Evaluating the Relationship between Evolutionary Divergenceand Phylogenetic Accuracy in AFLP Data Sets Marı´a Jesu´s Garcı´a-Pereira, Armando Caballero,* and Humberto Quesada Departamento de Bioquı´mica, Gene´tica e Inmunologı´a, Facultad de Biologı´a, Universidade de Vigo, Vigo, Spain *Corresponding author: E-mail: [email protected] editor: Dan Graur
Nagoya-bunri.ac.jpAnalysis on the Use of Synonymous Adverbs: Maybe, Perhaps, Possibly, Probably, and Likely Analysis on the Use of Synonymous Adverbs: Maybe, Perhaps, Possibly, Probably, and Likely The main objective of the current paper is to provide fuller definitions of five synonymous adverbs that express uncertainty: Maybe, perhaps, possibly, probably, and likely. In order to achieve this goal, 178 examples are collected from both spoken and written corpora and closely examined from semantic, stylistic, pragmatic, and syntactic points of view. The major findings are as follows: Maybe is used frequently in a casual context; perhaps is salient in its pragmatic use, such as hedges, when used in speech; possibly conveys a less degree of likelihood due to its theoretical property; probably frequently occurs with non-human propositions; and likely often accompanies good evidence and is the highest in the likelihood hierarchy. Observations under different perspectives are amalgamated to provide a clearer grasp of each adverb.
Keywords: adverbs, synonyms, semantics with the wrong assumption that the words are merely Advanced English learners may be able to list substitutions of one another. While it may be true that up maybe, perhaps, probably, possibly, and likely when the words are used interchangeably without much they are asked to say as many adverbs as possible that influence in meanings in some cases, there are also areas express uncertainty. However, they may become rather where their meanings and functions differ, which should reticent when they are further asked about areas where not be simply ignored.
the words differ. They cannot be blamed, given that What this paper aims to do is to provide fuller most dictionaries provide definitions of these words definitions of these adverbs than the dictionaries that in terms of one another. For example, Collins Cobuild explain them in terms of one another. By doing so, it is English Dictionary (1995) gives the same explanation hoped that learners develop a better idea about how they for maybe and perhaps: "You use maybe/perhaps to
are used, and even that they come to recognize the idea express uncertainty, for example when you do not that synonymous words are not always interchangeable, know that something is definitely true, or when you are but often, each word has its own place to occur. In order mentioning something that may possibly happen in the to achieve this goal, the usage of each word is presented future in the way you describe" (p.1226, 1030)1). The under several different perspectives, namely semantic, s definition of probably accompanies the term stylistic, pragmatic, and syntactic views. Corpus-based likely, which is in turn accounted for with probably. An analysis is employed for the research. Examples are obvious problem is that dictionary users might come up taken from both spoken and written data. The sources of the spoken examples are movies, a TV show, a s behavior or state professional conference, and a formal interview. The e.g. Kapinus: Dorothy, I might add also that Judith written examples are found through academic articles, probably has more history with NAEP than just governmental documents, newspapers, magazines, and a about that I know of, you know, NAEP and reading. (professional conference)4) Collocated Types of Propositions
D. General people' s behavior or state In explaining possible, can, perhaps, and may, e.g. Monica: What did you tell them? Doherty (1987) provides the following discussion: "They Phoebe: Well, they said that I had to think about it are connected with the way in which the modal concept first, but what is there to think about? I' is integrated into the evaluative meaning of a sentence, be giving them the greatest gift you can possibly i.e. the part of sentence meaning by which the speaker expresses his attitude towards the state-of-affairs (TV show Friends)3) identified by the propositional meaning of the same sentence" (p.47)2). "The speaker' s evaluative attitude s behavior or state toward a proposition" seems to be expressed by not only e.g. Perhaps, we could use the format that we've perhaps and possibly, but also by the rest of the adverbs been using with the National Assessment for in question in this paper, maybe, probably, and likely, and Educational Progress that students are told if they this notion may serve as a good starting point. If all of the are proficient, advanced, or partially proficient in five words function as a device to express the speaker' each of the five content areas related to the ideas of attitude toward a proposition, then a good question to be mathematics. (professional conference)4) posited is: what type of propositions does each adverb typically occur with? An answer to this question may give s and 3rd person' s behavior or state some insights into the unique clarification of each adverb.
e.g. Sunday he'll be in Houston for a DNC event. We Seven categories are created after examining the will overnight in Houston. Events on Monday and propositions observed in 178 examples. Each category is beyond are still under discussion. So I have no demonstrated below with an example.
-- but we'll definitely overnight in Houston and possibly go someplace else in the Southeast -- 1) Types of Propositions (formal interview)5) s behavior, state, or will G. State of objects or description of situations e.g. Monica: Oh my god, what were you thinking? e.g. The reason for preposing the larger constituent Joey: All right, look, I'm not proud of this, ok? Well, (e.g. the entire PP rather than simply the discourse maybe I am a little.
-old NP) is most likely syntactic (Birner 1994, (TV show Friends)3) s behavior or state Table 1 shows the percentage for the co-occurrence e.g. Ross: Y'see, that's where you're wrong. Why would between each type of propositions and each adverb.
I marry her if I thought on any level that-that she was a lesbian? Observing Table 1, a noticeable divergence is found with Roger: I dunno. Maybe you wanted your marriage maybe. Maybe is the only one that does not occur with the "state of objects or description of situations" (G) at (TV show Friends)3) the percentage higher than fifty. Combining the spoken and written data, the co-occurrence of perhaps and this Analysis on the Use of Synonymous Adverbs: Maybe, Perhaps, Possibly, Probably, and Likely type of propositions is 55.9% (11.5% + 40.4%), possibly, + 8.1%). On the other hand, the co-occurrences of 55.1% (10.3% + 44.8%), probably, 67.8% (35.5% + maybe with the types of propositions involving either the 32.3%), and likely, 75% (25% + 50%), whereas maybe s, or 3rd person' s behavior (A-C) occurs with it at the percentage of only 33.9% (25.8% outweigh other adverbs. One possible assumption is that Table 1. Co-occurrence between Adverbs and Types of Propositions
The Number of Examples and the Percentage for Each Adverb behavior, state, or will behavior or state objects or description of Note1: S = Spoken; Note2: W = Written; Note3: ( ) = the percentage out of the total number of examples; Note4: [ ] = the percentage out of the total number of either spoken or written examples.
maybe is favored for evaluation on human behaviors and In other words, does an adverb indicate a higher chance states, but not so much for evaluation on objects and for the actual occurrence of a proposition than another? In order to answer this question, the adverbs can be The adverbs that have particularly high collocation analyzed in terms of the following sub questions.
rates with the "state of objects or description of situations"(G) are probably and likely (67.8% and 75%, respectively).
3) Sub questions for the degree of likelihood Examples of possibly with the human related propositions a. Is the proposition expressed with each adverb based (A-F) almost always accompany the auxiliary verb can, on or supported by evidence or good reasons? and it should be noted that the most of other instances b. Is the proposition expressed with each adverb of possibly; that is, those without the well-known theoretical or practical? partnership with can fall into category G. It seems that the three adverbs, probably, likely, and possibly, are often While it is quite hard to reach a definite answer for some used for evaluating non-human related propositions examples in the corpus due to the lack of context, there because they are associated with objectivity and are some instances that can be more clearly explained along the questions posited above. The following The most notable finding for perhaps is its examples of likely show that the propositions are relatively high co-occurrence with the "speaker' supported by evidence.
s behavior or state" (E) (15.3%, combining the written and spoken data). As in the example of 4) a. Phoebe: This is so fun. All right, what do we do perhaps given in (E) above, the sentences or utterances with perhaps that involve the 1st and 2nd persons are often Chandler: Well, now, I actually have to get to work.
suggestions. The following are additional examples to Phoebe: Most likely. [goes toward the door] Okay, illustrate this point.
m gonna be out there.
2) a. Joey: I'm afraid the situation is much worse than we (TV show Friends)3) expected. Your sister is suffering from a.subcranial hematoma. Perhaps we can discuss this over coffee.
b. (Joey is an actor, and the speakers are watching a (TV show Friends)3) TV series where he is on.) b. As you've read in the paper, I think this isn't the Joey: (smiling) Oh, they cut me out of the show.
most important thing we could be talking about right Rachel: (smiling) What?! now, but John Swofford assures me that this is an Ross: (smiling) Are you sure? issue that never goes away. So perhaps we just have Phoebe: (smiling) Maybe your scene' to keep dealing with it. Joey: (smiling) Not likely. ' Cause you see that body bag right there?Rachel: (smiling) Yeah.
Observing these examples, it is safe to say that perhaps Joey: (smiling) I' is often used pragmatically. This issue will be returned (TV show Friends)3) c. The reason for preposing the larger constituent Degree of Likelihood
(e.g. the entire PP rather than simply the discourse- As generally believed, if the five adverbs all old NP) is most likely syntactic. Ex. (i)a below express uncertainty or are used when the speaker/writer is grammatical, but (i)b and (i)c are not (on the is not sure about a proposition, is there any difference relevant reading): in the degree of likelihood expressed by the adverbs? Analysis on the Use of Synonymous Adverbs: Maybe, Perhaps, Possibly, Probably, and Likely (i)a. In the garden stood a fountain.
In (5a), the proposition that "a program for teaching b. *The garden stood a fountain in.
standard English cannot be very successful without c. *The garden stood in a fountain. (academic considering the broader conventions of language and article, Birner 1994, p.242)6) behavior" is supported by the plausible observation about people' s preference stated in the previous sentence. In (4a), the proposition that is expressed with likely in Similarly, with respect to "it depends on which state s words – "Phoebe and Chandler get to work" – re in and how progressive you are" and "it depends has a very high possibility that it actually occurs. Even on your perspective as to where you are" in (5b), the beginning of the realization is described by Phoebe' the speaker is not wildly guessing the possibility but behavior of going toward the door in order to leave the suggesting it with some plausible reasons. place where they were doing something fun and get Possibly may act slightly differently from likely to work. In (4b), the proposition that Joey' and probably in terms of whether or not the proposition coming up, which is expressed with not likely, has little is well evidenced. Consider the following examples.
chance to actually happen, and it is backed up by the good reason that Joey on TV is in a body bag. The little (6) a. Here again it seems to be the vagueness of make possibility expressed by not likely is simply a negation of that causes the idiomaticity. Possibly the root notion a high possibility expressed with likely. As often seen in was that one makes up for something by an act or academic articles, in (4c), the proposition – "the reason series of acts which makes---or more precisely, for preposing is syntactic" – is backed up by examples.
produces---a compensatory result. There are some instances of probably where the (academic article, Lindstromberg 1998, p.271)8).
proposition is supported by good reasons as follows.
b. Each finger has retained --possibly until the (5) a. In practically every case, people prefer a person death of the victim --the fearful grasp by which it who comes across as ‘polite but vernacular' to originally imbedded itself.
one who uses standard English forms without (novel The Murders in the Rue Morgue)9) adopting the appropriate conventions for carrying out various mainstream language functions. A In both (6a) and (6b), it is understood that the program for teaching standard English probably proposition expressed with possibly is one of several cannot be very successful without considering the possibilities. In other words, possibly admits that there broader conventions of language use and behavior exist some other views. For example, in (6a), there may (academic article, Wolfram and Schilling-Estes be other root notions for the vagueness of make. In (6b), 1998, p.291)7).
there may be some other phases before reaching the death. It seems that with possibly, the writer picks up one b. Marsh: you say it keeps us at a standstill. In Texas, of those views with their own reasoning, which is unsaid. this could move us way forward. It probably depends Comparing with the instances of likely and probably on which state you're in and how progressive you where the proposition is given with clear reasons, the are. I come from a very conservative state where examples in (6) might sound a little weaker in terms of changing assessment, from reading a paragraph the degree of likelihood.
to multiple choice questions to a whole passage It might be even rarer that the propositions was a major event. So it probably depends on your expressed with maybe or perhaps are based on solid perspective as to where you are. reasons. In most of the examples examined in this paper, the propositions described with these two adverbs are motivated by more personal beliefs rather than by solid evidence. In many cases, they are wild guesses. The following are some of those examples.
and possibly, share a common morphological feature. They have the negative forms unlikely, impossibly, and (7) a. Ross: Y'see, that's where you're wrong. Why would improbably, respectively. There are no negative prefixes I marry her if I thought on any level that-that she for maybe and perhaps. The pairs of positive and negative forms indicate two sides of a proposition. In other words, Roger: I dunno. Maybe you wanted your marriage a proposition can be stated in either one way or the opposite. This clearness seems to be consonant with Ross: Why? Why would I- why? Why? Why? Why? evidence-based propositions with which the adverbs Roger: I don't know. Maybe- maybe low self-esteem, often occur. Furthermore, the finding that likely, maybe- maybe to compensate for overshadowing a probably, and possibly have a higher collocation rate with sibling, maybe you… non-human propositions is compatible with the clearness (TV show Friends)3) property in that objective propositions are expected to be clear-cut than subjective ones.
b. Maybe you suffer from migraines and your doctor Given that the proposition with evidence or good has prescribed sumatriptan reasons has a higher possibility of actual occurrence, (Imitrex). You want to know more about the drug likely and probably seem to express a higher degree and its side effects. You might call up the Mayo of likelihood. Possibly might follow the two adverbs in Clinic on your computer and check out its Medicine the ranking, and maybe and perhaps might express the Center for a description of sumatriptan (or any least degrees. However, it should be noted that as in prescription drug) and its effects. the examples in (5), formal contexts such as academic (magazine Reader's Digest)10) articles and professional conferences require the speaker/writer to provide examples, evidence, or good reasons c. Perhaps you've been told you have multiple sclerosis. so that their discussions can be more argumentative (magazine Reader's Digest)10) or more convincing. Entailing many examples might not necessarily be linked to the actual likelihood of d. Howard Somers had always been afraid of heights. propositions. Whether or not the adverbs are used with Perhaps his fear was some sort of an omen. back-up information certainly serves as an indicator for (magazine Reader's Digest)10) determining the degree of likelihood, but it should not be a sole criterion.
In (7a), the speaker repeatedly uses maybe together Another criterion that might determine the with I don't know, and the way he lists his reasons degree of likelihood is whether the proposition expressed sounds rather thoughtless and almost irresponsible. with each adverb is theoretical or practical. To begin The sentences in (7b) and (7c) are both taken from with, consider the following examples of possibly.
a magazine, and in these examples, the addressee is an indefinite number of readers. The writer has no (8) a. In the case of on, a first step must be to decide idea which individual has what actual problems. The whether one is dealing with ont or onc or, possibly, sentences beginning with "Maybe you suffer…" and both at the same time "Perhaps you' ve been told" are quite hypothetical (academic article, Lindstromberg 1998, p.68)8).
– almost equivalent to "Suppose you suffer…" and ve been told…" Without specific reasons, b. I'm not sure how you could possibly do that, other the proposition described with perhaps in (7d) seems to than the fact of telling them that it's important. But be highly personal.
the idea of thinking about what could students do Interestingly, those adverbs that do not tend to be supported in doing the best they possibly can. to be based on wild guessing, namely likely, probably, Analysis on the Use of Synonymous Adverbs: Maybe, Perhaps, Possibly, Probably, and Likely The writer and the speaker in the examples in (8) are restricted environment as OED (second edition, VIII) talking theoretically, rather than practically. The writer states that "Now chiefly most likely, very likely; otherwise of (8a) lists up possible notions in theory, and the first rare" (p.949)12). Consider the following contrasts.
possibly in (8b) indicates "with all means," and the second one, "with the best effort" in theory. Theoretical (10) a. Chandler: I thought you were looking for some issues do not necessarily result in actual happening, kind of a fling.
and thus it may be the case that propositions expressed Rachel: Well, y'know, maybe.
with possibly have only a small degree of likelihood. To b. Chandler: I thought you were looking for some examine this point further, more examples are given kind of a fling.
Rachel: Well, y'know, perhaps.
c. Chandler: I thought you were looking for some (9) a. In addition to these sanctions, the United States kind of a fling.
could step up assistance to Israel's Arrow Rachel: Well, y'know, probably.
antimissile program to ensure that Israel will have d. Chandler: I thought you were looking for some adequate defenses by the time the Iranian missiles kind of a fling.
go into production, possibly in 1999.
Rachel: Well, y'know, possibly.
(magazine Reader's Digest)10) Out of maybe, perhaps, probably, and possibly, possibly b. The mission is the second wave of a long-term might suggest the least likelihood. One of the reasons assault on the planet aimed at learning more about why possibly tends to convey a less degree of likelihood its geology, climate and potential for supporting may be that the realization of the proposition is one of life, including possibly future visits by humans. the options available in theory, rather than a practical (newspaper The Washington Post)11) suggestion. As shown in (9a) and (9b), whether or not the proposition comes to be true is often determined by c. Rachel: Patrick and I had such a great time last circumstances rather than by human' s will. Even when night! I mean I think this could maybe turn into one wishes an event to happen, existing circumstances something serious.
or means may prevent it from happening.
Chandler: Really?! I-I thought you weren' In summary, likely and probably often occur with for something serious. I thought you were looking evidence and solid reasons, indicating that they have a for some kind of a fling.
higher degree of likelihood. Possibly also accompanies Rachel: Well, y'know, possibly. (pause) You didn' evidence or examples but is often used when the tell him that, though? Right? speaker/writer is discussing matters theoretically, which (TV show Friends)3) do not necessarily lead to actual happening unless the circumstances are favorable and allow them to happen. The writers in examples (9a) and (9b) sound as though Maybe and perhaps are more practical but are often they are hoping Israel' s having adequate defenses in used with wild guesses and highly personal speculation, 1999 and future visits by humans, respectively. The which does not yield much creditability for the issue of degree of likelihood of the propositions does not go beyond the writers' desire or ambition. In example (9c), the idea that the speaker was looking for some kind of a fling could be true only in an ambitious quest. There seem to be some differences among the Substituting possibly with other adverbs in (9c) may adverbs in terms of formality. Some adverbs might occur reveal interesting contrasts in the degree of likelihood in a formal context more often than others. One way of except for likely, which occurs as an adverb in the most determining "a formal context" is to find whether the adverbs are used in the spoken or written language. It five adverbs are sometimes used according to contexts is typically believed that the written language is more whose main constituents are interlocutors, situations, formal than the spoken one. The percentages of spoken and topics. When the words are used in this way, the and written data are summarized in Table 2 below. degree of likelihood or certainty of a proposition can be insignificant. The following is the list of pragmatic The way the data were gathered is not perfectly impartial, functions observed in the current corpus.
and thus nothing definite can be claimed. Yet, there may be several points worth mentioning. As shown in Table 2, (11) Pragmatic Functions maybe seems to be preferred much more strongly in the a. Hedging (politeness, defending oneself in case of a spoken language (90.3%) than in the written one (9.7%). Examples of this word were most easily found in the e.g. 1. (Ross has the doubt that his boss, Dr. Leedbetter spoken corpus, especially in the transcripts of a comedy might have eaten his sandwich.) show, which mostly consists of casual conversations Ross: (getting upset) Oh-oh really? Did you among close friends. Probably seems to be preferred in confuse it with your own turkey sandwich with a speech as well (67.7%), but it may not be very hard to find the word in writing unlike maybe (32.3%). Perhaps Dr. Leedbetter: No.
and possibly seem to be used both in speech and writing Ross: Do you perhaps seeing a note on top of it? with a slight favor towards writing (59.6% and 58.6%, Dr. Leedbetter: There may have been a-a joke or a limerick of some kind.
In terms of formality, several plausible proposals Ross: (getting angry) That said it was my
are posited as follows: 1) maybe is casual, 2) probably is more formal than maybe; and 3) perhaps is the most (TV show Friends)3) formal. As for possibly and likely, although they sound rather formal, other perspectives, such as the degree of e.g. 2. I agree with Marsh that probably it shouldn't likelihood, might override the issue of formality.
be first out of the box, but I think it needs to be included again because of the audience that we're trying to appeal to. And that's the student, not the It is important to mention that there exist policymakers. (professional conference)4) cases where the degree of likelihood or the degree of certainty becomes irrelevant or minimized. In her study of words that are used to determine degrees of e.g. 1. Paul: (over intercom) It's, uh, it's Paul.
certainty, Holmes (1984) states that "Boosters or lexical Monica: Oh God, is it 6:30? Buzz him in! items which express certainty or conviction (Holmes Joey: Who's Paul? 1983b) may function mainly to express the speaker' Ross: Paul the Wine Guy, Paul? attitude to the addressee rather than to the proposition being asserted" (p.49)13). As she claims, some of the Joey: Wait. Your 'not a real date' tonight is with Table 2. The Percentages of Spoken and Written Data
Analysis on the Use of Synonymous Adverbs: Maybe, Perhaps, Possibly, Probably, and Likely Paul the Wine Guy? e.g. 2. Strickland: I thought we might begin by having Ross: He finally asked you out? David and perhaps Eunice telling us what items that were in the minutes that were included in (TV show Friends)3) e.g. 2. Paul: Well, ever-ev-. ever since she left me, um, I haven't been able to, uh, perform. (Monica takes a sip of her drink) .Sexually. e.g. (Rachel is talking on the phone with her Dad.) Monica: (spits out her drink in shock) Oh God, oh Ross: You can see where he'd have trouble.
God, I am sorry. I am so sorry.
Rachel: Look Daddy, it's my life. Well maybe I'll Paul: It's okay.
just stay here with Monica. Monica: I know being spit on is probably not what Monica: Well, I guess we've established who's you need right now. Um. how long? staying here with Monica.
Paul: Two years.
Rachel: Well, maybe that's my decision. Well, (TV show Friends)3) maybe I don't need your money. Wait!! Wait, I said maybe!! (TV show Friends)3) e.g. Chandler: Well, it's official there are no good Janice: Well, let's go to a bad one and make out. e.g. Phoebe: This is nice. We never do anything just (they start to kiss and lean back into Monica.) the two of us.
Monica: Perhaps, you would like me to turn like Chandler: It's great. Maybe tomorrow we can rent this, (turns sideways on the couch) so that you can a car and run over some puppies.
bunny bump against my back.
(TV show Friends)3) (TV show Friends)3) e.g. Rachel: Oh Monica that was the best Thanksgiving m sure Mom never got your letter. Grandmother dinner ever! I think you killed us.
t have forwarded it. Perhaps, it' Ross: I couldn't possibly eat another bite. (TV show Friends)3) s been too long. It' s over and done with. s nothing you can do.
The examples given in (11) are mostly found in the (movie Lantern Hill)14) spoken corpus. Pragmatic functions such as those given above are more easily revealed in the spoken language since speakers are constantly subjected to rich e.g. Chandler: Yes, it's working! Why isn't she calling contexts that consist of interlocutors, situations, and topics. Yanofsky and Holisky (1979)15) report the use of Joey: Maybe she never got your message.
perhaps for encouragement (d) and request (f) as well (TV show Friends)3) as persuasion, which is not found in the current corpus. Holmes (1984)13) discusses hedging (a) in great detail. The propositions expressed in the examples for hedging e.g. 1. Rachel: (still trapped under Ross) Pheebs, (a), jokes (b), sarcasm (c), and request (f) are easily could you maybe hand me a cracker? true with no room for doubt. Those for encouragement (TV show Friends)3) (d), sympathy (e), provocation (g), suggestion (h), and exaggeration (i) are opposite. In these instances, Grandmother wouldn' t have forwarded it. the speakers are not concerned with whether or not the Possibly, it' s not too late.
propositions are true, but they focus on what effects are conveyed to the interlocutors. The substitution with possibly given in (12b) above is Table 3 shows the percentage of the spoken a very odd utterance, which no longer functions as an examples for each adverb clearly used for pragmatic encouragement. The use of possibly is often motivated by non-human factors or existing external power, and thus the adverb does not go with a statement of It is evident that perhaps is almost always used pragmatical y encouragement driven by an internal warm-hearted when it is spoken (95.2%). In contrast, possibly and likely do not seem to be preferred as pragmatic markers. Observations in the light of pragmatic use can The two examples that are counted as pragmatic use of be summarized as follows: 1) perhaps is salient in its possibly both take the form "I couldn't possibly." and are pragmatic function when used in the spoken language, 2) categorized into exaggeration (i). Maybe and probably possibly and likely are often used independently of seem to occur quite often in utterances with pragmatic pragmatic functions except when possibly is used as an functions (67.9% and 71.4%, respectively). In terms of exaggerator, and 3) maybe and probably often exhibit preferred functions, one might argue that perhaps and pragmatic functions, but maybe seems to be used in a maybe behave similarly in that they have a wider range wider range of situations. of usage. Yanofsky and Holisky (1979) state that "the observation we have made about the behavior of perhaps in these three restricted contexts (encouragement, In this section, the primary issues are to seek request, and persuasion) can be generalized for the class for a preference of each adverb for a syntactic position of possibility operators in ordinary English" (p.106)15). and to see if such a preference reveals differences in Their generalization might hold for maybe and partially meanings among the five adverbs. Table 4 demonstrates for probably, but not so much for possibly and likely. the percentage of each adverb's occurrences in three Indeed, the substitutions among maybe, perhaps, and different positions: a) sentence-initial, b) sentence- probably in many of the examples in (11) do not seem medial, and c) in fragments. There are no instances of to affect meanings too much while the substitutions the adverbs occurring in the sentence-final position in with possibly and likely might cause greater changes. As the examined data. for likely, the substitution is not even possible in many cases. Consider the example for encouragement (d) with Some words manifest their preferences rather clearly: the contrast between perhaps and possibly.
the initial position for maybe and the medial position for possibly and probably. Yanofsky and Holisky (1979) m sure Mom never got your letter.
provide a relevant account by comparing the following Grandmother wouldn' t have forwarded it. two sentences. Imagine that these sentences are uttered Perhaps, it' s not too late.
s party where everyone is waiting for a magician Jon who is scheduled to arrive one hour ago m sure Mom never got your letter. Table 3. The Pragmatic Use of the Adverbs
Analysis on the Use of Synonymous Adverbs: Maybe, Perhaps, Possibly, Probably, and Likely word may be inconsistent with emotional acts, such as (13) a. Perhaps Jon will come.
encouragement, sympathy, and provocation. This may be b. Jon will come perhaps.
a reason why probably seems to be more limited in its pragmatic functions than maybe and perhaps. It would be They argue that perhaps in (13a) functions as an very hard to find a sentence-initial likely due to its highly encouragement, which is most likely followed by reasons inflexible usage and its objectivity, a shared trait with why the speaker believes the proposition. In contrast, possibly and probably. they claim that (13b) is much less natural as an act of When the adverbs occur in fragments, they are encouragement. Although my data do not contain any always responses to the previous utterance as in "Well, sentence-final examples, their claim for the importance y'know, possibly" and "Not likely." As shown in Table 4, of the sentence-initial position for a pragmatic reason the instances of this type are rare for all the adverbs, and can be applied to the results of the data given in Table differences seem to attribute to the degree of likelihood 4. Maybe is one of the words which often function rather than syntactic positions. pragmatically, and it is often required to occur in this position so that the sentence becomes a proper statement Fuller Definitions of the Five Adverbs
of encouragement, suggestion, sympathy, or provocation. In this section, the discussions from semantic, Adverbs in the sentence-initial position could affect the stylistic, pragmatic, and syntactic perspectives are whole sentence and are capable of making the proposition amalgamated, and a fuller definition of each adverb is in the sentence stronger.
Perhaps, the most prominent pragmatic marker in the spoken language, is found to occur in both sentence- initial and sentence-medial positions almost equally Maybe is used when the speaker/writer is (46.2% and 50%, respectively). One possible explanation uncertain about a proposition he or she asserts. The for this behavior is that perhaps, unlike maybe, tends to proposition with this word can be a wild guess or based occur more in written texts where pragmatic functions on personal beliefs or on stronger reasons. Maybe is are not primary concern. Possibly much prefers the preferred in a casual context, such as in a conversation sentence-medial position (89.7%) to the sentence-initial with friends, and accordingly, it does not seem to position (6.9%), which is also compatible with the fact appear in formal writing very often. Apart from the that the adverb is often independent from pragmatic function of making an uncertain statement, it is used factors. Also, the circumstance-confined property of this when the speaker/writer wants to express his or her word may prevent it from putting emphasis on the whole attitudes toward the interlocutor. When used in this sentence from a personal point of view by occurring at manner, the primary function is not to express the the beginning of the sentence. Probably acts similarly as feeling of uncertainty, but rather to make a number of possibly in terms of syntactic positions. It is discussed social acts, such as encouragement, sympathy, jokes, above that this adverb often collocates with non-human hedges, sarcasm, suggestion, and so on. In some of type of propositions. The objective property of the these acts, maybe in the sentence-initial position works Table 4. Syntactic Positions
more effectively since the position affects the whole sentence, which may result in a stronger or more sincere The speaker/writer uses likely when he or she cannot guarantee the truth of a proposition but is highly positive about it. The propositions are usually backed up Perhaps is used when the speaker/writer wants with some good reasons or evidence, and the contents of to make an uncertain statement. However, when used the propositions are often non-human matters similarly in the spoken language, its pragmatic functions, such as possibly and probably. Likely is predominantly used to as hedges, encouragement, suggestion, jokes, sarcasm, express the speaker/writer' s view toward likelihood and request, and so on, are salient. These functions are often is not actively used as a pragmatic marker. It should also irrelevant to the degree of likelihood of the proposition. be noted that its usage as an adverb is nowadays very It seems that perhaps is rather formal and is less used in casual conversations and more used in written texts than maybe.
Five adverbs that express uncertainty, namely
maybe, perhaps, possibly, probably, and likely have been The speaker/writer uses possibly when he or she examined in detail. It is the major objective of this paper states indefinite yet possible matters with all means to reach a fuller definition of each word than what a or circumstances, or in other words, in theory. The dictionary typically provides. Semantic factors appear propositions expressed with possibly often sound as if to be central for discussing the adverbs, but the degree they do not have much chance to be true because being of likelihood turns out to be irrelevant when pragmatic controlled by external forces, they are less practical and factors are present. Stylistic or syntactic factors should more hypothetical. The propositions are often based on also be considered so as to reveal differences in meaning some sort of reasoning, and they are often impersonal or strengthen discovered differences. Synonymous words matters, such as states of objects, descriptions of should be treated more carefully in ESL/EFL classrooms situations, and the like. Because of this association with so that learners will not simply assume that those words objectivity, possibly is not as much a pragmatic marker are interchangeable. Teachers are better equipped with as perhaps, maybe, and probably. However, when it takes amalgamated views for synonymous words to help their t possibly…," it plays a role of students choose the best word in a given context.
exaggerating the statement or making it more emphatic.
Probably is one of the adverbs to express the speaker/writer' s uncertainty toward a proposition he 1) Collins Cobuild English Dictionary. Great Britain: or she states. It is favored in spoken contexts while Harper Collins Publishers (1995).
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its usage seems to be more limited than the other two adverbs. This may attribute to the fact that the collocated 4) Professional conference. Online. Internet. Available: propositions are often non-personal.
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CONTENTS Background 3Mission and Philisophy 3ISO9001 4Directors 5Management Team 6Shareholders 6Corporate Information 7Chairman's Statement 10Summary of operations for five years 12Corporate Social Responsibility 13 F I N A N C I A L S T A T E M E N T SDirector's Report 14Auditor's Report 16Profit and Loss Account 17Revenue Account 18Balance Sheet 19Statement Pursuant to Section 125 20Statement of Changes in Equity 21Statement of Cash Flows 22Notes to the Accounts 23Detailed Profit and Loss Account 30