Microsoft word - jrosenblatt final (dad, rugne, grandpa, alex corrections)
Hartford, a Home for the Jew
An Analysis of the Jews of Hartford 1900-1923
The tale of American Jewish settling has always been a bittersweet one.
Preceding Columbus's discovery of the Americas in the late fourteen hundreds, records
of Jewish persecution and forced exile dominated folklore and scholarly texts. Yet,
despite the fact that some Jews who suffered from this Diasporas fled to Hartford,
virtually no reference was made to any of them until the late 17th century. One fairly
brief reference is from a General Court document dating back to November 9, 1659. In
this record, the court fined "David the Jew" 20 shillings, a hefty sum, for trading goods
with underage clients.1 Then, from the 1790s until the 1820s, there was a steady increase
in the Jewish presence, eventually leading to, at least temporarily, the renaming of the
East end of State Street to "Jew-Street."2 For those ensuing years, advertisements in the
Hartford Courant would reflect this change, guiding readers to shops and merchants on
"Jew-Street," without further elaborating upon Jewish life at the time. Next, in 1818,
Jewish rights briefly took center stage, dominating discussion at Connecticut's
Constitutional Convention.3 Interestingly, the section proposing, "no preference shall be
given to any religious sect," provided little religious freedom for the Jews. Instead, Jews
were granted the right to hold public office, while still denied the freedom to publicly
assemble and openly practice their religion. Then, in conjunction with New Haven Jews,
1Hartford. Session of the Gen Court. Nobr 9, 59. Original documents photographed in Morris Silverman, Hartford Jews, 1659-1970
, (Hartford, CT: Connecticut Historical Society, 1970), p. 4.
2 Fairfield-County-Lottery Advertisement, The Hartford Courant
6 February 1792, p. 2.
3 General Statuses of Connecticut, Revision of 1854, Sec. 149, p. 201, as cited by Morris Silverman, Hartford Jews, 1659-1970
, p. 7.
Hartford Jews petitioned "a change to the State Constitution that would grant [them] the
same religious rights and equality enjoyed by Christians."4 Although the Judicial
committee would not make the changes requested, it did suggest the passing of special
litigation permitting religious equality. Once passed, the litigation allowed Jews to
organize synagogues and other religious centers. So, in 1847, Hartford Jewry took its
foremost steps to establish a permanent life in this city, culminating in the first
synagogue's founding.5 Nevertheless, the Jewish population of Hartford was still
relatively small, for, in 1880, only 1,500 Jews lived in the city of 42,000. By 1910, that
number had grown to 7,000, and in 1920 the Jewish population exploded, reaching
20,000.6 Such a rapid expansion invokes the question, "Why?" What local, national, and
international forces caused such a rapid influx of immigrants into Hartford in the late
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries? Where were these immigrants coming from?
Most importantly, how did this flood of settlers impact the Jewish, and non-Jewish
society around them?
In Rabbi Morris Silverman's work, Hartford Jews 1659-1970
, there is little
mention as to why
so many Jews migrated to American cities, including Hartford, other
than the religious freedoms afforded to this commonly harassed group. Betty Hoffman,
author of Honoring the Past: Building The History of the Jewish Federation of Greater
, attributes the influx of immigrants to the "pressure of political instability, land
scarcity, poverty, and government restrictions on many aspects of life." Similarly, David
G. Dalin and Jonathan Rosenbaum give credit for the mass migration to violence, such as
4 David G. Dalin, and Jonathan Rosenbaum, Making a life, building a community: A history of the Jews of Hartford
, (New York, NY: Holmes & Meier, 1997), pp. 12-13.
5 Silverman, p. 9.
6 Encyclopaedia Judaic
, (Gale Group, 2008) "Hartford." <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0008_0_08481.html>.
Russian pogroms, and expulsion. Yet, there must be something more than these "push"
factors at work that made Hartford such an appealing city for immigrants.
Not only international violence, hostile foreign governments, and poverty, but
also economic opportunity, social diversity, and political identity within Hartford itself
all led Jews to gravitate toward cities like Hartford. Unlike European countries, which
heavily discriminated against Jews, Hartford was accepting, and even helpful in
assimilating immigrants. The growing number of social events and organizations that
catered to both the elderly and young Jews made Hartford an alluring city for immigrants.
Additionally, the community's robust international awareness attracted prominent Jewish
leaders and speakers, further making Hartford a center for Jewish education. Combined,
these characteristics not only enticed more Jews to move to Hartford, but also more
Jewish leaders to appear in Hartford. Thus, as one attractive quality grew, so did the
other, creating a rapid expansion of an already well established Jewish community.
One of the first consistent indications of the city's transforming attitude toward
Jews surfaced in The Hartford Courant
on October 16, 1891. "Feast of Tabernacles," a
front-page article aptly describing a Jewish holiday's origin and purpose, contrasted the
"old orthodox style" with "modern customs."7 In a state where Jewish life was
disregarded for the greater part of the 19th century, the mere appearance of newspaper
editorials, let alone in-depth articles regarding Jewish events and holidays, signified a
new era for Hartford Jewry. In fact, throughout the ensuing years, articles in The
, which relayed the religious happenings of the Jewish community, continued to
reflect the steady growth of the population thereof. For example, when detailing the
Rosh Hashanah of 1913, The Courant
"estimated that over 2,000 Jews freed themselves
7 "Feast of Tabernacles," The Hartford Courant
16 October 1891, p. 1.
of their sins in the old rabbinical manner along the banks of the river."8 Taking into
account that this tradition existed primarily in orthodox circles, rather than the more
populous modern congregations, this number is quite impressive. Equally impressive is
the article's description of the occasion, which enumerated some of the "strict…
requirements," including the manner in which the water must be approached, the
implications of emptying one's pockets, and the appropriate conclusion to the evening. 9
This ambivalent, if not respectful, attention from the media differed vastly from the harsh
social realities of Europe. Therefore, paired with the overcrowding of New York City,
and the violent pogroms in Russia, this relatively welcoming acceptance of Jews made
Hartford the perfect city for Jewish settlers.
Slowly, as word of the city's hospitality grew, more and more Jews found
themselves gravitating toward Hartford. In fact, the population grew large enough that
playwrights, such as Paul Pinsky, found it profitable to perform their works at local
theaters. Always a central part of Jewish life, theater was a seminal aspect of Jewish
identity in Hartford, and classified advertisements in both The Hartford Courant
were filled with advertisements for Jewish theater. By 1906, Yiddish
performances were a common occurrence, and The Courant
was reporting not only the
various show plots, but also the relevance that certain shows had to modern Jewish times.
One reviewer described "The Family Zwy" as a "tragedy based on the essential
differences between the free thinking of the progressive element among younger Jews
and the strict adhesion to the belief of his fathers of the orthodox Jews." 10 In this Jewish
community, where members held different views on the meaning of their religion, such
8 "Hartford Jews Cast Away Sins," The Hartford Courant,
13 October 1913, p. 5.
10 "Paul Pinsky Reads One of His Plays," The Hartford Courant
16 April 1906, p. 11.
shows became very popular. In addition to internal commentary, theater sometimes
extended itself beyond domestic issues, and commented on issues as large as Zionism.
According to The Courant
, "The Wandering Jew," was "part of [a] program interesting
Jewish people of Hartford in the movement to reclaim Palestine from the Jews [sic]."11
Along with the lighthearted entertainment of the theater, excellent education
played a vital role in attracting Jews to Hartford. Like most American Jewish
communities at the time, Hartford had a relatively small religious program for its
children, known as the Hebrew Institute. Yet, it wasn't until 1913 that a fully functioning
school was built, coinciding with a surge in Jewish immigration.12 Appropriately
contrasting the old schooling system with the new one, The Courant
the system has been for teachers…to go from home to home to give lessons to the
children, but the new building will have the advantages of economy and efficiency."13
So, on August 26, 1912, when the community laid down the cornerstone, it is no surprise
that "the attendance was much larger than…expected." 14 Among the 3,500 guests were
Jews and non-Jews alike, including prominent members of the local government, such as
"Mayor Louis R. Cheney…City Plan Commissioner Augustine Lonergan," and "ex-
Alderman Herman P. Kopplemann."15 The widespread support from the entire
community reflected a genuine acceptance of the Jews in the area. In fact, one year later,
when the school finally opened, the encouragement from the community was colossal.
recounted, a "thousand or more people formed a column and plodded
11 " ‘The Wandering Jew' Is Seen in Hartford," The Hartford Courant
, 15 October 1922, p. 4.
12 Morris Silverman, Hartford Jews, 1659-1970, (Hartford, CT: Connecticut Historical Society, 1970), p. 61.
13 "Hebrew School Cornerstone Laid," The Hartford Courant
26 August 1912, p. 2.
through the rain to the school building on Pleasant street."16 These fervent supporters
were then graced with the presence of important state officials, many of whom spoke.
One lauded the school's opening, proclaiming, "the individuals who are remembered
more than a century are few and far between, but all of us can build in posterity by
working together in some great undertaking like the erection of this school."17 Clearly
this sentiment resonated with many members of the community, as the founding of this
school was not only well documented, but also continually celebrated. Other speakers,
such as Mr. Kopplemann, perfectly encapsulated the significance of the event when
explaining, "[the school's erection was] the culmination of our long work in the interest
of the Jewish people and the city of Hartford."18 So, serving as a school, a meetinghouse,
and an entertainment hall, Talmud Torah enriched the culture of the local Jewish
community, giving prospective immigrants yet another reason to move Hartford.
With the completion of the Talmud Torah building on Pleasant Street, the
community had an adequate space to provide all ages with countless social events. In
particular, the building lent itself to celebrations of Purim, a festive holiday in which
observers dress up and recount the story of Esther. For example, on the following Purim
subsequent to the building's opening, the school held "the first annual bazar [sic] and
Purim ball."19 Besides raising funds for the school, the three-day extravaganza helped
unify the community, augmenting yet another positive aspect to Jewish life in Hartford.
In addition to the live music and refreshments, there were gifts and prizes, many of which
16 "Talmud Torah Is Dedicated," The Hartford Courant,
22 September 1913, p.16.
19 "Purim Ball at Talmud Torah Hall," The Hartford Courant
, 15 March 1914, p. 9.
came "from people interested in the school."20 This unwavering generosity fueled many
of the communal events at the time, including celebratory dances and mass meetings,
further enhancing Jewish life in Hartford.21 In fact, this same generosity drove the
founding of Hartford's more than 30 charitable Jewish organizations.22 One particularly
well-documented institution, the Young Women's Hebrew Association (Y.W.H.A), had
regular events, many of which provided unique opportunities to its members. According
to The Courant
, "The Y.W.H.A had two main purposes, to advance the interests of its
members spiritually and to adjust them to the life of the community,"23 and it did just
that. For example, on September 6, 1921, the Y.W.H.A. invited Miss Mary Curran, a
"champion of girls' clubs,"24 to speak about the importance of clubs in the life of a
modern Jewish girl. In her speech, she addressed the possibilities of a club "[sending] a
girl to college…[helping] in social services of all kinds," even "[discussing]
disarmament."25 These fairly progressive statements, in conjunction with Hartford's
growing youth movement, attracted additional settlers to Hartford, supplementing the
Jewish immigration spike of the early 1920s. Other organizations, similarly active, also
provided enriching services to the community. Moreover, so many of these organizations
existed, that they merged, and formed the United Jewish Charities (U.J.C). In 1922, on
the U.J.C.'s 10th anniversary, the Jewish community of Greater Hartford lavishly
celebrated its laudable achievements, a clear indicator of the growing community's good
health. The Courant
reported, that at the ceremony, "Hartford Jewry thronged the Grand
21 "Basketball Dance to Honor Champions," The Hartford Courant
, 15 October 1922, p. X6.
22 Silverman, p. 33
23 "Miss Curran Urges Importance of Fun," The Hartford Courant
, 6 September 1921, p. 15.
Theater…filling all but the balcony, to observe…and to hear speakers, including Mayor
Kinsella praise the work done by this organization."26 The importance of this statement
may seem obvious, for the non-Jewish mayor
of a formerly nativist community
congratulated the achievements of this association, but in actuality, the timing of the
event provides the true significance. At its founding in 1912, the U.J.C provided for
approximately 7,000 Jews, yet by its decennial, it sustained 20,000.
Another major contributor to the steep increase in Jewish immigration to Hartford
was the combination of local Zionism and international violence. Even before the First
World War, the concept of a Jewish state was debated with the same intensity as other
world issues. Thus, Hartford was becoming a center of intellectualism and a site of
innovative discussion. One of the first mainstream references toward Zionism in
Hartford was in The Courant
, on March 18, 1907 when Shulam Alechim, "[a]
distinguished Jewish writer,"27 visited Hartford to "[promote]…the spirit of Jewish
patriotism."28 The "meeting, attended by nearly 500 of the Jewish residents of
Hartford"29 was in response to the brewing injustices of Eastern Europe. Many new
immigrants, as well as some relatively long standing residents, not only had family in the
affected parts of Europe, but also came from those parts themselves. As the Zionist
movement gained traction, and groups like the "Maccabeans"30 became more popular,
coverage of Zionism increased dramatically. With this newfound
exposure, members of Hartford's Jewish community were slowly able to entice
26 "Jewish Charities Active for Decade," The Hartford Courant
, 23 October 1922, p. 8.
27 "Shulam Alechim as a Humorist," The Hartford Courant
, 18 March 1907, p. 5.
30 "Maccabeans Meet," The Hartford Courant
, 1 December 1913, p. 8.
prominent leaders like "Nathaniel Sirkin," a "philosopher, journalist, and author" 31 from
New York City to visit and speak.
In addition to this passive involvement, Hartford Jews also sent delegates to
participate in the national American Jewish Congress. On March 23, 1916, The Courant
reported "the delegation…has been instructed to go on record at the conference as
favoring an attempt to secure Palestine as a home for the Jews."32 Above all else, it was
this sentiment that attracted world leaders to Hartford, for in such a relatively small
Jewish community to exist such fervent support for a struggling cause was paramount.
On his return from the American Jewish Congress, Senator Herman P. Kopplemann was
welcomed with a large meeting "at the Parson's Theater,"33 where he presented the
Congress's progress to a lively and enthusiastic crowd.
Additional incentive for speakers such as Rabbi Wise, "[a] leading [exponent] for
a recreated Jewish commonwealth in Palestine," 34 was the support of non-Jewish city
officials. At a welcoming meeting, Mayor Kinsella not only commended the large
turnout, but also expressed his gratitude to be recognized as the first mayor of Hartford
"to order the raising of the Zionist flag over the municipal building."35 At yet another
mass meeting, where Rabbi Wise "formally [opened] the campaign among Hartford Jews
to raise $100,000 toward the joint relief and Palestine restoration fund," Mayor Kinsella
was quoted as saying "I feel as though I was a brother Zionist and it might do me good if
31 "Zionist Movement's Success Certain," The Hartford Courant
13 July 1914, p. 9.
32 Hartford Jews to Attend Congress," The Hartford Courant
, 23 March 1916, 11.
33 "Kopplemann Gets Big Welcome from Hartford Jews," The Hartford Courant
6 January 1919, p. 2.
34 "Rabbi Wise for U.S. Trusteeship of New Armenia," The Hartford Courant
, 12 March 1919: p. 9.
I was."36 Much of his excitement indubitably stemmed from the local community's
involvement, which alone had increased drastically between 1919 and 1920. According
to an article in The Courant
, "four times as many votes (for delegates to the Zionist
convention in New York City) were cast [in 1920] as last year."37 Along with this
enthusiastic support, Hartford Jews also demonstrated their dedicated backing by
consistently donating massive sums of money to the Palestine restoration fund. Only two
years after the formal announcing of the fund, Hartford had raised $75,000. Culminating
years of growth, "world delegates of Zionism," including Professor Albert Einstein,
visited Hartford, and were greeted by 15,000 spectators. Typical of a large Zionist event
in Hartford, there was a parade filled with Jewish veterans from Palestine, Colt's Band,
and ecstatic locals. 38
Finally, in the same way that Zionism augmented Hartford's vibrant Jewish
community, social awareness enhanced its international reputation, further enticing world
renowned experts to visit. At the turn of the 20th century, Hartford's appeal to such
leaders was far from spontaneous. In fact, much of the community's standing stemmed
from its active pursuit of global involvement during a time of anti-Semitic violence.
Meetings, "on behalf of the Jewish sufferers in the war zones,"39 became a common
occurrence. The locals not only discussed what they could do to ameliorate the torment
experienced by their brothers and sisters abroad, but also raised enormous sums of money
36 "Rabbi Wise Pleads for Unity," The Hartford Courant
, 26 March 1920, p. 13.
37 "Heavy Vote for Zionist Delegates," The Hartford Courant
, 31 May 1920, p. 18.
38 "Zionist Delegates Wildly Acclaimed by Hartford Jews," The Hartford Courant
, 23 May 1921, p. 1.
39 "Prepare for Big Public Meeting," The Hartford Courant
, 17 May 1916, p. 11.
Not surprisingly, as the population exploded between 1910 and 1920, so did local
involvement. Prior to a meeting held on May 28, 1916, The Courant
reservations be made in advance, as a large number of seats [had] already been
reserved."40 In addition, The Courant
reported, "the boxes and stage will be occupied by
men prominent in public life."41 Clearly, these events served as fashionable public
functions for both Jews and non-Jews alike, but more importantly, as a vehicle of social
activism. This confluence of cultures strengthened the community's internal relations, as
well as its global ones.
Therefore, not surprisingly, when the violence in Russia ceased in March of 1917,
" ‘the new era' was being talked about…in homes, halls, and synagogues."42 For many
Jews in Hartford, Russia was their homeland, and "knout and persecution brought…them
to this country."43 When asked about the news, Senator Herman P. Kopplemann said, "I
am elated, of course….the men who are responsible for the revolutions are men who have
studied the American
form of government and American
ideals," reflecting his, and many
other's newfound loyalty to Hartford. Some, so moved by the religious and social
liberties in the United States, served in the army, and those who did not serve as soldiers
donated. An article titled, "Jews Went ‘Over Top' In Drive For Soldier Welfare,"
examines the exceeded expectations of the aid quota, contrasting the $5,000 "assigned"
and the $7,200.27 "secured."44
42 "News from Russia Brings Rejoicing to Hartford Jews," The Hartford Courant
18 March 1917, p. 17.
44 "Jews Went 'Over Top' in Drive for Soldier Welfare," The Hartford Courant,
30 January 1918, p. 8.
At the same time, these same Jews who both longed for permanent peace in "the
homeland," and also embraced the freedoms afforded by Hartford, continued to support
their less fortunate counterparts around the world. In fact, Senator Kopplemann, Hartford
Jews' elected representative, returned from the "first American Jewish Congress,"45 with
a ratified resolution, which he had proposed on behalf of the local Jewish community. A
vital aspect of the resolution
Resolved, that [the] congress…request the peace commissioners representing the
United States of America at the peace conference to use their high…office to…grant… autonomy, independdence [sic], or freedom to any nation, that all…inhabitants thereof shall have equal, civil, political, religious, and national rights without the distinction of race or faith, and that such rights shall be guaranteed to them and their descendants in perpetuity.46
Much of this resolution presented expectations substantially more enlightened
than the beliefs of the American public. For a community that had only gained religious
autonomy a century ago, Hartford Jews adamantly called attention to the injustices
around the world. Clearly, Hartford had an unusually strong sense of collective
responsibility, which was only augmented by the continuous influx of immigrants. By
this time, Hartford's Jewish community was nearing 20,000, and over 65 organizations
were active. Gaining momentum, the community started supporting similar resolutions.
For example, on June 13, 1919, and again on December 8, 1919, The Courant
equally important articles, which protested the anti-Semitic violence in Ukraine, Poland,
and other European nations. The first urged the American government "to use [its]
offices to…aid"47 those Jews in need, as the Jews have aided a needy United States.48
45 "Kopplemann Gets Big Welcome from Hartford Jews," The Hartford Courant
, 6 January 1919: 2.
47 "Jews Voice Protest against Massacres," The Hartford Courant
, 8 December 1919, p. 7.
The latter, "resolved… that [they expressed their] indignation at the unspeakable
atrocities aforementioned and respectfully [requested] our government…to bring them to
an immediate stop." 49 Both, with a strong voice, demonstrate the community's value of
social action, an attractive characteristic for potential speakers who hoped to successfully
convey or disseminate a message.
Finally, in an article titled, "Form Committees for Jewish Relief," the extent of
Hartford's devotion to its international brethren was indisputably demonstrated, as the
article reported that Hartford alone planed to raise at least $100,000 of a $250,000 quota
from Connecticut for international Jewish relief. The article detailed the violence and
destruction of Europe, and the ways in which the American Jewish Relief Committee
planned to help. A very poignant piece of the resolution mentioned in the article
"pledged [the Jews of Connecticut]…to labor unremittingly, unceasingly, and to make
every sacrifice…until every broken Jewish life shall be repaired."50 Epitomizing all that
the Hartford Jews were working toward, this statement reflects the success of the
community, and the primary reason why prominent leaders, speakers, or politicians
would even consider visiting such a seemingly insignificant city.
In conclusion, the exponential growth in Hartford's Jewish community was both a
cause and effect. First, the violence in Europe, which drove many Jews from their
homes, in conjunction with the more receptive community of Hartford, initiated the
migration toward the primarily non-Jewish city. Next, diverse social events, such as
youth group meetings, and charitable gatherings, as well as cultural life, including
49 "Jews Here Send Pogrom Protest to President Wilson," The Hartford Courant
, 13 June 1919, p. 4.
50 "Form Committees for Jewish Relief," The Hartford Courant
, 6 February 1922, p. 16.
theater, gave potential immigrants additional reasons to join the stimulating Jewish
community. While these immigrants settled down, their presence alone enhanced the
social life, creating the need for more comprehensive Jewish education. Therefore, as the
Talmud Torah gained a respectable reputation as a school and a center for discussion and
meetings, Jews flocked to Hartford, seeking a good education for their children and an
exposure to speakers like Albert Einstein and Rabbi Wise for themselves. Finally, with
such a self-aware community, Zionism and political activism established strong roots in
Hartford, again giving immigrants ever more reason to settle there. Thus, Hartford
hurtled into the 20s and 30s forever changed, still feeling the impacts of a vibrant and
intellectual community of ambitious Jews.
Berry, Fred D. Elias Morgan house, Prospect Street, Hartford. Photograph. 1890. The
Connecticut Historical Society. Connecticut History Online. Connecticut History Online. 22 Feb. 2009 <http://www.cthistoryonline.org/cdm-cho/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/cho&CISOPTR=4440&CISOBOX=1&REC=9>.
Dalin, David G, and Jonathan Rosenbaum. Making a life, building a community: A history of
the Jews of Hartford. New York, NY: Holmes & Meier, 1997.
"Hartford." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd ed. 26 vols. Gale Group, 2008. Jewish Virtual Library.
2009. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. 22 Feb. 2009 <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0008_0_08481.html>.
The Hartford Courant. October 16, 1891 to November 10, 1922. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. ProQuest. Katharine Brush Lib., Windsor, Connecticut. 22 Feb. 2009 <http://proquest.umi.com>. Hoffman, Betty N. "In the Beginning." Introduction. Honoring the Past: Building the Future.
By Betty Hoffman. West Hartford: Jewish Historical Society of Greater Hartford, 2007. 1-11.
"Jewish Rights in Early Connecticut." American Jewish Historical Society. Jewish Virtual
Library. 2009. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. 22 Feb. 2009 <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/US-Israel/Jews_Connecticut.html>.
Silverman, Morris. Hartford Jews, 1659-1970. Hartford, CT: Connecticut Historical Society,
Weindling, Myrna, and Robert Gillette. "History of B'nai Israel." Congregation B'nai Israel. 3
May 1984. Congregation B'nai Israel. 22 Feb. 2009 <http://www.congregationbnaiisrael.org/history.html>.
Systemic hypertension Disease Coverage Report reference: DMKC12591 Published on: 27/06/2016 About Datamonitor Healthcare Bringing you a clearer, richer and more responsive view of the pharma & healthcare market. Complete market coverage Our independent research and analysis provides extensive coverage of major disease areas,
DORAMECTINA 1,1%. Endectocida altamente efectivo para el control y tratamiento de los parásitos internos y externos. NOVIEMBRE DE 2013 Doramectina es una lactona macrocíclica Figura 1. Origen y clasificación de las lactonas semisintética, perteneciente a la familia de macrocíclicas: avermectinas y milbemicinas (tomado de Lifschitz y col 2002).