cornstalk borer Spider mite spp.species Examples of Insecticides Labeled for
Foliar Application on Soybean in South Dakota*
(in ‘fl oz/A'
(re-entry
Listed Pests
Harvest MoA1
Notes & Restrictions
Class) and
interval
in hours)
Bean leaf beetle • Do not graze or harvest treated soybean forage, straw, or hay for livestock feed.
Mexican corn rootworm (adult beetle) • Do not apply more than 0.06 Northern corn rootworm (adult beetle) lb of ai (3.84 fl oz or 0.24 pt of Southern corn rootworm (adult beetle) product) per acre per season.
Western corn rootworm (adult beetle) Green cloverworm Mexican bean beetle Painted lady (thistle) caterpillar Potato leafhopper Saltmarsh caterpillar Three-cornered alfalfa hopper Velvetbean caterpillar Woollybear caterpillar Blister beetle species European corn borer Grasshopper species Japanese beetle (adult) Plant bug species Silverspotted skipper Stink bug species Yellowstriped armyworm Lesser cornstalk borer Spider mite species South Dakota 2014 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 47 Examples of Insecticides Labeled for
Foliar Application on Soybean in South Dakota*
(in ‘fl oz/A'
(re-entry
Listed Pests
Harvest MoA1
Notes & Restrictions
Class) and
interval
in hours)
Thiamethoxam (Neonicotinoid) & Lambda-cyhalothrin (Pyrethroid)
Endigo ZC
4A; 3 • Maximum Endigo ZC allowed per growing season: Do not Corn rootworm beetles (adult beetle) exceed a total of 9.0 fl oz of Endigo ZC or 0.06 lb of Green cloverworm lambda-cyhalothrin containing Mexican bean beetle products or 0.125 lb of ai of Painted lady (thistle) caterpillar foliar applied thiamethoxam- Potato leafhopper containing products per acre Saltmarsh caterpillar per growing season.
• Minimum interval between Three-cornered alfalfa hopper applications: Allow at least 7 days between applications.
Velvetbean caterpillar • Do not use less than 10 g/A for Woollybear caterpillar ground applications or 2 g/A for Bean leaf beetle • Do not graze or harvest treated Blister beetle species soybean forage, straw or hay Brown marmorated stink bug for livestock feed.
European corn borer • For resistance management, do not apply this product within Grasshopper species 45 days of planting if soybean seeds were treated with a Japanese beetle (adult) Plant bug species Silverspotted skipper Southern green stink bug Stink bug species Yellowstriped armyworm Lesser cornstalk borer Red-banded stink bug Spider mite species Imidacloprid (Neonicotinoid) & Cyfluthrin (Pyrethroid)
Leverage 2.7
4A; 3 • Pre-Harvest Interval (PHI) or feeding of dry vines: 45 days. Bean leaf beetle Green forage may be fed 15 days after last application.
Corn rootworms (adult beetle) • Minimum interval between Cucumber beetles (adult) applications: 7 days.
• Maximum Leverage 2.7 Green cloverworm SE Suspension Emulsion Japanese beetle (adult) Insecticide allowed per crop June beetle (adult) season: 11.4 fl oz/A (0.10 lb Mexican bean beetle ai/A cyfluthrin, 0.14 lb ai/A Saltmarsh caterpillar Silverspotted skipper • Leverage 2.7 SE Suspension Soybean podworm /corn earworm Emulsion Insecticide is to be applied through properly Tarnished plant bug calibrated ground, aerial Three-cornered alfalfa hopper or chemigation application Thrips (foliage feeding thrips only) Velvetbean caterpillar Whiteflies (other than sweetpotato whitefly) Examples of Insecticides Labeled for
Foliar Application on Soybean in South Dakota*
(in ‘fl oz/A'
(re-entry
Listed Pests
Harvest MoA1
Notes & Restrictions
Class) and
interval
in hours)
Methomyl (Carbamate)
Lannate LV
Green cloverworm • Do not apply more than 4.5 pt Velvetbean caterpillar of DuPont Lannate LV/A/crop. Mexican bean beetle • Do not make more than 3 Corn earworm (light to moderate Corn earworm (moderate to severe Salt marsh caterpillar Bean leaf beetle Silverspotted skipper (light to moderate Silverspotted skipper (moderate to severe Thiodicarb (Carbamate)
Larvin 3.2
Podworms (bollworm, corn earworm, • Do not feed forage, hay or tobacco budworm) straw to livestock.
Armyworms (such as: beet, fall, southern, • Do not exceed 0.75 lb ai per yellowstriped, etc.) acre per application or 3.0 lb Green cloverworm active ingredient per acre per Velvetbean caterpillar Woollybear caterpillar • Do not apply more than 0.75 lb ai per acre of this product in any 7-day period.
Mexican bean beetle Bean leaf beetle Stink bugs (suppression) Three-cornered alfalfa hopper (suppression) South Dakota 2014 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 49 Examples of Insecticides Labeled for
Foliar Application on Soybean in South Dakota*
(in ‘fl oz/A'
(re-entry
Listed Pests
Harvest MoA1
Notes & Restrictions
Class) and
interval
in hours)
Carbaryl (Carbamate)
Sevin 4F
Bean leaf beetle • Repeat applications as necessary up to a total of 4 Cucumber beetles times per year but not more often than once every 7 days.
Green cloverworm • Do not apply within 14 days of grazing or harvest for forage Mexican bean beetle or within 3 days of harvest of Velvetbean caterpillar fresh edible-podded beans or peas or within 21 days of Alfalfa caterpillar harvest of dried beans or peas, Colorado potato beetle • Do not apply more than a total of 6 qt per acre per crop per Three-cornered alfalfa hopper • Do not apply a combination Western bean cutworm of this product and 2,4-DB herbicides to soybeans as crop injury may result.
European corn borer Tarnished plant bug Alfalfa looper (suppression) Cowpea curculio (suppression) Painted lady (thistle caterpillar) Saltmarsh caterpillar Woollybean caterpillar Yellowstriped armyworm *This list is not meant to be comprehensive. The information may change and is not meant to supersede the label. Users must read and follow the direction of usage on the label of each insecticide.
1 Mode of Action: Using different, and combined, modes of action may delay insect resistance to insecticide groups. See www.irac- online.org for more information 2 Expiration date as of the time of writing is 6/30/15, though many products will likely be re-registered. Beyond 6/30/15, please refer to updated registry information, which may be found at https://apps.sd.gov/doa/cat/PRSProductSearch.aspx?type=prs Managing Crop Diseases with Seed Treatments
Seed treatment fungicides are used in various agricultural crops and are useful tools in promoting stand establishment and seedling vigor. Seed treatments may also help preserve yield potential and prevent quality losses in grain by preventing development of seed and soil-borne diseases. Seed treatments addressed in this guide are those consisting of fungicides or fungicides in combination with insecticides for use in managing disease-causing organisms (pathogens). The development of effective seed treatments can be noted as one of the most significant advancements in plant disease management. In general, fungicidal seed treatments are used for three primary reasons: (1) To control soil-borne fungal disease organisms such as those causing seed rots or seedling blights in many crops, as well as the agents of root rot complex, smuts, or downy mildews. (2) To control diseases caused by seed surface-borne fungal pathogens. (3) To manage diseases caused by seed-borne fungi. Although seed treatments do provide protection against seed and seedling pathogens, one question that is often raised is whether seed treatments do produce a return on investment. Like any other plant disease, seed/seedling pathogens infection is driven by the environment. Because weather conditions at the time of planting and early in the season cannot be precisely predicted, seed treatment then becomes a sort of a cheap insurance in case conditions are conducive for seed and seedling diseases to develop and it would be too late to apply anything. However, if in doubt whether to treat or not treat seed for disease management, consider the following factors: • What is the history of seedling diseases in your field? For example if a field is known to have high incidence of damping-off, then fungicide seed treatment is warranted. • What are the prevailing weather conditions at the time of planting? Wet and cool soils are favorable conditions for most seedling pathogens including Pythium spp. Cool soil conditions also reduce seedling growth rate, hence providing longer interaction time between the pathogen and the host. • Is the crop for seed production? Since grain for seed attracts higher prices, it may be beneficial to consider seed treatment in addition to other factors below. Fungicide seed treatments can also increase the likelihood of the seed being produced and offered for sale as disease free.
• Is the crop following the same crop as last season? Survival of seedling pathogens may be higher in non-rotated • Is the crop being planted in a till or no-till/minimum till field? No-till fields may have an increased risk of seedling • What is the disease rating for the cultivar to be planted? Seed companies provide disease rating for cultivars. For susceptible cultivars to seedling diseases, a seed treatment may be beneficial.
• What is the germination rate for the seed lot? For seed with a low germination percentage, seed treatment may protect young seedlings with marginal vigor and improve plant stands compared with untreated seed.
• How much stand reduction is acceptable? Some crops like soybean and wheat have a great potential for yield compensation. Therefore slightly reduced plant stand is not going to significantly impact yield.
• What is the desired plant population per acre? With increasing costs of seed, growers may be opting for lower plant population per acre, therefore to avoid further loss of plants; a fungicide seed treatment may be justified.
• What is the expected price per bushel? Higher prices per bushel would indicate that fewer additional bushels are needed to offset seed treatment costs. • Is the seed for replanting? If replanting because of stand establishment problems (especially in wet spots) is considered, using fungicide treated seeds may increase chances of survival of replanted seed. Proper identification of disease agents is also important. Agronomy or Plant Pathology Extension Specialists or the Plant Disease Diagnostic Clinic at SDSU can assist producers in identifying plant health problems affecting stand establishment and throughout the growing season. It is important to note that fungicide seed treatments are not effective against bacterial pathogens or in managing viral diseases. Also most seed treatment products do not control all types of fungal pathogens. Effectiveness of control will vary with seed treatment product, rate, environmental conditions, and pests present.
Integrated Disease Management
Disease management in agricultural crops requires a multi-faceted approach as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) program.
Effective components of an integrated plant disease management program include the following: • Crop rotation, including rotation to non-host crops to reduce pathogen load.
South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 51 • Residue and volunteer management for reduction of residue-borne and overwintering diseases.
• Use of high quality, disease-free seed to prevent the spread of seed-borne diseases and promote healthy stand • Proper variety selection for host resistance and adaptation to the growing region.
• Proper plant health management. Healthy plants are more able to resist or tolerate the development of plant • Judicious use of plant protectant products such as herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides to reduce losses, promote healthy plants, and prevent quality losses in seed.
Seed Treatments and Inoculants
Seed treatments containing fungicides or fungicide/insecticide combinations may adversely affect microbial inoculants applied to legume seed, such as soybeans. Producers should carefully read and follow any label instructions and limitations for both the pesticide seed treatment and the inoculant. Liquid fungicides or fungicide/insecticide combinations should not be directly mixed with liquid inoculants prior to application, and care should be taken to limit the time that inoculants and pesticide seed treatments are in direct contact.
Classification of Fungicidal Seed Treatments
Fungicidal seed treatments can be classified based on movement of the seed treatment product in relation to the seed. Fungicides used as protectants (contacts) are effective only on the seed surface, providing protection against seed surface-borne pathogens and providing some level of control of soil-borne pathogens. These products generally have a relatively short residual. Protectant fungicides such as captan, maneb, thiram, or fludioxonil help control most types of soil-borne pathogens, with the exception of the root rotting organisms. Systemic seed treatment fungicides are absorbed into the emerging seedling and inhibit or kill the fungus inside host plant tissues. Systemic fungicides used for seed treatment include the following: azoxystrobin, carboxin, mefenoxam, metalaxyl, thiabendazole, trifloxystrobin, and various triazole fungicides, including difenoconazole, ipconazole, tebuconazole, and triticonazole. Mefenoxam and metalaxyl are primarily used to target the water mold fungi Pythium and Phytophthora. Biological agents as seed treatments are also available and may provide some level of protectant activity. Not all fungicides are available as seed treatments for every crop, and not all fungicides have activity against the same range of organisms. Refer to the specific crop-pest combinations listed in the text for product-use recommendations. Always read and follow label directions.
Proper Application and Use Precautions
Fungicide seed treatment products vary in formulation type, packaging, and use requirements. Products may be dry or liquid and in concentrate or ready-to-use formulations. While many seed treatments may be applied on-farm, several products are limited to use only by commercial applicators using closed application systems. Caution should be used when handling or working with seed treatment products. Fungicide seed treatments can be highly poisonous and many are irritants, so proper handling precautions must be taken when handling seed treatment chemicals, and producers or applicators must strictly adhere to all label directions regarding safe handling, mixing, storage, and disposal. Using personal protection, including an approved chemical respirator, goggles, and pesticide resistant gloves, is recommended even if not specifically required by the fungicide label. Follow label rates, as over-application may result in unintentional damage to the seed, and under-application may reduce the effectiveness of products. Properly calibrate all application equipment to assure uniform coverage. Uniform coverage of the seed is critical to optimize effectiveness of the seed treatment. Several seed treatment methods are available, though not all are appropriate for every situation. Commercial application or application through dedicated seed treatment equipment will likely provide the most uniform coverage. Grain auger mounted treatment equipment is available, and may provide adequate coverage in an on-farm situation; however, an auger that has been used to treat seed may be unusable for moving grain intended for food or feed. Likewise, treated seed should not be allowed to contaminate equipment used to transport or store food or feed grains. Use caution when considering planter-applied (planter-box) seed treatments. Good disease control depends on uniform fungicide coverage of the seed, and this is more difficult to accomplish in planter-applied situations. Always read and follow label directions. Understand the product-specific guidelines for proper application: how and when to apply, feeding or grazing restrictions, as well as important safety precautions. Always dispose of pesticide containers properly.
Do Not Use Treated Seed for Food or Feed!
The following table has seed treatment fungicides or fungicide/insecticide combinations currently labeled for use in South Dakota. The list is dynamic and prone to frequent modifications. Always check the list of products currently registered with the South Dakota Department of Agriculture for legality of use in the state.
Soybean Seed Treatments
Diseases listed on label
Seed & Fusarium Pythium Rhizoctonia
Seedling
Seed Treatment Products
abamectin + one of the following: See product label
For control of soybean mefenoxam, fludioxonil, and
Avicta Complete Beans 500azoxystrobin 0.153–0.459 fl oz/cwt plus suppression of white 0.20-0.27 fl oz/cwt azoxystrobin + metalaxyl See product label SoyGard L with Protege See product label QST 713 Strain of Bacillus subtilis Bacillus firmus I-1582 + clothianidin See product label For control of soybean nematodes. Do not graze or feed forage and hay to livestock.
Bacillus pumilus GB34 1.5–2.5 fl oz/cwt 1.5-2.5 fl oz/cwt captan + carboxin Do not graze or feed forage or hay from treated areas to livestock.
captan + carboxin + imidacloprid Do not graze or feed livestock on soybean forage or hay.
captan + carboxin + metalaxyl Bean Guard Allegiance Do not graze or feed livestock on forage or hay grown from treated seed.
Kernel Guard Supreme 1.5 oz/50lbs of seed carboxin + metalaxyl + imidacloprid 1.5 oz/37 lbs of seed Do not graze or feed livestock on forage and hay on treated areas for 6 weeks after planting.
carboxin + permethrin Do not graze or feed livestock on treated areas Kernel Guard Supreme for 6 weeks after planting.
South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 53 Soybean Seed Treatments
Diseases listed on label
Seed & Fusarium Pythium Rhizoctonia
Seedling
Seed Treatment Products
carboxin + thiram Do not graze or feed livestock on forage and hay grown on treated Green forage may not be grazed until 30 days after 0.08–0.16 fl oz/cwt 0.08-0.16 fl oz/cwt Dyna-Shield Fludioxonil 0.08-0.16 fl oz/cwt fludioxonil + mefenoxam Additional Apron XL can be added (ApronMaxx 1.5 fl oz/cwt plus RFC, ApronMaxx RTA control of early and Maxim XL) (see label season Phytophthora for instructions). and suppression of 5 fl oz/cwt plus Apron Maxx RTA +Moly control of early season Phytophthora and suppression of 0.167–0.334 fl oz/ cwt plus early season 5 fl oz/cwt plus control of early season Phytophthora and suppression of fludioxonil + mefenoxam + Additional Apron XL can be added (see label for CruiserMaxx Advanced 0.24-0.47 fl oz/cwt and suppression of seed and seedling disease caused by Fusarium spp.
Soybean Seed Treatments
Diseases listed on label
Seed & Fusarium Pythium Rhizoctonia
Seedling
Seed Treatment Products
Rancona V 100 Pro FS 1.5 fl oz/cwt plus control of early season Phytophthora and suppression of 5 fl oz/cwt plus control of early season Phytophthora and suppression of ipconazole + metalaxyl Do not graze or feed livestock on soybean forage or hay (Rancona Xxtra and Rancona Xxtra Rancona Xxtra Pro ipconazole + metalaxyl + Do not graze or feed livestock on soybean forage or hay.
Inovate Seed Protectant 0.16–0.64 fl oz/cwt (Use the higher rate for best early season Phytophthora protection.) 6 oz/1,000 linear ft row (full season control).
1.5-3 oz/1,000 linear ft row (Mid-season control).
0.08-0.28 fl oz/1,000 mefenoxam + fludioxonil + Forage may not be azoxystrobin + thiamethoxam grazed until 30 days after Seed Shield Beans Seed Shield Soybeans mefenoxam + fludioxonil + thiabendazole + thiamethoxam mefenoxam + fludioxonil + Additional Apron XL can be added (see label for Apron Maxx RTA + Moly mefenoxam + fludioxonil + Do not graze forage or sedaxane + thiamethoxam feed livestock on treated areas until 45 days after South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 55 Soybean Seed Treatments
Diseases listed on label
Seed & Fusarium Pythium Rhizoctonia
Seedling
Seed Treatment Products
0.75–1.5 fl oz/cwt plus early season control of 1.5–2.0 oz/cwt plus early season control of 0.75–1.5 fl oz/cwt plus early season control of 0.75-1.5 fl oz/cwt plus early season control of Dyna-Shield Metalaxyl 0.75-1.5 fl oz/cwt plus early season control of Dyna-Shield Metalaxyl 318 FS 0.75–1.5 fl oz/cwt plus early season control of metalaxyl continued Agri-Star Metalaxyl 265 ST 0.75–1.5 fl oz/cwt plus early season control of Agri-Star Metalaxyl 4.0 ST 0.50-1.00 fl oz/cwt plus early season control of 0.75-1.5 fl oz/cwt plus early season control of 0.75-1.5 fl oz/cwt plus early season control of 0.25-0.50 fl oz/cwt plus early season control of Pasteuria nishizawae- PN1 For control of soybean 0.99-33.8 fl zo/cwt Pasteuria nishizawae- PN1 + See product label For control of soybean some of the following: fludioxonil + mefenoxam +thiamethoxam + Clariva Complete Beans Soybean Seed Treatments
Diseases listed on label
Seed & Fusarium Pythium Rhizoctonia
Seedling
Seed Treatment Products
prothioconazole + penflufen + Additional metalaxyl can be added for longer season control EverGol Energy SB of Phythophthora (see Plant treated seed into the soil at a minimum depth of 0.5 inch. Do not graze or feed soybean forage and hay to 0.4-1.5 fl oz/cwt 0.075-0.16 fl oz/cwt 0.08-0.16 fl oz/cwt for control of pod and stem Agri-Star Thiabendazole 4L ST 0.08-0.16 fl oz/cwt for control of pod and stem Do not graze forage or feed livestock on treated 0.14-0.28 fl oz/cwt areas until 45 days after Do not forage or feed livestock on treated areas until 60 days after Thiram Granuflo Ag fungicide thiram + metalaxyl + molybdenum thiram + molybdenum Do not plant any other crop without trifloxystrobin tolerances until 30 days after South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 57 Managing Crop Diseases with Fungicides
Several fungal pathogens infect soybeans and cause yield losses in South Dakota. Common fungal diseases found on soybeans include septoria/brown spot, frogeye leaf spot, downy mildew, powdery mildew, and cercospora leaf spot. Although the severity of these diseases varies from year to year, application of foliar fungicides can provide effective control in years of high disease pressure. Soybeans in the early reproductive stages can also be infected by several root and stem rot pathogens that may not be managed effectively with foliar fungicides. These diseases include sudden death syndrome, brown stem rot, charcoal rot, stem canker, and to some extent, white mold. Part of the reason why foliar fungicides may not be as effective on these diseases is due to fact that infection takes place through the roots or through the stem in the middle canopy, and fungicide coverage in these areas is poor.
The driving factor for fungicide application in soybeans should be the level of fungal diseases developing. Some diseases such as brown spot can be found on lower leaves without causing significant yield loss. Scouting for fungal diseases before applying a fungicide could save a producer from unnecessary expense. Other factors to consider when deciding on a foliar fungicide treatment include the following: • Susceptibility of the cultivar. Cross-check with the seed dealer to know rating of the cultivar grown for diseases • Field history of foliar diseases- although fungal pathogens can be blown in from a distance, the main source of inoculum is soybean residue.
• Soybeans following soybeans and/or no till/minimum till field. These tend to have high fungal pathogen inocula.
• Potential yield –if yield is predicted to be low (moisture stress, poor fertility), chances of responding to fungicide treatment will be low. • Grain price. When prices are good, it takes a few bushels to pay for the cost of applying a fungicide (Table 1).
Table 1. The amount of soybean bushels needed to break even for the cost of fungicide and its application. As the price per bushel increases, fewer bushels are needed to break even.
Application cost ($)
soybeans ($)
Although some health benefits as a result of applying strobilurins have been reported, for instance keeping plants green longer, these benefits may not result into increased yield that is significantly different from untreated plots in the absence of fungal pathogens. Therefore to avoid problems associated with unnecessary application of fungicides (such as resistance development, added expenses), growers should always scout to determine the need for a fungicide application. It should be noted that fungicide application alone is not the most effective fungal disease management strategy. Almost all soybean fungal pathogens are residue-borne. Therefore a combination/integration of several management practices including, crop rotation, residue management, planting clean seed, and cultivar selection, is effective in limiting these disease from developing and hence reducing the chances for the need of fungicides.
Fungicide resistance
Fungicide resistance is when a fungicide that used to control a given fungal pathogen no longer offers any protection against the same fungus. Fungicide resistance may arise because of several factors including: • Using the same class of a fungicide more than once in a season or every season.
• High variability within the pathogen.
• High reproduction capacity of the pathogen such as rusts.
• Using low fungicide rates or off-label products.
Strobulin fungicides tend to have a higher risk for resistance development while triazoles have a lower risk. Fungicides with multi modes of actions like carbamate and organochlorine based fungicides have very low chances of resistance development. To avoid fungicide resistance developing, growers should monitor the performance of fungicides used. One way to do this is to leave a strip of untreated area and use this to compare with the treated area. If the two areas have comparable disease severity, this would mean that the fungicide did not work as it was supposed to and one of the reasons could be fungicide resistance. Leaving untreated strip can also indicate whether applying fungicide was beneficial when the yield from equivalent treated area is the same. Some ways to reduce chances of fungicide resistance from developing are: • Rotate between different classes of fungicide within a season and also between seasons.
• Scout to determine the need for fungicide and avoid applying fungicide when it is not necessary or when it is too • Use a mixture of fungicide classes. Luckily, several fungicide products are marketed as combos.
• Use strobilurins only as preventatives.
• Practice integrated disease management to reduce the disease pressure.
• Always follow the label directions to determine the rates, growth stage of the crop, compatibility with other pesticides, and safety handling information.
Once a fungicide is discerned to be necessary, growers should ensure that the sprayer is calibrated to deliver the recommended rates (as per the fungicide label), and that the weather conditions are not too windy (>10 mph) or too hot and at least two hours of rain/dew free period.
A number of fungicide products are available on the market that are effective against fungal pathogens on soybeans. However, some are more effective against certain pathogens than others. Also most of the fungicides available are preventive in nature, that is, they stop the fungus from infecting or advancing within the plant. Therefore timing of a fungicide treatment is crucial to obtain maximum benefit. If fungicides are applied when the severity is already high, the benefit will be limited. The best fungicide timing in soybean is between beginning flowering and beginning seed development. This period also coincides when several fungal diseases increase in severity. The table following has a list of fungicides labeled for use in South Dakota at the time of this publication. The list is dynamic and prone to frequent changes. It therefore should not be considered as a substitute for label information. Always read and follow label directions for approved uses of these products, and check with the South Dakota Department of Agriculture for up-to-date product registration information.
South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 59 Soybean Foliar Fungicides
Dosage & Interval
Brown Spot
Do not apply within 14 days Use only in an integrated Apply prior to disease disease management Pod and stem blight
Do not apply more than approach with resistant two sequential applica- hybrids, proper fertility, Use the high rates under residue management and conditions favorable for tions of Quadris, Aframe, crop rotation.
severe disease pressure or Azoxy 2SC, Satori without dense plant canopies.
alternating with another Quadris, Aframe, Azzoxy 2SC, Satori may be applied Do not apply more than by ground, air or through 92.3 fl oz of product/A per An adjuvant may be added at recommended rates.
azoxystrobin + cyprocon- 5.0–6.8 fl oz/A
Do not apply within 30 days Quadris Xtra may be Apply prior to disease applied by ground, air or Do not apply more than two through chemigation. An adjuvant may be added at Use the high rates under strobilurin applications per recommended rates.
conditions favorable for severe disease pressure Do not apply more than Do not use soybean forage or dense plant canopies or 13.6 fl oz of product/A per or hay as livestock feed when disease is present.
if more than one applica- tion at 6.8 fl oz/A has been azoxystrobin + difenco-
Do not apply within 14 days Quadris Top may be ap- Apply prior to disease plied by ground, air or Do not apply more than Repeat applications on a two sequential applications Apply a minimum of 2 7-10 day interval if condi- of Quadris Top without gal/A by air or 10 gal/A by tions are favorable.
alternating with another Use the higher rate and Do not feed soybean hay, shorter intervals when dis- Do not apply more than forage or silage.
ease pressure is high.
26.5 fl oz of product/A per azoxystrobin + propicon-
Do not apply within 21 Apply by ground, air or days of harvest for seed and 0 days for forage and hay(Quilt, Avaris). Quilt Do not apply more than Xcel can be applied up to 42 fl oz of product/A per R6 (full seed).
Apply at R3 (early pod set when pods are 1/8–1/4 inch long) and 14–21 days later at R5 (pod fill).
azoxystrobin + tebucon-
Do not apply within 21 days Apply a minimum of 5 Apply prior to disease gal/A by air or 10 gal/A by Do not apply more than Repeat applications on 25.9 fl oz/A per crop.
Apply Custodia with the a 10-14 day interval if lowest labeled rate of a conditions are favorable spray surfactant.
for disease. Use a shorter interval is disease pressure Bacillus pumilus QST
Apply by ground, air or Apply when conditions are favorable for disease development.
Repeat applications on a 7–14 day interval if condi- tions are favorable.
Use higher rates and shorter intervals when dis- ease pressure is high.
Soybean Foliar Fungicides
Dosage & Interval
Brown Spot
5.5 oz/A (Brown Spot sup- Do not apply within 21 days Do not apply more than two applications per season.
Pod and stem blight
Apply prior to disease Do not apply more than 22 development or when oz of product/A per season.
conditions are favorable for disease development.
Repeat applications on a 7–14 day interval if condi- tions are favorable.
Use shorter intervals when disease pressure is high.
Do not apply within 6 Use sufficient water to weeks (Bravo Ultrex, Bravo obtain adequate coverage, Weather Stik, Chloronil 5–10 gal/A for concentrated Bravo Weather Stik 1.5–2.25 pints/A 720, Equus 500 ZN, Equus ground and aerial applica- 720 SST, Equus DF, Initiate tion.
720 Flowable, Initiate Zn) 1.5–2.25 pints/A or 42 days (Echo 720, Echo Do not feed soybean hay or threshings from treated 90DF, Echo Zn) of harvest. fields to livestock.
Do not apply more than 5.4 lbs (Bravo Ultrex, Equus 2.25-3.25 pints/A DF), 4.5 lbs a.i. (Echo 720, 1.5–2.25 pints/A Echo 90DF, Echo Zn), 8.5 pints (Equus 500 Zn, Initiate Zn), 6 pints (Bravo Initiate 720 Flowable Weather Stik, Chloronil 720, Equus 720 SST, Initi- 2.25-3.25 pints/A ate 720 Flowable) of prod- Make the first application uct per acre per season.
when the largest pods are 1–1 1/4 inches in length.
Make the second applica- tion 14 days later.
chlorothalonil + tebuco-
Do not apply more than Do not feed soybean hay For complete control, add 3.2 pints of product/A per or threshings from treated Echo 720 in tank mix with fields to livestock.
Muscle ADV.
Make the first application from late vegetative (L5) to early flowering (R1) growth stage.
Make a second application from early pod set (R3) to seed formation (R5).
A third application can be made at a 14 day interval in areas having a history of moderate to severe disease 4.0–5.5 fl oz/A Do not apply within 30 days Alto may be applied by Apply prior to disease ground, air or through Do not apply more than 11 chemigation.
Use the high rates under fl oz/A per season.
A spreading/penetrator type conditions favorable for adjuvant is recommended severe disease pressure or for enhanced coverage and dense plant canopies.
efficacy.
Do not use soybean forage or hay as livestock feed if more than one applica- tion at 5.5 fl oz/A has been South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 61 Soybean Foliar Fungicides
Dosage & Interval
Brown Spot
Do not apply more than 2 Do not apply more than Apply prior to disease 11.4 fl oz/A per season.
Pod and stem blight
development and repeat Do not apply within 3 days Evito 480SC, Aftershock on a 14-21 day interval if of forage harvest or 30 may be applied by ground, conditions are favorable.
days of seed harvest.
air or chemigation.
Do not apply after the R5 growth stage.
fluoxastrobin + flutriafol
Do not apply more than 2 Apply a minimum of 5 gal/A Apply prior to disease by air or 10 gal/A ground.
development and repeat Do not apply within 21 days Do not apply more than 12 on a 14-21 day interval if of forage harvest or 30 fl oz/A per season.
conditions are favorable.
days of seed harvest.
Do not graze or feed Do not apply after the R5 soybean forage or hay to growth stage.
fluoxastrobin + tebuco-
For optimum disease con- Do not apply more than 12 Apply prior to disease trol, apply at the R3 growth fl oz/A per season.
development and repeat Evito T may be applied by on a 14-21 day interval if Do not apply more than 2 ground, air or chemigation.
conditions are favorable.
Apply a minimum of 3 gal/A Do not apply after the R5 by air or 10 gal/A ground.
growth stage.
Do not apply within 21 days of forage harvest or 30 days of seed harvest.
Do not apply within 21 days Apply a minimum of 5 gal/A Apply at first visible flower of harvest.
by air or 10 gal/A ground.
or when conditions are Do not apply more than 3 Do not graze or feed favorable for disease.
applications per season.
soybean forage or hay to Repeat at a 14-35 day Do not apply more than 28 livestock.
interval if conditions are fl oz/A per season.
favorable for heavy disease fluxapyroxad + pyraclos- 4-8 fl oz/A
Do not apply within 21 days Adjuvants may be use with Apply before diseases Do not apply more than Do not make more than 2 If conditions favorable for two applications of Priaxor applications per year.
disease persist, reapply without alternating with a Soybean forage may be every 7-14 days.
fungicide that has a differ- ent mode of action for at fed no sooner than 14 days Use the higher rate and least one application.
after the last application.
shorter intervals when dis- Soybean hay may be fed ease pressure is high.
Do not apply more than 16 fl oz/A/season.
no sooner than 21 days after the last treatment.
Do not apply within 14 days Apply a minimum of 2 gal/A Begin applications prior to of harvest.
by air or 15 gal/A ground.
disease development and Do not apply more than two Do not use soybean forage continue on a 7-14 day sequential applications of or hay for livestock feed.
Vertisan without alternat- Use the higher rate and ing with another fungicide shorter intervals when dis- ease pressure is high.
Do not apply more than 61 fl oz/A/season.
Do not apply within 14 days Aproach may be applied by Begin applications prior to of harvest for grain, forage ground, air or chemigation.
disease development and Do not apply more than two continue on a 7-14 day Do not apply more than 12 sequential applications of fl oz/A/season if grown for Aproach without alternat- Use the higher rate and forage and hay.
ing with another fungicide shorter intervals when dis- Do not apply more than 36 chemistry.
ease pressure is high.
fl oz/A/season if grown for Soybean Foliar Fungicides
Dosage & Interval
Brown Spot
picoxystrobin + cypro-
5-6.8 fl oz/A Begin ap- Do not apply within 14 days Aproach Prima may be plications prior to disease of harvest for forage and applied by ground, air or Pod and stem blight
development and continue hay or within 30 days of on a 14-28 day interval.
harvest for grain.
Do not apply more than Use the higher rate and Do not apply more than 6.8 two sequential applications shorter intervals when dis- fl oz/A/season if grown for of Aproach Prima without ease pressure is high.
forage and hay.
alternating with another Do not apply more than 13.6 fl oz/A/season.
Apply up to growth stage Apply a minimum of 2 gal/A Apply at growth stage R3 R6 (full seed).
by air or 10 gal/A ground (Tilt, AmTide Propicon- AmTide Propiconazole (early pod set when pods Do not apply more than 12 are 1/8–1/4 inch long) and fl oz/A per season.
azole, Bumper 41.8 EC, 14–21 days later at growth Bumper ES, Fitness, Propi- con 3.6EC, Propicure 3.6F, stage R5 (pod fill).
Propi-Star EC, Topaz, Vigil) and a minimum of 5 gal/A by air or 15 gal/A ground (Shar-Shield PPZ).
Propicure 3.6F
Propi-Star EC
Shar-Shield PPZ
Topaz
Vigil
propiconazole + trifloxys- 10 fl oz/A
Do not apply within 21 days Stratego may be applied by Apply at early flowering or of harvest.
ground, air or chemigation.
prior to disease develop- Do not apply more than 3 Do not apply more than 2 ment whichever is earlier.
applications per season.
sequential applications of Repeat applications on a Do not apply more than 30 Stratego without alternating 10–21 day interval if condi- fl oz/A per season.
with a fungicide that has a tions are favorable.
different mode of action for at least one application.
Use shorter spray intervals when disease pressure is An adjuvant may be added at the lowest recommended rate to enhance disease 2.5–3.0 fl oz/A Do not apply within 21 days Proline may be applied by Apply as a preventative ground, air or chemigation.
spray or at the first signs of Do not apply more than 3 Apply a minimum of 5 applications per season.
gal/A by air or 10 gal/A by Repeat applications on a Do not apply more than 10–21 day interval if condi- 12.9 fl oz/A per season.
tions are favorable.
Use higher rates and short- er intervals when disease pressure is severe.
prothioconazole + tri-
Do not apply within 21 days Stratego YLD may be Apply at early flowering or of harvest.
applied by ground, air or prior to disease develop- Do not apply more than 3 ment, whichever is earlier.
applications per season.
Apply a minimum of 2 Repeat applications on a Do not apply more than gal/A by air or 10 gal/A by 10-21 day interval, if condi- 13.95 fl oz/A/season.
tions are favorable.
Do not apply more than Do not graze or feed soy- Use higher rates and short- 2 sequential applications bean forage or hay.
er intervals when disease of Stratego YLD without pressure is severe.
alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action for at least one South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 63 Soybean Foliar Fungicides
Dosage & Interval
Brown Spot
Do not apply within 21 Adjuvants may be used Apply before diseases days of harvest. Do not with Headline and Headline Pod and stem blight
apply more than 24 fl oz/A/ SC.
If conditions favorable for Soybean forage may be disease persist, reapply Do not apply more than 2 fed no sooner than 14 days every 7–14 days.
sequential applications of after the last application.
Headline, Headline SC.
Use the higher rate and Soybean hay may be fed shorter intervals when dis- Do not apply more than two no sooner than 21 days ease pressure is high.
applications of Headline, after the last application.
Headline SC without alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action for at least one 4–5 fl oz/A (Brown Spot) Do not apply after growth Use as a part of an inte- Apply at growth stage R3 stage R5 (beginning seed). grated disease manage- (early pod stage) or when Do not make more than 2 ment approach with resis- conditions are favorable for applications per season.
tant hybrids, proper fertility, residue management and Do not apply more than 10 crop rotation.
Repeat applications on a fl oz/A per season.
15–21 day interval if dis- Domark may be applied by ease pressure is severe.
Do not graze or feed ground, air or chemigation.
soybean forage or hay to Use the higher rate and Use sufficient water to shorter intervals when dis- obtain adequate cover- ease pressure is high.
age, a minimum of 2 gal/A for aerial and 10 gal/A for ground application.
tetraconazole + azoxys-
Do not apply after growth Use as a part of an inte- Apply at growth stage R3 stage R5 (beginning seed). grated disease manage- (early pod stage) or when Do not make more than 3 ment approach with resis- conditions are favorable for applications per season.
tant hybrids, proper fertility, residue management and Do not apply more than crop rotation.
Repeat applications on a 28.7 fl oz/A per season.
15–21 day interval if dis- Affiance may be applied by ease pressure is severe.
Do not apply within 14 days ground, air or chemigation.
Use the higher rate and Apply a minimum of 2 gal/A shorter intervals when dis- Do not graze or feed by air and 10 gal/A by ease pressure is high.
soybean forage or hay to PHI- 21 days (Incog- Apply a minimum of 5 gal/A nito 4.5F, Incognito 85 by air (Incognito 4.5F, Top- WDG,Topsin 4.5FL, Topsin sin 4.5FL, Topsin M WSB) M 70WP, Topsin M WSB, Apply a minimum of 20 Thiophanate Methyl 85 gal/A by ground ( Incognito 4.5F, Topsin 4.5 Fl, Topsin Do not apply more than 40 M 70WP, Topsin M WSB).
fl oz (Incognito 4.5F, Topsin Thiophanate Methyl 85 4.5FL), 2 lbs ( Topsin M 70WP, Topsin M WSB) of Apply from full bloom to when pods are 1/8–1/4 inch in length. Make a second Do not make more than 2 application 14–21 days applications per year (In- cognito 4.5F, Incognito 85 WDG, Thiophanate Methyl Do not make the second application after pods have reached 1/4 in length or Do not graze or feed when beans form in the treated vines or hay to Use the high rate under severe disease pressure.
Soybean Foliar Fungicides
Dosage & Interval
Brown Spot
thiophanate-methyl +
Apply up to the R6 growth Domark may be applied by Apply at R3 (early pod) ground, air or chemigation.
Pod and stem blight
growth stage and make a Do not graze or feed second application 14-21 treated vines or hay to days later at R5 (pod fill).
thiophanate-methyl +
Do not apply later than 14 Apply as a preventative days after pods average a spray or at first visible signs 1/4 inch in length.
Do not apply within 21 days Repeat applications on a 14 day interval if conditions Do not graze or feed are favorable.
treated vines or hay to Powdery Mildew
azoxystrobin + difenco-
8-14 fl oz/A Apply prior to Do not apply within 14 days Use sufficient water to obtain adequate coverage, Repeat applications on a Do not apply more than 7-10 day interval if condi- two sequential applications tions are favorable.
of Quadris Top without Use the higher rate and alternating with another shorter intervals when dis- ease pressure is high.
Do not apply more than 26.5 fl oz of product/A per azoxystrobin + tebucon-
Do not apply within 21 days Apply a minimum of 5 Apply prior to disease gal/A by air or 10 gal/A by Do not apply more than Repeat applications on 25.9 fl oz/A per crop.
Apply Custodia with the a 10-14 day interval if lowest labeled rate of a conditions are favorable for spray surfactant.
disease.
Use a shorter interval is disease pressure is high.
fluoxastrobin + flutriafol
Do not apply more than 2 2 gal/A for aerial and 10 Apply prior to disease gal/A for ground applica- development and repeat Do not apply within 21 days tion.
on a 14-21 day interval if of forage harvest or 30 conditions are favorable.
days of seed harvest.
Do not apply after the R5 growth stage.
7-14 fl oz/A Apply at first Do not apply within 21 days Apply a minimum of 5 gal/A visible flower or when by air or 10 gal/A ground.
conditions are favorable for Do not apply more than 3 Do not graze or feed applications per season.
soybean forage or hay to Repeat at a 14-35 day interval if conditions are Do not apply more than 28 favorable for heavy disease fl oz/A per season.
Do not apply within 14 days Aproach may be applied by Begin applications prior to of harvest for grain, forage ground, air or chemigation.
disease development and Do not apply more than two continue on a 7-14 day Do not apply more than 12 sequential applications of fl oz/A/season if grown for Aproach without alternat- Use the higher rate and forage and hay.
ing with another fungicide shorter intervals when dis- Do not apply more than 36 chemistry.
ease pressure is high.
fl oz/A/season if grown for South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 65 Soybean Foliar Fungicides
Dosage & Interval
Powdery Mildew
picoxystrobin + cypro-
Do not apply within 14 days Aproach Prima may be Begin applications prior to of harvest for forage and applied by ground, air or disease development and hay or within 30 days of continue on a 14-28 day harvest for grain.
Do not apply more than Do not apply more than 6.8 two sequential applications Use the higher rate and fl oz/A/season if grown for of Aproach Prima without shorter intervals when dis- forage and hay.
alternating with another ease pressure is high.
Do not apply more than 13.6 fl oz/A/season.
propiconazole + trifloxys- 10 fl oz/A
Do not apply within 21 days Stratego may be applied by Apply at early flowering or of harvest.
ground, air or chemigation.
prior to disease develop- Do not apply more than 3 Do not apply more than 2 ment whichever is earlier.
applications per season.
sequential applications of Repeat applications on a Do not apply more than 30 Stratego without alternating 10–21 day interval if condi- fl oz/A per season.
with a fungicide that has a tions are favorable.
different mode of action for at least one application.
Use shorter spray intervals when disease pressure is An adjuvant may be added at the lowest recommended rate to enhance disease 2.5–3.0 fl oz/A Do not apply within 21 days Proline may be applied by Apply as a preventative ground, air or chemigation.
spray or at the first signs of Do not apply more than 3 Apply a minimum of 5 applications per season.
gal/A by air or 10 gal/A by Repeat applications on a Do not apply more than 10–21 day interval if condi- 12.9 fl oz/A per season.
tions are favorable.
Use higher rates and short- er intervals when disease pressure is severe.
prothioconazole + tri-
Do not apply within 21 days Stratego YLD may be Apply at early flowering or of harvest.
applied by ground, air or prior to disease develop- Do not apply more than 3 ment, whichever is earlier.
applications per season.
Apply a minimum of 2 gal/A Repeat applications on a Do not apply more than by air or 10 gal/A ground.
10-21 day interval, if condi- 13.95 fl oz/A/season.
Do not graze or feed soy- tions are favorable.
Do not apply more than bean forage or hay.
Use higher rates and short- 2 sequential applications er intervals when disease of Stratego YLD without pressure is severe.
alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action for at least one Soybean Foliar Fungicides
Dosage & Interval
Powdery Mildew
Do not apply within 21 days Apply a minimum of 5 Apply as a preventive spray of harvest.
gal/A by air or 10 gal/A by or at first visible signs of Do not apply more than 3 applications per season.
The lowest label recom- Repeat applications on a Do not apply more than 12 mended rate of surfactant 10–14 day interval if condi- fl oz/A per season.
must be added.
Solera Tebuconazole 3.6F tions are favorable.
Use the higher rate and shorter intervals when dis- ease pressure is high.
Tebu-Crop 3.6F
Tebucure 3.6
Tebusha 3.6FL
TebuStar 3.6L
Tebuzol 3.6F
Toledo 3.6F
Vibe
tebuconazole + lambda
Do not apply within 30 days Apply a minimum of 5 Apply as a preventive spray of harvest. Do not apply gal/A by air or 10 gal/A by or at first visible signs of more than 3 applications Do not graze or harvest Repeat applications on a Do not apply more than 17 treated soybean forage, 10–14 day interval if condi- fl oz/A per season.
straw or hay.
tions are favorable.
Use the higher rate and shorter intervals when dis- ease pressure is high.
tebuconazole + potas-
Do not apply within 21 days Apply a minimum of 5 Apply when disease is gal/A by air or 10 gal/A by Do not apply more than 4.3 ground.
Repeat applications on a pints/A per season.
Do not feed soybean forage 10-14 day interval.
or hay to livestock.
Do not apply after growth Use as a part of an inte- Apply at growth stage R3 stage R5 (beginning seed). grated disease manage- (early pod stage) or when Do not make more than 2 ment approach with resis- conditions are favorable for applications per season.
tant hybrids, proper fertility, residue management and Do not apply more than 10 crop rotation.
Repeat applications on a fl oz/A per season.
15–21 day interval if dis- Domark may be applied by ease pressure is severe.
Do not graze or feed ground, air or chemigation.
soybean forage or hay to Use the higher rate and Use sufficient water to shorter intervals when dis- obtain adequate cover- ease pressure is high.
age, a minimum of 2 gal/A for aerial and 10 gal/A for ground application.
tetraconazole + azoxys-
Do not apply after growth Use as a part of an inte- Apply at growth stage R3 stage R5 (beginning seed). grated disease manage- (early pod stage) or when Do not make more than 3 ment approach with resis- conditions are favorable for applications per season.
tant hybrids, proper fertility, residue management and Do not apply more than crop rotation.
Repeat applications on a 28.7 fl oz/A per season.
15–21 day interval if dis- Affiance may be applied by ease pressure is severe.
Do not apply within 14 days ground, air or chemigation.
Use the higher rate and Apply a minimum of 2 gal/A shorter intervals when dis- Do not graze or feed by air and 10 gal/A by ease pressure is high.
soybean forage or hay to South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 67 Soybean Foliar Fungicides
Dosage & Interval
Powdery Mildew
thiophanate-methyl +
Apply up tp the R6 growth Apply a minimum of 2 Apply at R3 (early pod) gal/A by air or 10 gal/A by growth stage and make a Do not graze or feed second application 14-21 treated vines or hay to Do not apply more than days later at R5 (pod fill).
4 pints fo product/A per thiophanate-methyl +
Do not apply later than 14 Apply a minimum of 5 Apply as a preventative days after pods average a gal/A by air or 20 gal/A by spray or at first visible signs 1/4 inch in length.
Do not apply within 21 days Repeat applications on a 14 day interval if conditions Do not graze or feed are favorable.
treated vines or hay to Do not apply within 14 days Use only in an integrated (Phakopsora spp.) Apply prior to disease disease management approach with resistant Do not apply more than two sequential applica- hybrids, proper fertility, Use the high rates under residue management and conditions favorable for tions of Quadris, Aframe, crop rotation.
severe disease pressure or Azoxy 2SC, Satori without dense plant canopies.
alternating with another Quadris, Aframe, Azoxy 2SC, Satori may be applied Do not apply more than by ground, air or through 92.3 fl oz of product/A per chemigation. An adjuvant may be added at recom- mended rates.
azoxystrobin + cyprocon- 4.0–6.8 fl oz/A
Do not apply within 30 days Quadris Xtra may be Apply at R1 (beginning applied by ground, air or flowering) up to the R6 Do not apply more than two through chemigation. Ad- (seed development) stage strobilurin applications per dition of an additive with but could be applied earlier season.
spreading and penetrating if conditions warrant.
qualities will enhance cov- Do not apply more than erage and efficacy. Do not Repeat at a 14–28 day 13.6 fl oz of product/A per use soybean forage or hay interval if conditions persist season.
as livestock feed if more for rust development.
than one application at 6.8 fl oz/A has been applied.
azoxystrobin + difenco-
Do not apply within 14 days Quadris Top may be ap- Apply prior to disease plied by ground, air or Do not apply more than Repeat applications on a two sequential applications Apply a minimum of 2 7-10 day interval if condi- of Quadris Top without gal/A by air or 10 gal/A by tions are favorable.
alternating with another Use the higher rate and Do not feed soybean hay, shorter intervals when dis- Do not apply more than forage or silage.
ease pressure is high.
26.5 fl oz of product/A per azoxystrobin + propicon-
Do not apply within 21 days Apply by ground, air or of harvest for seed and 0 14–20.5 fl oz/A days for forage and hay (Quilt, Avaris).
Quilt Xcel can be applied up to R6 (full seed).
Apply at first sign of dis- Do not apply more than ease in the area.
42 fl oz of product/A per Repeat at a 14–21 day interval.
Use higher rate and shorter interval when disease is present in the field and incidence is less than 2%.
Soybean Foliar Fungicides
Dosage & Interval
azoxystrobin + tebucon-
Do not apply within 21 days Apply a minimum of 5 (Phakopsora spp.) Apply prior to disease gal/A by air or 10 gal/A by Do not apply more than Repeat applications on 25.9 fl oz/A per crop.
Apply Custodia with the a 10-14 day interval if lowest labeled rate of a conditions are favorable for spray surfactant.
disease.
Use a shorter interval is disease pressure is high.
Bacillus pumilus QST
Use as a part of program Apply by ground, air or Apply when conditions with other fungicides that are favorable for disease are labeled for Asian Soy- Repeat applications on a 7–14 day interval if condi- tions are favorable.
Use higher rates and shorter intervals when dis- ease pressure is high.
Do not apply within 6 Use sufficient water to weeks (Bravo Ultrex, Bravo obtain adequate coverage, Weather Stik, Chloronil 5–10 gal/A for concentrated Bravo Weather Stik 1.5–2.25 pints/A 720, Equus 500 Zn, Equus ground and aerial applica- 720 SST, Equus DF, Initiate tion.
720 Flowable, Initiate Zn) 1.5–2.25 pints/A or 42 days (Echo 720, Echo Do not feed soybean hay or threshings from treated 90DF, Echo Zn) of harvest. fields to livestock.
Do not apply more than 5.4 lbs (Bravo Ultrex, Equus 2.25-3.25 pints/A DF), 4.5 lbs a.i. (Echo 720, 1.5–2.25 pints/A Echo 90DF, Echo Zn), 8.5 pints (Equus 500 Zn, Initiate Zn), 6 pints (Bravo Initiate 720 Flowable Weather Stik, Chloronil 720, Equus 720 SST, Initi- 2.25-3.25 pints/A ate 720 Flowable) of prod- Make the first application uct per acre per season.
when the largest pods are 1–1 1/4 inches in length.
Make the second applica- tion 14 days later.
chlorothalonil + tebuco-
Do not apply more than Apply a minimum of 5 Apply at first sign of dis- 3.2 pints of product/A per gal/A by air or 10 gal/A by ease in the area.
Repeat at a 14–21 day Do not feed soybean hay interval if conditions are or threshings from treated fields to livestock.
2.75–5.5 fl oz/A Do not apply within 30 days Alto may be applied by Apply at R1 (beginning ground, air or through flowering) up to the R6 Do not apply more than 11 chemigation.
(seed development) stage fl oz/A per season.
A spreading/penetrator type but could be applied earlier adjuvant is recommended if conditions warrant.
for enhanced coverage and Use the 2.75 fl oz/A when disease is present in the Do not use soybean forage vegetative state.
or hay as livestock feed Repeat at a 14–28 day if more than one applica- interval if conditions persist tion at 5.5 fl oz/A has been for rust development.
South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 69 Soybean Foliar Fungicides
Dosage & Interval
Do not apply more than 2 Do not apply more than (Phakopsora spp.) Apply prior to disease 11.4 fl oz/A per season.
development and repeat Do not apply within 3 days Evito 480SC, Aftershock on a 14-21 day interval if of forage harvest or 30 may be applied by ground, conditions are favorable.
days of seed harvest.
air or chemigation.
Do not apply after the R5 Evito 480SC, Aftershock growth stage.
may be used with a regis- tered triazole fungicide to increase efficacy.
fluoxastrobin + flutriafol
Do not apply more than 2 Apply a minimum of 5 gal/A Apply prior to disease by air or 10 gal/A ground.
development and repeat Do not apply within 21 days Do not apply more than 12 on a 14-21 day interval if of forage harvest or 30 fl oz/A per season.
conditions are favorable.
days of seed harvest.
Do not graze or feed Do not apply after the R5 soybean forage or hay to growth stage.
fluoxastrobin + tebuco-
For optimum disease con- Do not apply more than 12 Apply prior to disease trol, apply at the R3 growth fl oz/A per season.
development and repeat Evito T may be applied by on a 14-21 day interval if Do not apply more than 2 ground, air or chemigation.
conditions are favorable.
Apply a minimum of 3 gal/A Do not apply after the R5 by air or 10 gal/A ground.
growth stage.
Do not apply within 21 days of forage harvest or 30 days of seed harvest.
Do not apply within 21 days Apply a minimum of 5 gal/A Apply at first visible flower of harvest.
by air or 10 gal/A ground.
or when conditions are Do not apply more than 3 Do not graze or feed favorable for disease.
applications per season.
soybean forage or hay to Repeat at a 21-35 day Do not apply more than 28 livestock.
interval if conditions are fl oz/A per season.
favorable for heavy disease fluxapyroxad + pyraclos- 4-8 fl oz/A
Do not apply within 21 days Adjuvants may be use with Apply before diseases Do not apply more than Do not make more than 2 If conditions favorable for two applications of Priaxor applications per year.
disease persist, reapply without alternating with a Soybean forage may be every 7-14 days.
fungicide that has a differ- ent mode of action for at fed no sooner than 14 days Use the higher rate and least one application.
after the last application.
shorter intervals when dis- Soybean hay may be fed ease pressure is high.
Do not apply more than 16 fl oz/A/season.
no sooner than 21 days after the last treatment.
Do not apply within 28 days Do not make more than Apply prior to or at first sign of harvest.
two applications per year. of disease and make repeat Do not apply more than 10 Apply a minimum of 5 gal/A applications at a 10–14 day oz/A per acre per season.
Use sufficient water to Use the higher rate when obtain adequate coverage disease is established.
for ground application.
Do not apply within 14 days Apply a minimum of 2 gal/A Begin applications prior to of harvest.
by air or 15 gal/A ground.
disease development and Do not apply more than two Do not use soybean forage continue on a 7-14 day sequential applications of or hay for livestock feed.
Vertisan without alternat- Use the higher rate and ing with another fungicide shorter intervals when dis- ease pressure is high.
Do not apply more than 61 fl oz/A/season.
Soybean Foliar Fungicides
Dosage & Interval
Do not apply within 14 days Aproach may be applied by (Phakopsora spp.) Begin applications prior to of harvest for grain, forage ground, air or chemigation.
disease development and Do not apply more than two continue on a 7-14 day Do not apply more than 12 sequential applications of fl oz/A/season if grown for Aproach without alternat- Use the higher rate and forage and hay.
ing with another fungicide shorter intervals when dis- Do not apply more than 36 chemistry.
ease pressure is high.
fl oz/A/season if grown for picoxystrobin + cypro-
Do not apply within 14 days Aproach Prima may be Begin applications prior to of harvest for forage and applied by ground, air or disease development and hay or within 30 days of continue on a 14-28 day harvest for grain. Do not Do not apply more than apply more than 6.8 fl oz/A/ season if grown for forage two sequential applications Use the higher rate and and hay. Do not apply of Aproach Prima without shorter intervals when dis- more than 13.6 fl oz/A/ alternating with another ease pressure is high.
Apply up to growth stage Apply a minimum of 2 gal/A Apply at first sign of dis- R6 (full seed).
by air or 10 gal/A ground (Tilt, AmTide Propicon- AmTide Propiconazole ease in the area.
Do not apply more than 12 fl oz/A per season.
azole, Bumper 41.8 EC, Repeat at a 14-21 day Bumper ES, Fitness, Propi- con 3.6EC, Propicure 3.6F, Use higher rate and shorter Propi-Star EC, Topaz, Vigil) interval when disease is and a minimum of 5 gal/A by air or 15 gal/A ground present in the field and incidence is less than 2%.
(Shar-Shield PPZ).
Propicure 3.6F
Propi-Star EC
Shar-Shield PPZ
Topaz
Vigil
propiconazole + trifloxys- 10 fl oz/A
Do not apply within 21 days Stratego may be applied by Apply at early flowering or of harvest.
ground, air or chemigation.
prior to disease develop- Do not apply more than 3 Do not apply more than 2 ment whichever is earlier.
applications per season.
sequential applications of Repeat applications on a Do not apply more than 30 Stratego without alternating 10–21 day interval if condi- fl oz/A per season.
with a fungicide that has a tions are favorable.
different mode of action for at least one application.
Use higher rates and shorter spray intervals An adjuvant may be added when disease pressure is at the lowest recommended rate to enhance disease 2.5–3.0 fl oz/A Apply as a Do not apply within 21 days Proline may be applied by preventative spray or at the of harvest.
ground, air or chemigation.
first signs of disease.
Do not apply more than 3 Apply a minimum of 2 Repeat applications on a applications per season.
gal/A by air or 10 gal/A by 10–21 day interval if condi- tions are favorable.
Do not apply more than 12.9 fl oz/A per season.
Use higher rates and short- er intervals when disease pressure is severe.
South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 71 Soybean Foliar Fungicides
Dosage & Interval
prothioconazole + tri-
4-4.65 fl oz/A Apply at Do not apply within 21 days Stratego YLD may be (Phakopsora spp.) early flowering or prior of harvest. Do not apply applied by ground, air or to disease development, more than 3 applications chemigation. Apply a mini- whichever is earlier. Re- per season. Do not apply mum of 2 gal/A by air or 10 peat applications on a 10- more than 13.95 fl oz/A/ gal/A ground. Do not graze 21 day interval, if conditions season. Do not apply more or feed soybean forage or are favorable. Use higher than 2 sequential appli- rates and shorter intervals cations of Stratego YLD when disease pressure is without alternating with a fungicide that has a differ- ent mode of action for at least one application.
Do not apply within 21 days Adjuvants may be used Apply before diseases with Headline and Headline Do not apply more than 24 If conditions favorable for fl oz/A/season.
Soybean forage may be disease persist, reapply Do not apply more than 2 fed no sooner than 14 days every 7–14 days.
sequential applications of after the last application.
Use the higher rate and Headline, Headline SC.
Soybean hay may be fed shorter intervals when dis- Do not apply more than two no sooner than 21 days ease pressure is high.
applications of Headline, after the last application.
Headline SC without alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action for at least one Do not apply within 21 days Apply a minimum of 5 Apply as a preventive spray of harvest.
gal/A by air or 10 gal/A by or at first visible signs of Do not apply more than 3 applications per season.
The lowest label recom- Repeat applications on a Do not apply more than 12 mended rate of surfactant 10–14 day interval if condi- fl oz/A per season.
must be added.
Tebuconazole 3.6F tions are favorable.
Use the higher rate and shorter intervals when dis- ease pressure is high.
Repeat applications on a 10-21 day interval if condi- tions are favorable.
Tebusha 3.6FL
TebuStar 3.6L
Tebuzol 3.6F
Toledo 3.6F
Muscle 3.6
tebuconazole + lambda
Do not apply within 30 days Apply a minimum of 5 Apply as a preventive spray of harvest.
gal/A by air or 10 gal/A by or at first visible signs of Do not apply more than 3 applications per season.
Do not graze or harvest Repeat applications on a Do not apply more than 17 treated soybean forage, 10–14 day interval if condi- fl oz/A per season.
straw or hay.
tions are favorable.
Use the higher rate and shorter intervals when dis- ease pressure is high.
tebuconazole + potas-
Do not apply within 30 days Apply a minimum of 5 Apply when disease is gal/A by air or 10 gal/A by Do not apply more than 4.3 ground.
Repeat applications on a pints/A per season.
Do not feed soybean forage 10-14 day interval.
or hay to livestock.
Soybean Foliar Fungicides
Dosage & Interval
Do not apply after growth Use as a part of an inte- (Phakopsora spp.) Apply prior to disease de- stage R5 (beginning seed). grated disease manage- velopment when rust infec- Do not make more than 2 ment approach with resis- tions are likely to occur.
applications per season.
tant hybrids, proper fertility, residue management and If necessary, repeat with a Do not apply more than 10 crop rotation.
second application before fl oz/A per season.
growth stage R6.
Do not graze or feed Domark may be applied by soybean forage or hay to ground, air or chemigation.
Use sufficient water to obtain adequate cover- age, a minimum of 5 gal/A for aerial and 10 gal/A for ground application.
tetraconazole + azoxys-
10-14 fl oz/A Apply prior to Do not apply after growth Use as a part of an inte- disease development when stage R5 (beginning seed). grated disease manage- rust infections are likely to Do not make more than 3 ment approach with resis- applications per season.
tant hybrids, proper fertility, If necessary, repeat with a Do not apply more than residue management and second application before 28.7 fl oz/A per season.
crop rotation.
growth stage R6.
Do not apply within 14 days Affiance may be applied by ground, air or chemigation.
Do not graze or feed Apply a minimum of 2 gal/A soybean forage or hay to by air and 10 gal/A by thiophanate-methyl +
Apply up to the R6 growth Apply a minimum of 2 Apply at the first signs of gal/A by air or 10 gal/A by Do not graze or feed Repeat applications on a treated vines or hay to Do not apply more than 14-21 day interval.
4 pints of product/A per Use the shorter interval when disease is present in the field and incidence is less than 2%.
thiophanate-methyl +
Do not apply later than 14 Apply a minimum of 5 Apply at growth stage R3 days after pods average a gal/A by air or 20 gal/A by (early pod stage) but could 1/4 inch in length.
be applied earlier if condi- Do not apply within 21 days tions warrant.
Repeat applications on a Do not graze or feed 14 day interval if conditions treated vines or hay to are favorable.
White Mold
Bacillus pumilus QST
Apply by ground, air or Apply when conditions are favorable for disease development.
Repeat applications on a 7–14 day interval if condi- tions are favorable.
Use higher rates and shorter intervals when dis- ease pressure is high.
South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 73 Soybean Foliar Fungicides
Dosage & Interval
White Mold
Bacillus subtillis QST 713
Apply by ground, air or 14-24 oz/A (Suppression 14-20 oz/A (Suppression only)Begin applications after emergence and when conditions are favorable for disease.
Repeat applications on a 7-10 day interval or as needed.
Use higher rates and shorter intervals when dis- ease pressure is high.
5.5–11 oz/A (Suppression Do not apply within 21 days Do not apply more than two applications per season.
Apply prior to disease Do not apply more than 22 development or when oz of product/A per season.
conditions are favorable for disease.
Repeat applications on a 7–14 day interval if condi- tions are favorable.
Use shorter intervals when disease pressure is high.
Don not apply after R3 Omega 500F may be ap- Apply at R1 (early bloom) (early pod) growth stage.
plied by ground or air.
to R2 (full bloom) growth Do not apply more than 2 Do not allow livestock to pints/A per season.
graze treated areas.
Repeat applications if Do not feed hay to livestock needed, 10-14 days later from the treated areas.
at R3 (early pod) growth stage.
Use the higher rate when disease pressure is high.
Do not apply within 21 days Apply a minimum of 5 gal/A Apply at first visible flower of harvest.
by air or 10 gal/A ground.
or when conditions are Do not apply more than 3 Do not graze or feed favorable for disease.
applications per season.
soybean forage or hay to Repeat at a 14-35 day Do not apply more than 28 livestock.
interval if conditions are fl oz/A per season.
favorable for heavy disease fluoxastrobin + flutriafol
4-6 fl oz/A (Suppression Do not apply more than 2 Apply a minimum of 5 gal/A by air or 10 gal/A ground.
Apply prior to disease Do not apply within 21 days Do not apply more than 12 development and repeat of forage harvest or 30 fl oz/A per season.
on a 14-21 day interval if days of seed harvest.
conditions are favorable.
Do not graze or feed Do not apply after the R5 soybean forage or hay to growth stage.
Soybean Foliar Fungicides
Dosage & Interval
White Mold
fluxapyroxad + pyraclos- 4-8 fl oz/A (Suppression
Do not apply within 21 days Adjuvants may be use with Apply before disease oc- Do not apply more than Do not make more than 2 two applications of Priaxor applications per year.
If conditions favorable for without alternating with a Soybean forage may be disease persist, reapply fungicide that has a differ- fed no sooner than 14 days every 7-14 days.
ent mode of action for at least one application.
after the last application.
Use the higher rate and Soybean hay may be fed shorter intervals when dis- Do not apply more than 16 no sooner than 21 days ease pressure is high.
fl oz/A/season.
after the last treatment.
Do not apply within 14 days Apply a minimum of 2 gal/A Apply at growth stage R1 by air or 15 gal/A ground.
and follow with second ap- Do not apply more than two Do not use soybean forage plication 7-10 days later at sequential applications of or hay for livestock feed.
full bloom (R2).
Vertisan without alternat- ing with another fungicide chemistry.
Do not apply more than 61 fl oz/A/season.
Do not apply within 14 days Aproach may be applied by Apply at growth stage R1 of harvest for grain, forage ground, air or chemigation.
and follow with second ap- and hay.
Do not apply more than two plication 7-10 days later at Do not apply more than 12 sequential applications of full bloom (R2).
fl oz/A/season if grown for Aproach without alternat- forage and hay.
ing with another fungicide Do not apply more than 36 chemistry.
fl oz/A/season if grown for 3.0-5.0 fl oz/A (Suppression Do not apply within 21 days Apply a minimum of 5 gal/A by air or 10 gal/A by Apply at growth stage R1 Do not apply more than (beginning bloom) when 12.9 fl oz of product/A per conditions are favorable for season.
Do not make more than 3 A sequential treatment may applications per season.
be made at R3 (beginning pod)- R4 (full pod).
prothioconazole prothio- (Suppression only)
Do not apply within 21 days Apply a minimum of 5 gal/A conazole + trifloxystrobin 3.0 fl oz/A-Apply at growth of harvest.
by air (Proline), 2 gal/A air stage R1 (beginning bloom) Do not apply more than 9 (Stratego YLD) or 10 gal/A by ground (Proline, Strat- when conditions are favor- fl oz of Proline/A or 13.95 able for disease.
fl oz of Stratego YLD/A per ego YLD).
4.65 fl oz/A- This sequential season.
treatment may be made at Do not make more than 3 R3 (beginning pod).
applications per season.
Do not apply after growth Use as a part of an inte- Apply at growth stage R3 stage R5 (beginning seed). grated disease manage- (early pod stage) or when Do not make more than 2 ment approach with resis- conditions are favorable for applications per season.
tant hybrids, proper fertility, Do not apply more than 10 residue management and crop rotation.
Repeat applications on a fl oz/A per season.
15–21 day interval if dis- Do not graze or feed Domark may be applied ease pressure is severe.
soybean forage or hay to by ground, air or chemiga- tion. Use sufficient water to Use the higher rate and obtain adequate cover- shorter intervals when dis- age, a minimum of 5 gal/A ease pressure is high.
for aerial and 10 gal/A for ground application.
South Dakota 2015 Pest Management Guide – Soybeans 75 Soybean Foliar Fungicides
Dosage & Interval
White Mold
tetraconazole + azoxys-
Do not apply after growth Use as a part of an inte- Apply at growth stage R3 stage R5 (beginning seed). grated disease manage- (early pod stage) or when Do not make more than 3 ment approach with resis- conditions are favorable for applications per season.
tant hybrids, proper fertility, residue management and Do not apply more than crop rotation.
Repeat applications on a 28.7 fl oz/A per season.
15–21 day interval if dis- Affiance may be applied by ease pressure is severe.
Do not apply within 14 days ground, air or chemigation.
Use the higher rate and Use sufficient water to shorter intervals when dis- Do not graze or feed obtain adequate cover- ease pressure is high.
soybean forage or hay to age, a minimum of 5 gal/A for aerial and 10 gal/A for ground application.
PHI- 21 days (Incognito Thorough coverage of 4.5F, Incognito 85 WDG, the flowers, stems and Topsin 4.5FL, Topsin M branches are essential for 70WP, Topsin M WSB, disease control.
Thiophanate Methyl 85 Apply a minimum of 5 gal/A by air (Incognito 4.5F, Do not apply more than 40 Incognito 85 WDG, Topsin fl oz (Incognito 4.5F, Topsin 4.5FL, Topsin M WSB, Thiophanate Methyl 85 4.5FL), 2 lbs (Topsin M Thiophanate Methyl 85 70WP, Topsin M WSB) of WDG). Apply a minimum Make one application at of 20 gal/A by ground (In- early bloom (R1- R2 growth cognito 4.5 F, Topsin 4.5FL, stage) followed by a sec- Do not make more than 2 Topsin M 70WP, Topsin M ond application 7-14 days applications per year (In- later if conditions are favor- cognito 4.5F, Incognito 85 able for continued disease WDG, Thiophanate Methyl 85 WDG).
Do not graze or feed treated vines or hay to thiophanate-methyl +
Apply up to the R6 growth Apply a minimum of 2 Apply at R1-R2 (early gal/A by air or 10 gal/A by bloom) growth stage and Do not graze or feed repeat on a 14 day interval. treated vines or hay to Do not apply more than 4 pints of product/A per thiophanate-methyl +
Do not apply later than 14 Apply a minimum of 5 Begin applications at days after pods average a gal/A by air or 20 gal/A by growth stage R1 (begin- 1/4 inch in length.
ning bloom)- R2 (full bloom, Do not apply within 21 days flower in top 2 nodes).
Repeat applications on a Do not graze or feed 14 day interval if conditions treated vines or hay to are favorable.

Source: https://igrow.org/up/resources/03-3032-2014.pdf

bsfi.barnlakarforeningen.se

Analysis of Missed Casesof Abusive Head TraumaCarole Jenny, MD, MBA Context Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a dangerous form of child abuse that can bedifficult to diagnose in young children. Lt Col Kent P. Hymel, MD, USAF, MC Objectives To determine how frequently AHT was previously missed by physicians Alene Ritzen, MD, JD

Part (3): matching

Benha University Faculty of nursing Fourth year final exam- second semester Course title: psychiatric and mental health nursing Time allowed: 3 hours Multiple-choice questions Define the following Fill in the blanks Part (1): Read the following Multiple-choice and circle the best answer: (15 marks) 1- Which of the following matches the definition of: "response to