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Cbd third national report - trinidad and tobago (english version)

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO
Third national report
CONTENTS
A. REPORTING PARTY . 2 Information on the preparation of the report. 3 B. PRIORITY SETTING, TARGETS AND OBSTACLES. 4 Priority Setting. 6 Challenges and Obstacles to Implementation. 7 2010 Target. 10 Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC). 36 Ecosystem Approach . 49 C. ARTICLES OF THE CONVENTION. 50 Article 5 – Cooperation. 50 Article 6 - General measures for conservation and sustainable use. 52 Biodiversity and Climate Change. 54 Article 7 - Identification and monitoring. 55 Decisions on Taxonomy . 58 Article 8 - In-situ conservation [Excluding paragraphs (a) to (e), (h) and (j)]. 61 Programme of Work on Protected Areas (Article 8 (a) to (e)) . 65 Article 8(h) - Alien species. 68 Article 8(j) - Traditional knowledge and related provisions . 72 GURTS . 72 Status and Trends . 72 Akwé:Kon Guidelines. 72 Capacity Building and Participation of Indigenous and Local Communities . 73 Support to implementation. 74 Article 9 - Ex-situ conservation. 75 Article 10 - Sustainable use of components of biological diversity. 77 Biodiversity and Tourism. 79 Article 11 - Incentive measures . 81 Article 12 - Research and training. 83 Article 13 - Public education and awareness. 85 Article 14 - Impact assessment and minimizing adverse impacts. 89 Article 15 - Access to genetic resources . 92 Article 16 - Access to and transfer of technology. 94 Programme of Work on transfer of technology and technology cooperation . 95 Article 17 - Exchange of information. 98 Article 18 - Technical and scientific cooperation . 99 Article 19 - Handling of biotechnology and distribution of its benefits . 101 Article 20 – Financial resources . 102 D. THEMATIC AREAS . 107 Inland water ecosystems. 109 Marine and coastal biological diversity . 111 Implementation of Integrated Marine and Coastal Area Management . 112 Marine and Coastal Living Resources . 113 Mariculture . 114 Alien Species and Genotypes . 115 Agricultural biological diversity . 116 Annex to decision V/5 - Programme of work on agricultural biodiversity. 117 Forest Biological Diversity. 120 General. 120 Expanded programme of work on forest biological diversity . 121 Biological diversity of dry and sub-humid lands. 127 Mountain Biodiversity. 129 E. OPERATIONS OF THE CONVENTION. 131 F. COMMENTS ON THE FORMAT. 133 A. REPORTING PARTY
Contracting Party Trinidad and Tobago Full name of the institution Ministry of Public Utilities and the Environment Name and title of contact Mr. Earl Nesbitt, Permanent Secretary. 16-18 Sackville St., Port of Spain, Trinidad (868) 625 - 6003 (868) 625 - 7003 CONTACT OFFICER FOR NATIONAL REPORT (IF DIFFERENT FROM ABOVE)
Full name of the institution Environmental Management Authority Name and title of contact #8 Elizabeth Street, St. Clair, Port of Spain (868) 628 - 8042 (868) 628 - 9122 Signature of officer responsible for submitting national report Date of submission Information on the preparation of the report
Please provide information on the preparation of this report, including information on stakeholders involved and material used as a basis for the report. This report was prepared through consultation with key stakeholders in biodiversity
management. Information was also obtained from documents and reports on programmes
and strategies related to biodiversity management.
The stakeholders consulted for the report are as follows:

Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources (MALMR)- Cynthra Persad, Dr.
Vishnu Mooledhar
Ministry of Public Utilities and the Environment – Dr. Dave Persaud
Environmental Management Authority- Robyn Cross
Forestry Division- Anthony Ramnarine, Seepersad Ramnarine
National Reforestation and Watershed Rehabilitation Programme (NRWRP)- Dr. Pascal
University of the West Indies (UWI)- Dr. Mike Oatham, Dr. P. Umaharan, Yasmin
Environment Tobago- Pat Turpin

The documents, reports and other materials used for the report are as follows:

EMA's Strategic Plan for 2003-2008
EMA's Environmentally Sensitive Areas, Species and Biodiversity Workplan for 2004-
National Environmental Policy
National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan
MALMR Draft Proposal- Developing the Capability and Capacity of the MALMR for the
implementation of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) in Trinidad and
Forestry Division Incentive Programme
NRWRP Strategic Plan 2004-2009
NRWRP Operational Plan 2004-2007
Pamphlet on Matura ESA participatory biological baseline survey
Educational brochures and pamphlets from the EMA
B. PRIORITY SETTING, TARGETS AND OBSTACLES
Please provide an overview of the status and trends of various components of biological diversity in your country based on the information and data available. Trinidad and Tobago are the two main islands of an archipelagic state situated at the south-
ern end of the chain of Caribbean islands known as the Windward Islands. Trinidad lies 32 km
from Tobago at its closest point, however, Trinidad lies approximately 13km away from the

Venezuelan mainland. Trinidad and Tobago is located between latitudes 100 and 110, 30
minutes north and lying between 600and 620 west longitude. The two islands have a com-
bined land area of 5126 km2. Being an island state Trinidad and Tobago has an Exclusive

Economic Zone (EEZ) comprising roughly 75,000 km2, approximately 15 times the land area.
Typically the climate is that of the tropics, with an annual rainfall range of 1200 to 3500 mm
and a mean temperature range of 22- 31 0C. The climate is characterized by distinct wet and

dry seasons. Marine conditions are heavily influenced by rainfall, nutrient and large freshwa-
ter volume output from the Orinoco River. Both islands lie on the South American Continental
Shelf and are directly influenced by the Orinoco and the South Equatorial Current. Separation

from the continental mainland occurred in recent geological times, about 11000 years for To-
bago and 1500 years for Trinidad. The biota and terrestrial habitats of Trinidad reflect the

ecology of equatorial South America unlike the other Windward islands which have ecosys-
tems dominated by island endemic species.
The range of terrestrial ecosystems include evergreen seasonal, semi-evergreen seasonal,
deciduous seasonal, littoral woodlands, lower montane rainforests, seasonal montane for-

ests, montane rainforests, elfin woodlands, swamp forests (including mangrove woodlands),
palm swamps, marshes and savannahs These support rich species diversity. Of 2160 species

of flowering plants, 110 are endemic, including many palms. There are approximately 420
species of birds, 100 mammals, 55 snakes, 25 amphibians and 85 reptiles.
Marine systems include the water masses; mud bottoms; coral reefs and communities; sandy
bottoms; rocky shores and mud flats. These support a range of macro and microbiota in the

benthos and water column. An estimated 36 species of reef building corals are found mainly
in the reefs of Tobago.
The biodiversity of T&T is special because of our comparative size, the number of species
relative to our size, and the variety of ecosystems within our small landmass. In Trinidad

there are a number of features associated with the various forests throughout the island.
Mangroves and wetlands are a habitat for waterfowl species like the Scarlet Ibis (Eudocimus

ruber). A few communities on the northern and eastern coasts of Trinidad have the extremely
unique feature of being nesting sites for marine turtles, particularly the leather back species.
In the insular Caribbean, Trinidad is the nesting area most frequented by the species.
The principal threats to biodiversity in T&T are as follows:

activities related to population growth
mismanaged planned development
unplanned development
squatting
deforestation
forest fires
domestic and industrial pollution
over harvesting of commercially important species, illegal hunting
habitat fragmentation

Trinidad and Tobago signed the CBD in 1992 and ratified it in August 1996. Further to this, in
accordance with Article 6 of the Convention, the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action

Plan (NBSAP) was developed. The primary objective of the NBSAP was "to assist the
Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago (GoRTT) in formulating a plan that would

identify priority actions for the conservation and wise use of the country's biodiversity, within
the context of its socioeconomic development". The NBSAP was completed in 2001. The

NBSAP report stated that ‘the priority issues identified for T&T's biodiversity, did not
slavishly follow the articles of the Convention, but suggested the direction that the country
should proceed to manage these resources at this particular point in its development". This

was indeed found to be the case when preparing the Third National Report. While there are
ongoing programmes and research related to biodiversity management and conservation,

they do not necessarily fall within the guidelines and targets set out in the Convention. Many
of the priority actions identified in the NBSAP continue to remain relevant today as they

relate to education and awareness, policy, legislation and enforcement, research and
capacity.
Some of the obstacles to biodiversity management and implementation of the Convention

were identified as follows:
Education and awareness
Capacity constraints
Lack of information and research
Sharing of information between agencies
Legal constraints- associated with passing of laws and enforcement
Ad hoc policy environment
Lack of organization
Lack of funding
Attitudes to biodiversity management
Inadequate personnel to conduct research
Priority Setting
1. Please indicate, by marking an "X" in the appropriate column below, the level of priority your
country accords to the implementation of various articles, provisions and relevant programmes of the work of the Convention. Level of Priority
Article/Provision/Programme of Work
a) Article 5 – Cooperation b) Article 6 - General measures for conservation and sustainable c) Article 7 - Identification and monitoring d) Article 8 – In-situ conservation e) Article 8(h) - Alien species f) Article 8(j) - Traditional knowledge and related provisions g) Article 9 – Ex-situ conservation h) Article 10 – Sustainable use of components of biological diversity i) Article 11 - Incentive measures j) Article 12 - Research and training k) Article 13 - Public education and awareness l) Article 14 - Impact assessment and minimizing adverse impacts m) Article 15 - Access to genetic resources n) Article 16 - Access to and transfer of technology o) Article 17 - Exchange of information p) Article 18 – Scientific and technical cooperation q) Article 19 - Handling of biotechnology and distribution of its r) Article 20 - Financial resources s) Article 21 - Financial mechanism t) Agricultural biodiversity u) Forest biodiversity v) Inland water biodiversity w) Marine and coastal biodiversity x) Dryland and subhumid land biodiversity y) Mountain biodiversity Challenges and Obstacles to Implementation
2. Please use the scale indicated below to reflect the level of challenges faced by your country in
implementing the provisions of the Articles of the Convention (5, 6,7, 8, 8h, 8j, 9, 10, 11,12, 13, 14,
15,16, 17, 18, 19 and 20) 3 = High Challenge 1 = Low Challenge 2 = Medium Challenge 0 = Challenge has been successfully overcome N/A = Not applicable Articles
Challenges
act, caused by 2 2010 Target

The Conference of the Parties, in decision VII/30, annex II, decided to establish a
provisional framework for goals and targets in order to clarify the 2010 global target
adopted by decision VI/26, help assess the progress towards the target, and promote

coherence among the programmes of work of the Convention. Parties and Governments
are invited to develop their own targets with this flexible framework. Please provide
relevant information by responding to the questions and requests contained in the

following tables.
Box III.

Promote the conservation of the biological diversity of
ecosystems, habitats and biomes.
Target 1.1
At least ten percent of each of the world's ecological regions
effectively conserved
I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. National targets have been developed for programmes of work related to agriculture and forests. In establishing the agricultural programme the 2010 global target was taken into consideration. The EMA has also established targets for the number of areas to be declared but not as an area percentage. II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
The Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources (MALMR) is developing a programme of work for conservation of crop biodiversity. A draft document titled "Developing the Capability and Capacity of the MALMR for the implementation of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) in Trinidad and Tobago" has been prepared. This document highlights specific targets to be achieved with respect to conservation of crop biodiversity as follows: • 60% of world's threatened species conserved in situ. • 60% of threatened plant species in accessible ex situ collections, preferably in the country of origin, and 10% of them included in recovery and restoration programmes. • 70% of the genetic diversity of crops and other socio- economically valuable plant species conserved, and associated indigenous knowledge maintained. • 30% of plant-based products derived from sources that are sustainably managed. The National Reforestation and Watershed Rehabilitation Programme (NRWRP) - This project includes the replanting of 11,000 acres of forest in watersheds to allow for watershed development and the recharging of aquifers. c) Marine and coastal d) Dry and subhumid land The National Reforestation and Watershed Rehabilitation Programme (NRWRP) is a project of the Ministry of Public Utilities and the Environment. The NRWRP is a 10 year programme which was started in January 2004. It aims to replant 33,030 acres of forest over the 10 year period. III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. National Reforestation and Watershed Rehabilitation Programme The National Reforestation and Watershed Rehabilitation Programme is funded annually through provisions made in the country's annual budget. This therefore allows for continuity in the 10 year programme and is a demonstration of how biodiversity conservation is being incorporated into the country's economic planning. Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources programme of work It is expected that the targets described in II (a) would be incorporated in the Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources Strategic Plan for the period 2005-2010. IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources The Minis try of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources Strategic Plan aims to establish strategic priorities for the Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources, set clear goals, objectives and strategies to guide its future activities. The Plan recognises the need for conservation of resources (namely water, fisheries and plants) and makes recommendations for addressing this need through structural readjustment of the MALMR. This restructuring process has been initiated. National Reforestation and Watershed Rehabilitation Programme A Strategic Plan has been developed for the first 5 years of the Programme i.e for the period 2004-2009. The Strategic Plan is accompanied by an Operational Plan which guides the implementation of the strategies over the first 3 years of the planning period (2004-2007). The Programme has identified 72 sites throughout Trinidad and Tobago for reforestation and watershed rehabilitation. The progress of the Programme as at September 2004 was as follows: • 29 worksites established • 11,653 acres of forest now protected • 80,000 seedlings planted • 69.2 km of fire trace have been established and maintained • 51 worksites now established The number of worksites established to date has increased to 51. V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. National Reforestation and Watershed Rehabilitation Programme • Community conflicts- This programme utilizes a community based approach. Conflicts among individuals in the community who may want to position themselves as programme leaders can hinder progress • Squatting- The presence of squatters who resist regularization for new settlers who have been designated to service the programme • Inaccessibility to critical areas • Politicisation of the programme - a change in the political regime can lead to termination • Forest fires • Sabotage- this refers to illegal activities in the forest, which include the cultivation of illegal drugs and the presence of trap guns. Provision of adequate security for personnel on the programme is therefore a challenge. VII) Please provide any other relevant information. Target 1.2
Areas of particular importance to biodiversity protected
National target: Has a natio nal target been established corresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. The Environmental Management Authority has developed an Environmentally Sensitive Areas, Species and Biodiversity Work Plan. This plan outlines a work programme for the period 2004-2007. One of the strategic objectives of the plan is to declare 8 Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) and develop and implement management plans for these 8 ESAs. National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
Nariva Swamp ESA, Caroni Swamp NP c) Marine and coastal Buccoo Marine Park ESA d) Dry and subhumid land Matura national Park ESA, Main Ridge ESA. Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. The Environmentally Sensitive Areas, Species and Biodiversity Work Plan has been incorporated into the Environmental Management Authority's Strategic Plan for 2003-2008. This Strategic Plan sets out goals for the next five years and describes what the organization intends to do to achieve a cleaner, healthier environment. "Healthy ecosystems" is one of the five strategic priorities identified in the Plan. Protection of areas important to biodiversity falls under this priority. Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. According to the Environmentally Sensitive Areas, Species and Biodiversity Work Plan four areas were to be designated Environmentally Sensitive Areas in 2004. This has been partly achieved with the designation of Matura and the proposed designation of Aripo Savannas, Buccoo Reef and Nariva Swamp as Environmentally Sensitive Areas. It is expected that 2 more Environmentally Sensitive Areas will be declared. These are the Main Ridge Reserve and the Caroni Swamp. It should be noted that both the Buccoo Reef and Caroni Swamp have recently been designated as Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar sites). In 2007 a further 2 Environmentally Sensitive Areas will be declared. The management plans for Matura and Buccoo Reef was the focus for 2004-2005. At present the Environmental Management Authority is working with the University of the West Indies (UWI) for the development of participatory research project on the area of Matura with the communities. Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. Please provide any other relevant information. Promote the conservation of species diversity
Target 2.1
Restore, maintain, or reduce the decline of populations of species of
selected taxonomic groups
I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. The Environmental Management Authority's Environmentally Sensitive Areas, Species and Biodiversity Work Plan also has as one of its strategic objectives, the designation of 10 Environmentally Sensitive Species (ESS). Another objective is the development and implementation of management plans for these 10 Environmentally Sensitive Species. II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
c) Marine and coastal d) Dry and subhumid land III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. This target for Environmentally Sensitive Species has also been included in the Environmental Management Authority's Strategic Plan. IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. For 2004-2005, three species were designated in June 2005 as follows: Sabrewing Hummingbird (Campylopterus ensipennis), Manatee (Trichechus manatus) and Pawi (Pipile pipile). The other spe-cies targeted for designation as Environmentally Sensitive Species are 5 species of marine turtles. Staff at the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine is currently drafting co-ordinated research plans for the twospecies: Sabrewing Hummingbird, and Pawi. It is expected that this research will be on-going and will serve as the basis for the development of species recovery plans (which are also called management plans). There is a management plan in existence for the Manatee, which was proposed by the Wildlife Section of the Forestry Division. With incoming research, this plan can be updated, and be used in the management of the Manatee. V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. VII) Please provide any other relevant information. Target 2.2
Status of threatened species improved
National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. The Environmental Management Authority's Work Plan on Environmentally Sensitive Species ad-dresses the issue of threatened species. The Work Plan targets 4 species for designation as Environ-mentally Sensitive Species for the period 2005-2005. According to the Work Plan the "government will establish a system of protection for Environmentally Sensitive Species of animals and plants which scientific evidence or international treaties to which Trinidad and Tobago is a signatory suggest are either endemic, endangered or vulnerable species". The Plan further states that "the fundamental goal of the Environmentally Sensitive Species policy is the full recovery of species to the point where the protection of being listed as an Environmentally Sensitive Species is not necessary." For the pe-riod 2006-2007 a further 6 species will be targeted for designation as Environmentally Sensitive Spe-cies. These species have not yet been decided. National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
c) Marine and coastal d) Dry and subhumid land Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. The target for Environmentally Sensitive Species has also been included in the Environmental Management Authority's Strategic Plan. Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. Please provide any other relevant information. Promote the conservation of genetic diversity
Genetic diversity of crops, livestock, and of harvested species of trees, fish
Target 3.1
and wildlife and other valuable species conserved, and associated
indigenous and local knowledge maintained

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. Targets have been developed for agriculture and forestry II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
• The Research Division of the Ministry is currently being restructured. One of the new programme areas is con- • Germplasm conservation- The Ministry has an existing germplasm collection (seed crops and root crops). There are 17 locations of germplasm within the Minis-try. • Agrogermplasm maintenance of (19) cassava selec- tions, (9) yam sele ctions, (28) sweet potato selections and 6 topitambu selections • Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC)- A Committee has been set up to address all the targets of • A Draft Proposal has been developed for the impleme n- tation of the GSPC in Trinidad & Tobago. This was pre-viously discussed in page 11. • University of the West Indies, St Augustine has a germ- plasm collection of hot peppers from Trinidad & Tobago and throughout the Caribbean. There are approximately 300 varieties in the collection. c) Marine and coastal d) Dry and subhumid land • National Reforestation and Watershed Rehabilitation • Forestry Division annual tree replanting programme - on average approximately 300 hectares replanted/year III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. • The Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources Strategic Plan for agricultural development for the period 2005-2010 will incorporate the conservation of genetic diversity. • National Reforestation and Watershed Rehabilitation Programme - funded annually through provi- sions made in the country's annual budget IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. VII) Please provide any other relevant information. Box VIII.
Promote sustainable use and consumption.
Biodiversity-based products derived from sources that are
Target 4.1
sustainably managed, and production areas managed consistent with
the conservation of biodiversity

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
c) Marine and coastal d) Dry and subhumid land III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. VII) Please provide any other relevant information. Target 4.2
Unsustainable consumption, of biological resources, or that impacts
upon biodiversity, reduced
I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. While there are no specific targets, the Forestry Division has measures which would prevent unsustainable consumption of biological resources. These include the following: • Harvesting of trees is regulated through a system of licensing. This allows the Forestry Division to keep track of the amount of trees extracted • Forestry Division issues hunting permits and monitors hunters by patrolling and through a network of game wardens • Existing system of forest reserves, wildlife Sanctuaries and prohibited areas to which access and harvesting is regulated. • No net loss policy- This is a system to deal with clearance of forests for oil exploration or pipeline corridors etc. It requires the company to replant the equivalent amount of forest cleared in a degraded area. • Concept of annual allowable harvest- the growth rate of the forest is determined and only the annual increment of the forest is harvested II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
c) Marine and coastal d) Dry and subhumid land III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. VII) Please provide any other relevant information. Target 4.3
No species of wild flora or fauna endangered by international trade
I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
c) Marine and coastal d) Dry and subhumid land III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. VII) Please provide any other relevant information. Pressures from habitat loss, land use change and degradation, and
unsustainable water use, reduced.

Target 5.1
Rate of loss and degradation of natural habitats decreased
National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. While national targets have not been established the National Environmental Policy provides guidance on habitat loss, land use change and degradation, and unsustainable water use. National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
c) Marine and coastal d) Dry and subhumid land Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. Please provide any other relevant information. Control threats from invasive alien species.
Target 6.1
Pathways for major potential alien invasive species controlled
I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. • A programme for invasive species is currently being developed through the Caribbean Working Group on Invasive Species (CWGIS). This would involve developing a database on invasive species. • Regional Project titled "Mitigating the threats of Invasive Alien Species in the Caribbean"- This is an initiative of CABI International- Details on the implementation were not available. II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
c) Marine and coastal d) Dry and subhumid land III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. VII) Please provide any other relevant information. The Revised National Environmental Policy has a section related to invasive species which states that the government of Trinidad & Tobago will undertake the following: • Promote public awareness to educate citizens on the risk of introducing exotic animals and plants to Trinidad & Tobago • Catalogue existing flora and fauna in order to properly id entify species that are indigenous to Trinidad & Tobago and species that have been introduced and have either become naturalized or invasive • Enhance the surveillance systems at ports of entry to monitor and prevent introductions of invasive species • Develop action plans to deal with invasive species; both at the national and regional levels
Box XIII.
Target 6.2
Management plans in place for major alien species that threaten
ecosystems, habitats or species
I) National target: Has a national target been established co rresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
c) Marine and coastal d) Dry and subhumid land III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. VII) Please provide any other relevant information. Address challenges to biodiversity from climate change, and pollution.
Target 7.1
Maintain and enhance resilience of the components of biodiversity to
adapt to climate change
National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
c) Marine and coastal d) Dry and subhumid land Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. Please provide any other relevant information. Target 7.2
Reduce pollution and its impacts on biodiversity
I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
c) Marine and coastal d) Dry and subhumid land III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. VII) Please provide any other relevant information. Maintain capacity of ecosystems to deliver goods and services and
support livelihoods.
Target 8.1
Capacity of ecosystems to deliver goods and services maintained
I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. The Environmental Management Authority's Strategic Plan has proposed: • Development and Implementation of Management Plans for eight (8) Environmentally Sensi- tive Areas. The Environmental Management Authority will identify and implement meaningful demonstration projects and opportunities for co -management that would involve communi-ties in their planning and execution (e.g. hillsides replanting and quarry restorations). Addi- tionally, the Environmental Management Authority will make biodiversity a part of holistic community programmes, which emphasise linkages between community activities and the II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
c) Marine and coastal d) Dry and subhumid land III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. VII) Please provide any other relevant information.
Box XVII.

Target 8.2
Biological resources that support sustainable livelihoods, local food
security and health care, especially of poor people maintained

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. The National Reforestation and Watershed Rehabilitation Programme is an example of a project that aims to meet this target. It has been designed to create meaningful long-term sustainable employment while at the same time addressing the issues of conservation and the wise use and enhancement of natural renewable resources. Some of the specific outcomes of the project include the following: • Employment generation (sustainable livelihoods) and poverty alleviation • Enhanced food security through increased food production as a result of agro-forestry II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
c) Marine and coastal d) Dry and subhumid land III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. VII) Please provide any other relevant information.
Box XVIII.

Maintain socio-cultural diversity of indigenous and local communities.
Target 9.1
Protect traditional knowledge, innovations and practices
I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
c) Marine and coastal d) Dry and subhumid land III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. VII) Please provide any other relevant information. Protect the rights of indigenous and local communities over their
Target 9.2
traditional knowledge, innovations and practices, including their
rights to benefit sharing

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. Community Based Organisations (CBOs) Some CBOs have recognized their right to chart the course of their community's development and in so doing protect their traditional knowledge, innovations and practices. This is seen in the creation of the community group Stakeholders Against Destruction (S.A.D) for Toco. In response to the gov- ernment's development plans for Toco, S.A.D. proposed an Alternative Development for Toco. This included a revival of the fishing and farming sectors, combined with development of community-based nature and heritage tourism. S.A.D's alte rnative was expected to allow for the creation of sustainable livelihoods for the people of Toco while at the same time protecting and conserving their environment and cultural heritage. Due to the actions of S.A.D the government's development plan was cancelled and S.A.D. is now actively collaborating with governmental and inte rnational agencies to implement its proposals and to build the necessary capacity at the local level. II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
c) Marine and coastal d) Dry and subhumid land III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. VII) Please provide any other relevant information. Ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the
use of genetic resources.
All transfers of genetic resources are in line with the Convention on
Target 10.1
Biological Diversity, the International Treaty on Plant Genetic
Resources for Food and Agriculture and other applicable agreements
I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
c) Marine and coastal d) Dry and subhumid land III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. VII) Please provide any other relevant information. Target 10.2
Benefits arising from the commercial and other utilization of genetic
resources shared with the countries providing such resources
I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
c) Marine and coastal d) Dry and subhumid land III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. VII) Please provide any other relevant information.
Box XXII.
Parties have improved financial, human, scientific, technical and
technological capacity to implement the Convention.

New and additional financial resources are transferred to developing
Target 11.1
country Parties, to allow for the effective implementation of their
commitments under the Convention, in accordance with Article 20
I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
c) Marine and coastal d) Dry and subhumid land III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. VII) lease provide any other relevant information.
Box XXIII.
Technology is transferred to developing country Parties, to allow for
Target 11.2
the effective implementation of their commitments under the
Convention, in accordance with its Article 20, paragraph 4

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above? b) Yes, the same as the global target c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established Please provide details below. II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es). Programme of work
c) Marine and coastal d) Dry and subhumid land III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes Please provide details below. IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target. V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target. VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target. VII) Please provide any other relevant information. Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC)
The Conference of the Parties, in decision VI/9, annex, adopted the Global Strategy for
Plant Conservation. Parties and Governments are invited to develop their own targets
with this flexible framework. The Conference of the Parties considered the Strategy as a

pilot approach for the use of outcome oriented targets under the Convention. In decision
VII/10, the Conference of the Parties decided to integrate the targets into the reporting
framework for the Third National Reports. Please provide relevant information by

responding to the questions and requests contained in the following tables.
Box XXIV.
Target 1. A widely accessible working list of known plant species, as a step towards a
complete world flora.
I) Has your country established national target corresponding to the above global target? A Committee was appointed in 2004 to address the targets of the GSPC. This Committee includes representatives from the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry Division, Horticultural Services Division, University of the West Indies, the National Herbarium, the Tobago House of Assembly and the Environmental Management Authority, and civil society organisations. A draft proposal titled "Developing the Capability and Capacity of the Ministry of Agriculture, Lands and Marine Resources for the implementation of the GSPC in Trinidad and Tobago" has been developed. This proposal has some of the targets of the GSPC but it is mainly concerned with the conservation of crop biodiversity. II) Has your country incorporated the above global or national target into relevant plans, programmes and strategies? • MALMR Draft Proposal on implementation of the GSPC • DARWIN Project – The University of the West Indies, Forestry Division and the University of Oxford, U.K. are involved in a project titled "A biodiversity monitoring system for Trinidad and Tobago". The duration of the project is from July 2005- July 2008. The project involves a detailed vegetation survey of a network of stratified- random sample plots in natural, disturbed and plantation forests throughout Trinidad and Tobago. The expected outcomes of the project include: an up-to-date inventory of the flora at project sites distribution and conservation status of rare, threatened and endangered species. III) Current status (please indicate current status related to this target) • Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources Proposal still exists only as a draft • Darwin Project- the funding has been received for this project. Field work began in September 2005. The project is expected to be in operation by year end. IV) Measures taken to achieve target (please indicate activities, legislative measures and other steps taken with a view to achieve the target) V) Progress made towards target (please specify indicators used to monitor progress towards the VI) Constraints to achieving progress towards the target VII) Any other relevant information Target 2. A preliminary assessment of the conservation status of all known plant species,
at national, regional and international levels.

I) Has your country established national target corresponding to the above global target? II) Has your country incorporated the above global or national target into relevant plans, programmes and strategies? Darwin Project will contribute to meeting this target. III) Current status (please indicate current status related to this target) IV) Measures taken to achieve target (please indicate activities, legislative measures and other steps taken with a view to achieve the target) V) Progress made towards target (please specify indicators used to monitor progress towards the VI) Constraints to achieving progress towards the target VII) Any other relevant information Box XXVI.
Target 3. Development of models with protocols for plant conservation and sustainable
use, based on research and practical experience.
I) Has your country established national target corresponding to the above global target? II) Has your country incorporated the above global or national target into relevant plans, programmes and strategies? III) Current status (please indicate current status related to this target) IV) Measures taken to achieve target (please indicate activities, legislative measures and other steps taken with a view to achieve the target) V) Progress made towards target (please specify indicators used to monitor progress towards the VI) Constraints to achieving progress towards the target VII) Any other relevant information
Box XXVII.

Target 4. At least ten percent of each of the world's ecological regions effectively
conserved.

I) Has your country established national target corresponding to the above global target? II) Has your country incorporated the above global or national target into relevant plans, programmes and strategies? III) Current status (please indicate current status related to this target) IV) Measures taken to achieve target (please indicate activities, legislative measures and other steps taken with a view to achieve the target) V) Progress made towards target (please specify indicators used to monitor progress towards VI) Constraints to achieving progress towards the target VII) Any other relevant information
Box XXVIII.

Target 5. Protection of fifty percent of the most important areas for plant diversity
assured.

I) Has your country established national target corresponding to the above global target? II) Has your country incorporated the above global or national target into relevant plans, programmes and strategies? III) Current status (please indicate current status related to this target) IV) Measures taken to achieve target (please indicate activities, legislative measures and other steps taken with a view to achieve the target) V) Progress made towards target (please specify indicators used to monitor progress towards the VI) Constraints to achieving progress towards the target VII) Any other relevant information
Box XXIX.

Target 6. At least thirty percent of production lands managed consistent with the
conservation of plant diversity.

I) Has your country established national target corresponding to the above global target? II) Has your country incorporated the above global or national target into relevant plans, programmes and strategies? III) Current status (please indica te current status related to this target) IV) Measures taken to achieve target (please indicate activities, legislative measures and other steps taken with a view to achieve the target) V) Progress made towards target (please specify indicators used to monitor progress towards VI) Constraints to achieving progress towards the target VII) Any other relevant information Target 7. Sixty percent of the world's threatened species conserved In-situ.
I) Has your country established national target corresponding to the above global target? II) Has your country incorporated the above global or national target into relevant plans, programmes and strategies? III) Current status (please indicate current status related to this target) IV) Measures taken to achieve target (please indicate activities, legislative measures and other steps taken with a view to achieve the target) V) Progress made towards target (please specify indicators used to monitor progress towards the VI) Constraints to achieving progress towards the target VII) Any other relevant information
Box XXXI.

Target 8. Sixty percent of threatened plant species in accessible Ex-situ collections,
preferably in the country of origin, and 10 percent of them included in recovery and

restoration programmes.
I) Has your country established national target corresponding to the above global target? II) Has your country incorporated the above global or national target into relevant plans, programmes and strategies? Crop species targets proposed in Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources proposal III) Current status (please indicate current status related to this target) IV) Measures taken to achieve target (please indicate activities, legislative measures and other steps taken with a view to achieve the target) V) Progress made towards target (please specify indicators used to monitor progress towards the VI) Constraints to achieving progress towards the target VII) Any other relevant information
Box XXXII.

Target 9. Seventy percent of the genetic diversity of crops and other major socio-
economically valuable plant species conserved, and associated indigenous and local
knowledge maintained.

I) Has your country established national target corresponding to the above global target? This is a target for crop species in the Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources Draft Proposal. II) Has your country incorporated the above global or national target into relevant plans, programmes and strategies? III) Current status (please indicate current status related to this target) IV) Measures taken to achieve target (please indicate activities, legislative measures and other steps taken with a view to achieve the target) V) Progress made towards target (please specify indicators used to monitor progress towards the VI) Constraints to achieving progress towards the target VII) Any other relevant information Box XXXIII.
Target 10. Management plans in place for at least 100 major alien species that threaten
plants, plant communities and associated habitats and ecosystems.
I) Has your country established national target corresponding to the above global target? II) Has your country incorporated the above global or national target into relevant plans, programmes and strategies? III) Current status (please indicate current status related to this target) IV) Measures taken to achieve target (please indicate activities, legislative measures and other steps taken with a view to achieve the target) V) Progress made towards target (please specify indicators used to monitor progress towards VI) Constraints to achieving progress towards the target VII) Any other relevant information
Box XXXIV.

Target 11. No species of wild flora endangered by international trade.
I) Has your country established national target corresponding to the above global target? II) Has your country incorporated the above global or national target into relevant plans, programmes and strategies? III) Current status (please indicate current status related to this target) IV) Measures taken to achieve target (please indicate activities, legislative measures and other steps taken with a view to achieve the target) V) Progress made towards target (please specify indicators used to monitor progress towards VI) Constraints to achieving progress towards the target VII) Any other relevant information
Box XXXV.

Target 12. Thirty percent of plant-based products derived from sources that are
sustainably managed.
I) Has your country established national target corresponding to the above global target? II) Has your country incorporated the above global or national target into relevant plans, programmes and strategies? III) Current status (please indicate current status related to this target) IV) Measures taken to achieve target (please indicate activities, legislative measures and other steps taken with a view to achieve the target) V) Progress made towards target (please specify indicators used to monitor progress towards VI) Constraints to achieving progress towards the target VII) Any other relevant information Box XXXVI.
Target 13. The decline of plant resources, and associated indigenous and local
knowledge, innovations and practices that support sustainable livelihoods, local food
security and health care, halted.

I) Has your country established national target corresponding to the above global target? II) Has your country incorporated the above global or national target into relevant plans, programmes and strategies? This is a target for crop species in the Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources Draft Proposal. III) Current status (please indicate current status related to this target) IV) Measures taken to achieve target (please indicate activities, legislative measures and other steps taken with a view to achieve the target) V) Progress made towards target (please specify indicators used to monitor progress towards the VI) Constraints to achieving progress towards the target VII) Any other relevant information
Box XXXVII.

Target 14. The importance of plant diversity and the need for its conservation
incorporated into communication, educational and public-awareness programmes.
I) Has your country established national target corresponding to the above global target? II) Has your country incorporated the above global or national target into relevant plans, programmes and strategies? This is a target for crop species in the Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources Draft III) Current status (please indicate current status related to this target) IV) Measures taken to achieve target (please indicate activities, legislative measures and other steps taken with a view to achieve the target) V) Progress made towards target (please specify indicators used to monitor progress towards the VI) Constraints to achieving progress towards the target VII) Any other relevant information
Box XXXVIII.

Target 15. The number of trained people working with appropriate facilities in plant
conservation increased, according to national needs, to achieve the targets of this

Strategy.
I) Has your country established national target corresponding to the above global target? II) Has your country incorporated the above global or national target into relevant plans, programmes and strategies? This is a target for crop species in the Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources Draft III) Current status (please indicate current status related to this target) IV) Measures taken to achieve target (please indicate activities, legislative measures and other steps taken with a view to achieve the target) V) Progress made towards target (please specify indicators used to monitor progress towards VI) Constraints to achieving progress towards the target VII) Any other relevant information
Box XXXIX.

Target 16. Networks for plant conservation activities established or strengthened at
national, regional and international levels.

I) Has your country established national target corresponding to the above global target? II) Has your country incorporated the above global or national target into relevant plans, programmes and strategies? This is a target for crop species in the Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources Draft Proposal III) Current status (please indicate current status related to this target) IV) Measures taken to achieve target (please indicate activities, legislative measures and other steps taken with a view to achieve the target) V) Progress made towards target (please specify indicators used to monitor progress towards the VI) Constraints to achieving progress towards the target VII) Any other relevant information Please elaborate below on the implementation of this strategy specifically focusing on: a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. Only targets for crop biodiversity have been set. Action is proposed but not yet
implemented. Database of crop species prepared but requires updating….this database was
a priority action of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.
Constraints include shortage of experienced or trained staff, inadequate resource
allocation.

Ecosystem Approach

The ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and
living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way.

Application of the ecosystem approach will help to reach a balance of the three objectives
of the Convention. At its second meeting, the Conference of the Parties has affirmed that
the ecosystem approach is the primary framework for action under the Convention

(decision II/8). The Conference of the Parties, at its fifth meeting, endorsed the
description of the ecosystem approach and operational guidance and recommended the

application of the principles and other guidance on the ecosystem approach. The seventh
meeting of the Conference of the Parties agreed that the priority at this time should be
facilitating implementation of the ecosystem approach. Please provide relevant

information by responding to the following questions.
3. ? 1 Is your country applying the ecosystem approach, taking into account the principles and
guidance contained in the annex to decision V/6? (decision V/6)
b) No, but application is under consideration c) Yes, some aspects are being applied d) Yes, substantially implemented 4. ? Is your country developing practical expressions of the ecosys tem approach for national
policies and legislation and for implementation activities, with adaptation to local, national, and
regional conditions? (decision V/6) b) No, but development is under consideration c) Yes, practical expressions have been developed for applying some principles of the ecosystem approach d) Yes, practical expressions have been developed for applying most principles of the ecosystem approach 5. Is your country strengthening capacities for the application of the ecosystem approach, and
providing technical and financial support for capacity-building to apply the ecosystem approach? (decision V/6) b) Yes, within the country c) Yes, including providing support to other Parties 6. ? Has your country promoted regional cooperation in applying the ecosystem approach across
national borders? (decision V/6) b) Yes, informal cooperation (please provide details below) c) Yes, formal cooperation (please provide details below) 1 Please note that all the questions marked with ? have been previously covered in the second national reports
and some thematic reports. Further comments on regional cooperation in applying the ecosystem approach across national borders. 7. Is your country facilitating the exchange of experiences, capacity building, technology transfer
and awareness raising to assist with the implementation of the ecosystem approach? (decisions VI/12 and VII/11) b) No, some programmes are under development c) Yes, some programmes are being implemented (please provide details d) Yes, comprehensive programmes are being impleme nted (please provide details below) Further comments on facilitating the exchange of experiences, capacity building, technology transfer and awareness raising to assist with the implementation of the ecosystem approach. 8. Is your country creating an enabling environment for the implementation of the ecosystem
approach, including through development of appropriate institutional frameworks? (decision VII/11) b) No, but relevant policies and programmes are under development c) Yes, some policies and programmes are in place (please provide d etails d) Yes, comprehensive policies and programmes are in place (please provide details below) Further comments on the creation of an enabling environment for the implementation of the ecosystem approach. C. ARTICLES OF THE CONVENTION
Article 5 – Cooperation
9. ? Is your country actively cooperating with other Parties in respect of areas beyond national
jurisdiction for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity? b) Yes, bilateral cooperation (please give details below) c) Yes, multilateral cooperation (please give details below) d) Yes, regional and/or subregional cooperation (please give details e) Yes, other forms of cooperation (please give details below) Further comments on cooperation with other Parties in respect of areas beyond national jurisdiction for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. 10. Is your country working with other Parties to develop regional, subregional or bioregional
mechanisms and networks to support implementation of the Convention? (decision VI/27 A) b) No, but consultations are under way c) Yes, some mechanisms and networks have been established (please provide details below) d) Yes, existing mechanisms have been strengthened (please provide Further comments on development of regional, subregional or bioregional mechanisms and networks to support implementation of the Convention. Attempts have been made for regional initiatives e.g. A Caribbean Sea project for funding by the GEF. However it was rejected by the GEF. 11. Is your country taking steps to harmonize national policies and programmes, with a view to
optimizing policy coherence, synergies and efficiency in the implementation of various multilateral
environment agreements (MEAs) and relevant regional initiatives at the national level? (decision VI/20) No, but steps are under consideration Yes, some steps are being taken (please specify below) Yes, comprehensive steps are being taken (please specify below) Further comments on the harmonization of policies and programmes at the national level. Framework policy (Vision 2020) addresses policy integration but not dedicated to MEA integration. Please elaborate below on the implementation of this strategy specifically focusing on: a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. Cooperation mechanisms exist, though not formally utilized, since cooperative
arrangements at the regional level are not yet a priority for implementation of the strategy.
Harmonization of policies and programmes are desirable but the administrative framework
is insufficient to support such an exercise.

Constraints include misplaced capacity constraints priorities the accompeand weak
leadership in biodiversity conservation.


Article 6 - General measures for conservation and sustainable use

12. Has your country put in place effective national strategies, plans and programmes to provide a
national framework for implementing the three objectives of the Convention? (Goal 3.1 of the Strategic Plan) b) No, but relevant strategies, plans and programmes are under c) Yes, some strategies, plans and programmes are in place (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive strategies, plans and programmes are in place (please provide details below) Further comments on the strategies, plans and programmes for implementing the three objectives of Some of these programmes include: • National Reforestation and Watershed Rehabilitation Programme • Annual reafforestation programme of the Forestry Division • Darwin Project • Designation of Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) and Environmentally Species Sensitive (ESSs) • Management Plans for ESAs and ESSs • Environmental Management Authority's Strategic Plan for 2003-2008 • Development of a Strategic Plan for agricultural development for the period 2005-2010. • Draft Proposal for implementation of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. • Germplasm conservation and agro germplasm maintenance in the Ministry of Agriculture • Tourism and sustainable tourism initiatives • Pawi conservation and research project in Grand Riveriere • White tailed Sabre Wing Research project in Tobago • Updating of legislation for CITES, Wildlife and policy (Wetland and Environmental policies) The above programmes and plans all contribute to Trinidad and Tobago's implementation of the objectives of the Convention. 13. ? Has your country set measurable targets within its national strategies and action plans?
(decisions II/7 and III/9)
No, measurable targets are still in early stages of development No, but measurable targets are in advanced stages of development Yes, relevant targets are in place (please provide details below) Yes, reports on implementation of relevant targets available (please provide details below) Further comments on targets set within national biodiversity strategies and action plans. • The Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources Draft Proposal for implementation of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation sets out targets for conservation of crop • Targets have been set with respect to designation of Environmentally Sensitive Areas and Environmentally Sensitive Species • Targets for reafforestation 14. Has your country identified priority actions in its national biodiversity strategy and action plan?
(decision VI/27 A)
No, but priority actions are being identified Yes, priority actions identified (please provide details below) Further comments on priority actions identified in the national biodive rsity strategy and action plan. Priority actions have been identified in the national biodiversity strategy and action plan for each of the following areas: • Education and Awareness • Legislation and Enforcement • Institution and Capacity • Information and Research • Policy and Commitment. Some of the priority actions which can be considered relevant to Article 6 include: • Commission an interdisciplinary Working Group which will develop a visionary policy and action plan for Environmental Education that will have biodiversity conservation and sustainable development as its basis. • Identify and implement meaningful demonstration projects and opportunities for co- management that would involve communities in their planning and execution. (e.g. hillside replanting, quarry restorations) • Make biodiversity a part of holistic community programmes, which emphasizes linkages between community activities and the environment. • Develop and update legislation for conservation of protected areas, landscapes and species, consistent with current international trends. • Build on existing law enforcement initiatives for protection of species and ecosystems. • Conduct a detailed inventory of the resource, including the status and distribution of species important for agrodiversity conservation as well as the economic value of ecosystem services. • Research the ecological relationships, ecosystems and the threats to biodiversity, as well as develop indicators for monitoring environmental changes affecting biodiversity. 15. Has your country integrate d the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity as well as
benefit sharing into relevant sectoral or cross-sectoral plans, programmes and policies? (decision VI/27 A) b) Yes, in some sectors (please provide details below) c) Yes, in major sectors (please provide details below) d) Yes, in all sectors (please provide details below) Further information on integration of the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and benefit-sharing into relevant sectoral or cross-sectoral plans, programmes and policies. 16. Are migratory species and their habitats addressed by your country's national biodiversity
strategy or action plan (NBSAP)? (decision VI/20) I) If YES, please briefly describe the extent to which it addresses
(a) Conservation, sustainable use and/or restoration of migratory species (b) Conservation, sustainable use and/or restoration of migratory species' habitats, including protected areas (c) Minimizing or eliminating barriers or obstacles to migration (d) Research and monitoring for migratory (e) Transboundary movement II) If NO, please briefly indicate below
(a) The extent to which your country Nariva Swamp declared a RAMSAR site and also addresses migratory species at serves as refuge for migratory bird species. (b) Cooperation with other Range States Biodiversity and Climate Change
17. Has your country implemented projects aimed at mitigating and adapting to climate change that
incorporate biodiversity conservation and sustainable use? (decision VII/15)
b) No, but some projects or programs are under development c) Yes, some projects have been implemented (please provide details Further comments on the projects aimed at mitigating and adapting to climate change that incorporate biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. Vulnerability study of Nariva Swamp under the Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change Project expected to start next year. 18. Has your country facilitated coordination to ensure that climate change mitigation and
adaptation projects are in line with commitments made under the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change and the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification?
(decision VII/15) b) No, but relevant mechanisms are under development c) Yes, relevant mechanisms are in place (please provide details below) Further comments on the coordination to ensure that climate change mitigation and adaptation projects are in line with commitments made under the UNFCCC and the UNCCD.
Box XLII.

Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article and associated decisions specifically focusing on: a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. Through the Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Climate Change and the Mainstreaming
Adaptation to Climate Change projects some pilot studies were done and others are
planned. However no adaptation or mitigation measures have as yet been put in place.
Constraints include limited in-country climate change adaptation/mitigation expertise; low
national priority, and a lack of strong policy support.

Article 7 - Identification and monitoring
19. ? On Article 7(a), does your country have an ongoing programme to identify components of
biological diversity at the genetic, species, ecosystem level? b) Yes, selected/partial programmes at the genetic, species and/or ecosystem level only (please specify and provide details below) c) Yes, complete programmes at ecosystem level and selected/partial inventories at the genetic and/or species level (please specify and provide details below) Further comments on ongoing programmes to identify components of biodiversity at the genetic, species and ecosystem level. The following projects contribute to identifying and monitoring components of biological diversity at the genetic, species or ecosystem level: • Darwin Project- this project involves developing an up-to-date inventory of plant species. • Ministry of Agriculture- A structured database has been developed for crop genetic resources. There are plans for the database to be continuously updated. • Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESA), Species and Biodiversity Work Plan • Forestry Division monitors the amount of trees sold in any one year and there are restrictions on the sizes and species that can be sold. • Forestry Division- involved in some monitoring of birds, game species and permanent forest plots. The University of the West Indies and the Wildlife Section of the Forestry Division are working on developing a methodology to monitor game species. • Turtle tagging is also done at Matura and the data is lodged at the Institute of Marine Affairs. There is an ongoing systematic monitoring programme for sea turtles. • PhD study on the genetic diversity of 5 forest species which is expected to be completed by the end of 2005. • The International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T)contains one of the most diverse
collections of cacao germplasm in the world and has been designated a Universal Collection by IPGRI, the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. This genebank is managed and maintained by the Cocoa Research Unit, University of the West Indies • Environmental Management Authority/University of the West Indies Matura ESA biological baseline survey will also include monitoring. • NGO, Buccoo Reef Trust and the Tobago House of Assembly monitor coral reefs in Tobago. Nine (9) permanent stations have been set up around Tobago to monitor reefs. There is also the implementation of an IWCAM project which involves setting up environmental GIS moni-toring of reefs and watersheds in Tobago. • Tobago House of Assembly and the Fisheries Division have an ongoing fisheries data collec- • State owned petroleum company, Petrotrin, involved in baseline monitoring and research on flora and fauna. • South Chamber of Commerce involved in a project which focuses on the legacy of petroleum on the environment. This will also involve some monitoring activities. The Insitute of Marine Affairs is involved in the following identification and monitoring activities: • Caribbean Coastal Monitoring Productivity Programme (CARICOMP)- focus is on coral reefs and sea grass beds. • Monitoring of sea grass communities at sites in T&T to document physical and biological characteristics. This will form part of an ecological database. • Work done with Fisheries Division on local species of commercial importance. Ageing of fishes done for stock assessment and management of fish stocks. • Compiled a checklist of marine macro algae. • Has a reference collection of marine flora and fauna. 20. ? On Article 7(b), which components of biological diversity identified in accordance with Annex I
of the Convention, have ongoing, systematic monitoring programmes?
a) at ecosystem level (please provide percentage based on area covered) b) at species level (please provide number of species per taxonomic group and percentage of total known number of species in each c) at genetic level (please indicate number and focus of monitoring Further comments on ongoing monitoring programmes at the genetic, species and ecosystem level. Leatherback turtles tagged and monitored at several nesting beaches. 21. ? On Article 7(c), does your country have ongoing, systematic monitoring programmes on any
of the following key threats to biodiversity?
b) Yes, invasive alien species (please provide details below) c) Yes, climate change (please provide details below) d) Yes, pollution/eutrophication (please provide details below) e) Yes, land use change/land degradation (please provide details below) f) Yes, overexploitation or unsustainable use (please provide details Further comments on monitoring programmes on key threats to biodiversity. 22. ? On Article 7 (d), does your country have a mechanism to maintain and organize data derived
from inventories and monitoring programmes and coordinate information collection and management at the national level? b) No, but some mechanisms or systems are being considered c) Yes, some mechanisms or systems are being established d) Yes, some mechanisms or systems are in place (please provide details e) Yes, a relatively complete system is in place (please provide details Further information on the coordination of data and information collection and management. The Ministry of Agriculture has a structured database for crop genetic resources which is e xpected to be continuously updated. The database is also expected to eventually incorporate GIS, digital images and historical data. There are also plans to implement a national database with the University of the West Indies. University of the West Indies • There are plans to set up a website on data collected from the Matura ESA biological baseline • Through the Darwin project a flora database is expected to be developed. Turtle tagging data is lodged at the Institute of Marine Affairs. Fisheries Database for fisheries in both Trinidad and Tobago (Tobago House of Assembly) Environmental Management Authority The Authority's Certificate of Environmental Clearance process often requires monitoring data to be submitted. This data is housed at the Environmental Management Authority but has not yet been organized in a database. Buccoo Reef Trust (NGO) Database on reef monitoring and also incorporating data from other sources. 23. ? Does your country use indicators for national-level monitoring of biodiversity? (decision
b) No, but identification of potential indicators is under way (please c) Yes, some indicators identified and in use (please describe and, if available, provide website address, where data are summarized and d) Yes, a relatively complete set of indicators identified and in use (please describe and, if available, provide website address, where data are summarized and presented Further comments on the indicators identified and in use.
Box XLIII.

Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article and associated decisions specifically a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. No national monitoring of key elements of biodiversity or impacts on biodiversity
established. This is not yet considered a national priority, hence resources at the Ministry
level are not allocated to this activity.
Constraints include the lack of a national mechanism for deciding on priority elements of

biodiversity for monitoring and lack of leadership to access resources and direct a national
monitoring programme.

Decisions on Taxonomy
24. ? Has your country developed a plan to impleme nt the suggested actions as annexed to decision
IV/1? (decision IV/1) b) No, but a plan is under development c) Yes, a plan is in place (please provide details below) d) Yes, reports on implementation available (please provide details Further information on a plan to implement the suggested actions as annexed to decision IV/1. 25. ? Is your country investing on a long-term basis in the development of appropriate
infrastructure for your national taxonomic collections? (decision IV/1) b) Yes (please provide details below) Further information on investment on a long-term basis in the development of appropriate infrastructure for your national taxonomic collections. The work of the National Herbarium is an example of long-term development of the appropriate infrastructure for the country's national taxonomic collection. The activities of the Herbarium include: • Identification of plants • Plant Collecting • Specimen Preparation and Mounting • Collection Maintenance • Library Maintenance • Computerization of the Herbarium Records • Computerization of the Library Records • Research • Exhibition Organisation • Correspondence • Documentation While there is no evidence of a plan to implement the suggested actions in Decision IV/1, participation in the Darwin Project can be considered as the first step towards implementation. The project involves a partnership with the University of Oxford, UK and it is being funded by the U.K. Department of the Environment Darwin Initiative. While the duration of the Darwin Project is 3 years, it is expected that the additional infrastructure and capacity built during that time will be maintained by the National Herbarium. At the end of the Darwin Project the following is expected: • At least 10,000 new accessions in the herbarium collection • Database accessible via the National Herbarium website • An increase in the number of personnel in the Forestry Division and University of the West Indies students with taxonomic skills. 26. ? Does your country provide training programmes in taxonomy and work to increase its capacity
of taxonomic research? (decision IV/1)
b) Yes (please provide details below) Further information on training programmes in taxonomy and efforts to increase the capacity of taxonomic research. The Curator at the herbarium provides training in taxonomy to undergraduate students at the University of the West Indies. 27. ? Has your country taken steps to ensure that institutions responsible for biological diversity
inventories and taxonomic activities are financially and administratively stable? (decision IV/1) b) No, but steps are being considered c) Yes, for some institutions d) Yes, for all major institutions 28.∗ 2 Is your country collaborating with the existing regional, subregional and global initiatives,
partnerships and institutions in carrying out the programme of work, including assessing regional taxonomic needs and identifying regional-level priorities? (decision VI/8) 2 The questions marked with in this section on Taxonomy are similar to some questions contained in the format
for a report on the implementation of the programme of work on the Global Taxonomy Initiative. Those countries that have submitted such a report do not need to answer these questions unless they have updated information to b) No, but collaborative programmes are under development c) Yes, some collaborative programmes are being implemented (please provide details about collaborative programmes, including results of regional needs assessments) d) Yes, comprehensive collaborative programmes are being implemented (please provide details about collaborative programmes, including results of regional needs assessment and priority identification) Further informatio n on the collaboration your country is carrying out to implement the programme of work for the GTI, including regional needs assessment and priority identification. 29. ∗ Has your country made an assessment of taxonomic needs and capacities at the national level
for the implementation of the Convention? (annex to decision VI/8) b) Yes, basic assessment made (please provide below a list of needs and capacities identified) c) Yes, thorough assessment made (please provide below a list of needs and capacities identified) Further comments on national assessment of taxonomic needs and capacities. 30. ∗ Is your country working on regional or global capacity building to support access to, and
generation of, taxonomic information in collaboration with other Parties? (annex to decision VI/8) b) Yes, relevant programmes are under development c) Yes, some activities are being undertaken for this purpose (please provide details below) d) Yes, many activities are being undertaken for this purpose (please provide details below) Further comments on regional or global capacity-building to support access to, and generation of, taxonomic information in collaboration with other Parties. 31. ∗ Has your country developed taxonomic support for the implementation of the programmes of
work under the Convention as called upon in decision VI/8? (annex to decision VI/8) b) Yes, for forest biodiversity (please provide details below) c) Yes, for marine and coastal biodiversity (please provide details below) d) Yes, for dry a nd sub-humid lands (please provide details below) e) Yes, for inland waters biodiversity (please provide details below) f) Yes, for mountain biodiversity (please provide details below) g) Yes, for protected areas (please provide details below) h) Yes, for agricultural biodiversity (please provide details below) i) Yes, for island biodiversity (please provide details below) Further comments on the development of taxonomic support for the implementation of the programmes of work under the Convention. 32. ∗ Has your country developed taxonomic support for the implementation of the cross-cutting
issues under the Convention as called upon in decision VI/8? b) Yes, for access and benefit-sharing (please provide details below) c) Yes, for Article 8(j) (please provide details below) d) Yes, for the ecosystem approach (please provide details below) e) Yes, for impact assessment, monitoring and indicators (please provide f) Yes, for invasive alien species (please provide details below) g) Yes, for others (please provide details below) Further comments on the development of taxonomic support for the implementation of the cross-cutting issues under the Convention. Article 8 - In-situ conservation
[excluding paragraphs (a) to (e), (h) and (j)]
33. ? On Article 8(i), has your country endeavored to provide the conditions needed for
compatibility between present uses and the conservation of biological diversity and sustainable use of
No, but potential measures are being identified Yes, some measures undertaken (please provide details below) Yes, comprehensive measures undertaken (please provide details Further comments on the measures taken to provide the conditions needed for compatibility between present uses and the conservation of biological diversity and sustainable use of its components. The programmes of work for the Forestry Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Land and Marine Resources and the Environmental Management Authority have all been designed to take into consideration the need for compatibility between present uses and the conservation of biological diversity and sustainable use of its components. Forestry • In-situ conservation restricted largely to the management of large trees • There is an existing sys tem of forest and nature reserves. (36 forest reserves) • Wildlife sanctuaries (13) • Other prohibited areas( Buccoo Reef), Matura Beach, Fishing Pond, Grand Riviere during tur- • Guidelines are being developed for selection and management of priority areas • Forest reserves are managed Environmental Management Authority Designation of Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) with associated guidelines • Nariva Swamp ESA (proposed), RAMSAR site • Buccoo Marine Park ESA (proposed), RAMSAR site • Aripo Savannah (proposed) • Matura national Park ESA • Caroni swamp national park (proposed ESA) designated RAMSAR site Some management is in place for these ESAs. Buccoo Reef and Matura have management commit- tees but there are human resource constraints in active manageme nt. The following projects/programmes have assisted in rehabilitating and restoring degraded ecosys-tems and promoting the recovery of threatened species: • National Reforestation and Watershed Rehabilitation Programme • Macaw project with CREST • No net loss policy- system to deal with clearance of forests for oil exploration or pipeline cor- ridors etc. It requires the company to replant the equivalent amount of forest cleared in a degraded area. • Nariva replanting and forest fire prevention • Tobago House of Assembly reforestation efforts • South west Tobago waste water collection and treatment project 34. ? On Article 8(k), has your country developed or maintained the necessary legislation and/or
other regulatory provisions for the protection of threatened species and populations?
No, but legislation is being developed Yes, legislation or other measures are in place (please provide details Further information on the legislation and/or regulations for the protection of threatened species and • Wildlife Act, Forest Act, Environmental Management Authority Act 2000 and its Environmentally Sensitive Areas and Species Rules 2001, Marine Areas (Preservation and Enhancement) Act. A National Parks Bill exits and the CITES Bill has been drafted. • Designation of 10 Environmentally Sensitive Species (ESS) – For 2004-2005, three species were targeted for designation as follows: Sabrewing Hummingbird (Campylopterus ensipennis), Manatee (Trichechus manatus) and Pawi (Pipile pipile). 35. ? On Article 8(l), does your country regulate or manage processes and categories of activities
identified under Article 7 as having significant adverse effects on biological diversity?
No, but relevant processes and categories of activities being identified Yes, to a limited extent (please provide details below) Yes, to a significant extent (please provide details below) Further comments on the regulation or management of the processes and categories of activities identified by Article 7 as having significant adve rse effects on biodiversity. The Environmental Management Authority's Strategic Plan identifies water as one of its strategic priorities. A number of strategic objectives were developed in the Plan and includes the following: • Facilitate Parliamentary approval for Water Pollution Rules and Register • Develop and implement a Water Pollution Permit system • Develop ambient water quality standards for three (3) river basins- We shall improve the quality I. Providing for the restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical and biological in- tegrity of the nation's waters. II. Providing wherever attainable, water quality for the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, wildlife and recreation in and on the water; and III. Utilisation of the country's water for public water supplies, propagation of fish and wildlife, recreation, agriculture, industrial purposes and navigation • Develop watershed management programmes for three (3) watersheds. A watershed approach is a strategy for effectively protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems and protecting human • Develop a Non-Point Source (NPS) pollution programme. Developing legislation that ensures state lands are properly managed during land farming, mining, logging as well as developing leg-islation that protect watershed and groundwater resources can prevent and control NPS pollution. Subsidiary legislation of the Environmental Management Act such as the Certificate of Environment Clearance (CEC) Rules and the Certificate of Environment Clearance (CEC) Order are relevant to Goal 5. The Certificate of Environmental Clearance Order is a pre-requisite of the Rules. By this Order the Minis-ter of Planning and Development will designate certain new or significantly modified activities which would require a Certificate of Environmental Clearance to be issued. If it is determined that an activity falls within the designated activities in the Order, the person intending to carry out the activity must first apply for a Certificate of Environmental Clearance in accordance with the Rules. Some of the categories of projects that are identified for a Certificate of Environmental Clearance in the Certificate of Environ-mental Clearance Order include: agriculture, coastal and marine development, mining and quarrying, oil and gas exploitation and heavy manufacturing industries. These activities are considered to have the po-tential for significant adverse effects or risks to the environment. Certificate of Environmental Clearances therefore allow for the environmental consequences of such activities to be evaluated and where nece s- sary modified to ensure that adverse effects on the environment are kept to a minimum. Other regulatory provisions include: Forestry • Harvesting of trees is regulated through a system of licensing. This allows the Forestry Division to keep track of the amount of trees extracted. • Periodic block system at Victoria/Mayaro • Permits for entry into prohibited areas • Special game licences, monitors hunting, and patrols and through a network of game wardens • Permits required to enter reservoir/dam areas • Cap on number of trawlers, prohibition of trawling within 2miles of north coast of Trinidad. • Use of Turtle Exclusion Devices, regulation of mesh size in fishing nets • Zoning and mooring buoys to restrict anchoring on reefs
Town & Country Planning Division: can restrict development in environmentally sensitive areas or areas
of high biodiversity concern.

Box XLIV.
Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article and associated decisions specifically a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and actio n plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation
Some activities are regulated under the appropriate legislation, however enforcement is

generally weak. The existing institutional arrangement for in-situ conservation of
biodiversity is inadequate; some inter-institutional conflicts have emerged and resource
allocations are often inadequate.


Programme of Work on Protected Areas (Article 8 (a) to (e))

36. Has your country established suitable time bound and measurable national-level protected areas
targets and indicators? (decision VII/28)
a) No (please specify reasons) b) No, but relevant work is under way c) Yes, some targets and indicators established (please provide details d) Yes, comprehensive targets and indicators established (please provide Further comments on targets and indicators for protected areas. Establishment of Environmentally Sensitive Areas ongoing. 8 areas to be designated by 2007. 37. Has your country taken action to establish or expand protected areas in any large or relatively
unfragmented natural area or areas under high threat, including securing threatened species?
(decision VII/28) b) No, but relevant programmes are under development c) Yes, limited actions taken (please provide details below) d) Yes, significant actions taken (please provide details below) Further comments on actions taken to establish or expand protected areas. The Environmental Management Authority's Environmentally Sensitive Areas, Species and Biodiversity Work Plan is relevant here. It identifies several areas which are considered to be under high threat for designation as Environmentally Sensitive Areas. These areas include the Buccoo Reef, Nariva Swamp and Caroni Swamp. This Administrative Record for designating Buccoo Reef as an Environmentally Sensitive Area and a National Park under the Environmentally Sensitive Areas Rules, 2001 states that "Environmentally Sensitive Areas designation can allow for the conservation of natural resources and the protection of the environment, including the protection of species that are threatened and are listed under the An- nexes of the SPAW Protocol and the Appendices of CITES". The designation of the Matura National Park as an Environmentally Sensitive Area is allowing for the protection and conservation of rare and endangered orchids and a number of bird and mammal spe- 38. Has your country taken any action to address the under representation of marine and inland
water ecosystems in the existing national or regional systems of protected areas? (decision VII/28) b) Not applicable c) No, but relevant actions are being considered d) Yes, limited actions taken (please provide details below) e) Yes, significant actions taken (please provide details below) Further comments on actions taken to address the under representation of marine and inland water ecosystems in the existing national or regional systems of protected areas. Three wetland sites designated as Ramsar Sites. These are also be declared Environmentally Sensitive Areas. 39. Has your country identified and implemented practical steps for improving the integration of
protected areas into broader land and seascapes, including policy, planning and other measures?
(decision VII/28) b) No, but some programmes are under development c) Yes, some steps identified and implemented (please provide details d) Yes, many steps identified and implemented (please provide details Further comments on practical steps for improving integration of protected areas into broader land and seascapes, including policy, planning and other measures. 40. Is your country applying environmental impact assessment guidelines to projects or plans for
evaluating effects on protected areas? (decision VII/28) b) No, but relevant EIA guidelines are under development c) Yes, EIA guidelines are applied to some projects or plans (please provide details below) d) Yes, EIA guidelines are applied to all relevant projects or plans (please provide details below) Further comments on application of environmental impact assessment guidelines to projects or plans for evaluating effects on protected areas. A certificate of Environmental Clearance is required and is usually granted after the submission and review of an EIA. 41. Has your country identified legislative and institutional gaps and barriers that impede effective
establishment and management of protected areas? (decision VII/28) b) No, but relevant work is under way c) Yes, some gaps and barriers identified (please provide details below)) d) Yes, many gaps and barriers identified (please provide details below) Further comments on identification of legislative and institutional gaps and barriers that impede effective establishment and management of protected areas. Three previous studies on the establishment of protected areas have identified the legislative and institutional gaps and made recommendations, however little has been done to implement many of these recommendations. 42. Has your country undertaken national protected-area capacity needs assessments and
established capacity building programmes? (decision VII/28)
b) No, but assessments are under way c) Yes, a basic assessment undertaken and some programmes established (please provide details below) d) Yes, a thorough assessment undertaken and comprehensive programmes established (please provide details below) Further comments on protected-area capacity needs assessment and establishment of capacity building programmes. 43. Is your country implementing country-level sustainable financing plans that support national
systems of protected areas? (decision VII/28) b) No, but relevant plan is under development c) Yes, relevant plan is in place (please provide details below) d) Yes, relevant plan is being implemented (please provide details below) Further comments on implementation of country-level sustainable financing plans that support national systems of protected areas. 44. Is your country implementing appropriate methods, standards, criteria and indicators for
evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas management and governance? (decision VII/28)
b) No, but relevant methods, standards, criteria and indicators are under c) Yes, some national methods, standards, criteria and indicators developed and in use (please provide details below) d) Yes, some national methods, standards, criteria and indicators developed and in use and some international methods, standards, criteria and indicators in use (please provide details below) Further comments on methods, standards, criteria and indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas management and governance. Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article and associated decisions specifically a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation.
The CBD's Programme of Work on Protected Areas has not been used as a guide for national
action. There was insufficient information available to determine whether or not any, or

how many of the targets, goals or prescribed action will be translated at the local level.

Article 8(h) - Alien species
45. Has your country identified alien species introduced into its territory and established a system
for tracking the introduction of alien species?
Yes, some alien species identified but a tracking system not yet Yes, some alien species identified and tracking system in place Yes, alien species of major concern identified and tracking system in place 46. ? Has your country assessed the risks posed to ecosystems, habitats or species by the
introduction of these alien species?
Yes, but only for some alien species of concern (please provide details Yes, for most alien species (please provide details below) Further information on the assessment of the risks posed to ecosystems, habitats or species by the introduction of these alien species. • Pink mealy bug risk to crops, ornamentals and forest species assessed. Also the Green Mussel accidenta lly introduced into coastal wetlands via ballast water in the West of the Country. • Risk assessed for introduction of seamoss (marine algae) for cultivation in Tobago 47. ? Has your country undertaken measures to prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate,
those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species?
b) No, but potential measures are under consideration c) Yes, some measures are in place (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive measures are in place (please provide details Further information on the measures to prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or species. Plant and animal quarantine procedures at ports of entry, control measures for the pink mealy bug and other introduced insect pests developed and implemented. National Environmental Policy has a section related to invasive species 48. ? In dealing with the issue of invasive species, has your country developed, or involved itself in,
mechanisms for international cooperation, including the exchange of best practices? (decision V/8)
b) Yes, bilateral cooperation c) Yes, regional and/or subregional cooperation d) Yes, multilateral cooperation 49. ? Is your country using the ecosystem approach and precautionary and bio -geographical
approaches as appropriate in its work on alien invasive species? (decision V/8)
b) Yes (please provide details below) Further comments on the use of the ecosystem approach and precautionary and bio-geographical approaches in work on alien invasive species. 50. Has your country identified national needs and priorities for the implementation of the Guiding
Principles? (decision VI/23)
b) No, but needs and priorities are being identified c) Yes, national needs and priorities have been identified (please provide below a list of needs and priorities identified) Further comments on the identification of national needs and priorities for the implementation of the Guiding Principles. 51. Has your country created mechanisms to coordinate national programmes for applying the
Guiding Principles? (decision VI/23) b) No, but mechanisms are under development c) Yes, mechanisms are in place (please provide details below) Further comments on the mechanisms created to coordinate national programmes for implementing the Guiding Principles. 52. Has your country reviewed relevant policies, legislation and institutions in the light of the Guiding
Principles, and adjusted or developed policies, legislation and institutions? (decision VI/23)
b) No, but review under way c) Yes, review completed and adjustment proposed (please provide d) Yes, adjustment and development ongoing e) Yes, some adjustments and development completed (please provide Further information on the review, adjustment or development of policies, legislation and institutions in light of the Guiding Principles. 53. Is your country enhancing cooperation between various sectors in order to improve prevention,
early detection, eradication and/or control of invasive alien species? (decision VI/23) b) No, but potential coordination mechanisms are under consideration c) Yes, mechanisms are in place (please provide details below) Further comments on cooperation between various sectors. 54. Is your country collaborating with trading partners and neighboring countries to address threats
of invasive alien species to biodiversity in ecosystems that cross international boundaries? (decision VI/23) b) Yes, relevant collaborative programmes are under development c) Yes, relevant programmes are in place (please specify below the measures taken for this purpose) Further comments on collaboration with trading partners and neighboring countries. • Participation in the Caribbean Working Group on Invasive Species (CWGIS). • Regional Project titled "Mitigating the threats of Invasive Alien Species in the Caribbean"- This is an initiative of CABI International • Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI) is undertaking a project with University of Florida. 55. Is your country developing capacity to use risk assessment to address threats of invasive alien
species to biodiversity and incorporate such methodologies in environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA)? (decision VI/23) b) No, but programmes for this purpose are under development c) Yes, some activities for developing capacity in this field are being undertaken (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive activities are being undertaken (please provide Further information on capacity development to address threats of invasive alien species. 56. Has your country developed financial measures and other policies and tools to promote activities
to reduce the threats of invasive species? (decision VI/23)
b) No, but relevant measures and policies are under development c) Yes, some measures, policies and tools are in place (please provide d) Yes, comprehensive measures and tools are in place (please provide Further comments on the development of financial measures and other policies and tools for the promotion of activities to reduce the threats of invasive species.
Box XLVI.

Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article and associated decisions specifically focusing on: a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. Some measures in place, however these are constrained by a lack of trained personnel, and
limited national awareness on the risks posed by alien invasive species, and an inadequate

national control programme.

Article 8(j) - Traditional knowledge and related provisions
57. Has your country created and developed capacity-building programmes to involve and enable
smallholder farmers, indigenous and local communities, and other relevant stakeholders to effectively participate in decision-making proce sses related to genetic use restriction technologies? b) No, but some programmes are under development c) Yes, some programmes are in place (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive programmes are in place (please provide details Further comments on capacity-building programmes to involve and enable smallholder farmers, indigenous and local communities and other relevant stakeholders to effectively participate in decision-making processes related to GURTs. Status and Trends
58. Has yo ur country supported indigenous and local communities in undertaking field studies to
determine the status, trends and threats related to the knowledge, innovations and practices of
indigenous and local communities? (decision VII/16)
b) No, but support to relevant studies is being considered c) Yes (please provide information on the studies undertaken) Further information on the studies undertaken to determine the status, trends and threats related to the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities, and priority actions identified. Akwé:Kon Guidelines
59. Has your country initiated a legal and institutional review of matters related to cultural,
environmental and social impact assessment, with a view to incorporating the Akwé:Kon Guidelines
into national legislation, policies, and procedures? b) No, but review is under way c) Yes, a review undertaken (please provide details on the review) Further information on the review. The Environmental Management Authority's Certificate of Environmental Clearance (CEC) system incorporates to some extent these Guidelines as follows: • It facilitates interaction between the applicants proposing an activity and the relevant • Allows for use Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) where necessary. The EIA process facilitates public participation and seeks to address and minimize potential and adverse impacts as well as contributes to environmental management through monitoring. • Identifies and apportions responsibilities for participants in the EIA process. 60. Has your country used the Akwé:Kon Guidelines in any project proposed to take place on sacred
sites and/or land and waters traditionally occupied by indigenous and local communities? (decision
b) No, but a review of the Akwé: Kon guidelines is under way c) Yes, to some extent (please provide details below) d) Yes, to a significant extent (please provide details below) Further information on the projects where the Akwé:Kon Guidelines are applied. Capacity Building and Participation of Indigenous and Local Communities
61. Has your country undertaken any measures to enhance and strengthen the capacity of
indigenous and local communities to be effectively involved in decision-making related to the use of their traditional knowledge, innovations and practices relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity? (decision V/16) b) No, but some programmes being developed c) Yes, some measures taken (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive measures taken (please provide details below) Further information on the measures to enhance and strengthen the capacity of indigenous and local communities. Rural communities have organised themselves into formal groups for the purpose of making a more effective contribution to resource management. In so doing there has been improved co-operation among the state, private enterprise and the rural communities through co management of natural resources. NGOs and Community Based Organisations (CBOs) have been instrumental in raising awareness for the value of biodiversity in Trinidad and Tobago and the benefits of conservation and protection of natural resources. In the North East region of the country, a number of NGO's have been promoting eco -tourism in the area, and have been able to showcase the scenic beauty of area to eco-tourists to both locals and foreign travelers. Some of the activities are as follows: • The Matura to Matelot (M2M) Network of Community Based Organisations has been involved in the CREP initiative (Caribbean Resource Environment Programme) that is based on the d e- velopment of amenity areas and services for the sustainable utilization and conservation of resources in the North East. • The work of the CBO S.A.D. for Toco highlights how local communities can be actively in- volved in decision-making. The Toco community successfully opposed a major government- backed port and ferry development, which it considered contrary to its best interests, and put forward instead an alternative deve lopment plan for the area. • Lobbying for the Creation of a Nature and Heritage Park in the Salibay/Galera area of Toco village- S.A.D. is now lobbying the government to invest in the preservation of this serene and scenic area, and to convert it into a revenue and employment-generating Nature and Heritage Park. This would provide an exceptional amenity area for local and international visi- Tobago Heritage Festival: promotes traditional uses and cultivation of crops and other plants. Carib Community: traditional uses of plants Traditional hunting practices maintained 62. Has your country developed appropriate mechanisms, guidelines, legislation or other initiatives
to foster and promote the effective participation of indigenous and local communities in decision
making, policy planning and development and implementation of the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity at international, regional, subregional, national and local levels? (decision V/16) b) No, but relevant mechanisms, guidelines and legislation are under c) Yes, some mechanisms, guidelines and legislation are in place (please provide details below) Further information on the mechanisms, guidelines and legislation developed. The National Environment Policy (2005) encourages stakeholder participation in decision making. The EMA has constituted committees for the management of Environmentally Sensitive Areas on which community based organisations and NGOs are represented. 63. Has your country developed mechanisms for promoting the full and effective participation of
indigenous and local communities with specific provisions for the full, active and effective participation of women in all elements of the programme of work? (decision V/16, annex) b) No, but relevant mechanisms are being developed c) Yes, mechanisms are in place (please provide details below) Further comments on the mechanisms for promoting the full and effective participation of women of indigenous and local communities in all elements of the programme of work. Support to implementation
64. Has your country established national, subregional and/or regional indigenous and local
community biodiversity advisory committees? b) No, but relevant work is under way 65. Has your country assisted indigenous and local community organizations to hold regional
meetings to discuss the outcomes of the decisions of the Conference of the Parties and to prepare for meetings under the Convention? b) Yes (please provide details about the outcome of meetings) Further information on the outcome of regional meetings. 66. Has your country supported, financially and otherwise, indigenous and local communities in
formulating their own community development and biodiversity conservation plans that will enable
such communities to adopt a culturally appropriate strategic, integrated and phased approach to their development needs in line with community goals and objectives? b) Yes, to some extent (please provide details below) c) Yes, to a significant extent (please provide details below) Further information on the support provided. Nature Seekers Inc from Matura given technical assistance by the Forestry Division in their Turtle Conservation programme. Some support provided through the GEF Small Grants Programme for community projects related to biodiversity conservation.
Box XLVII.

Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article and associated decisions specifically focusing on: a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Stra tegic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation.
While there is some involvement of local communities, they still lack sufficient influence in
decision-making at the national project and Ministry level. Limited capacity of many local
communities also determines the level of their involvement. Capacity development of local

communities to have meaningful participation in the conservation of biodiversity is not an
activity that receives priority funding and is perhaps the major constraint.

Article 9 - Ex-situ conservation
67. ? On Article 9(a) and (b), has your country adopted measures for the ex-situ conservation of
components of biological diversity native to your country and originating outside your country?
b) No, but potential measures are under review c) Yes, some measures are in place (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive measures are in place (please provide details Further information on the measures adopted for the ex-situ conservation of components of biodiversity native to your country and o riginating outside your country. The Botanical Gardens and the Emperor Valley Zoo are two of the more popular examples of ex-situ conservation. They function largely as passive recreational centres for urban, sub-urban dwellers and school children. Other examples of ex-situ conservation include: • Point-a-Pierre Wildfowl trust • Wildlife farms/Parks in Tobago • Seed/gene banks of agricultural crops eg anthuriums, pepper. • Nurseries of local trees • Experimental stations with economically important species, eg cocoa 68. ? On Article 9(c), has your country adopted measures for the reintroduction of threatened
species into their natural habitats under appropriate conditions?
No, but potential measures are under review Yes, some measures are in place (please provide details below) Yes, comprehensive measures are in place (please provide details below) Further comments on the measures for the reintroduction of threatened species into their natural habitats under appropriate conditions. Reintroduction of macaws through programme with CREST and the Wildlife Section of the Forestry Division. Some measure are also in place for waterfowl and other game species. 69. ? On Article 9(d), has your country taken measures to regulate and manage the collection of
biological resources from natural habitats for ex-situ conservation purposes so as not to threaten
ecosystems and in-situ populations of species?
No, but potential measures are under review Yes, some measures are in place (please provide details below) Yes, comprehensive measures are in place (please provide details Further information on the measures to regulate and manage the collection of biolo gical resources from natural habitats for ex-situ conservation purposes so as not to threaten ecosystems and in-situ populations of species. Registration of pet trade operators who breed some birds for export or local sale.
Box XLVIII.

Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article and associated decisions specifically focusing on: a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. Ex-situ conservation not yet seen as a national priority hence significant resources are not
allocated to the implementation of this article.

Article 10 - Sustainable use of components of biological diversity
70. ? On Article 10(a), has your country integrated consideration of the conservation and
sustainable use of biological resources into national decision-making?
No, but steps are being taken Yes, in some relevant sectors (please provide details below) Yes, in most relevant sectors (please provide details below) Further information on integrating consideration of conservation and sustainable use of biological resources into national decision-making. Programmes in agriculture, forestry all incorporate the concept of sustainable use of biological resources. The Environmental Management Authority's Strate gic Plan and the National Environmental Policy also emphasize the need for sustainable use of biological resources. 71. ? On Article 10(b), has your country adopted measures relating to the use of biological
resources that avoid or minimize adverse impacts on biological diversity?
No, but potential measures are under review Yes, some measures are in place (please provide details below) Yes, comprehensive measures are in place (please provide details below) Further information on the measures adopted relating to the use of biological resources that avoid or minimize adverse impacts on biological diversity. Guidelines for hunting and extraction of trees by Forestry Division can be considered as measures which minimize adverse impacts on biological diversity. EIA's as part of the planning process of CEC's (Certificates of Environmental Clearance) 72. ? On Article 10(c), has your country put in place measures that protect and encourage
customary use of biological resources that is compatible with conservation or sustainable use requirements? No, but potential measures are under review Yes, some measures are in place (please provide details below) Yes, comprehensive measures are in place (please provide details below) Further information on the measures that protect and encourage customary use of biological resources that is compatible with conservation or sustainable use requirements. 73. ? On Article 10(d), has your country put in place measures that help local populations develop
and implement remedial action in degraded areas where biological diversity has been reduced?
No, but potential measures are under review Yes, some measures are in place (please provide details below) Yes, comprehensive measures are in place (please provide details below) Further information on the measures that help local populations develop and implement remedial action in degraded areas where biodiversity has been reduced. • Private forestry programmes • Community reforestation (Govt and NGO initiatives) • Honorary game wardens 74. ? Has your country identified indicators and incentive measures for sectors relevant to the
conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity? (decision V/24) b) No, but assessment of potential indicators and incentive measures is c) Yes, indicators and incentive measures identified (please describe Further comments on the identification of indicators and incentive measures for sectors relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. 75. ? Has your country implemented sustainable use practices, programmes and policies for the
sustainable use of biological diversity, especially in pursuit of poverty alleviation? (decision V/24)
b) No, but potential practices, programmes and policies are under review c) Yes, some policies and programmes are in place (please provide d) Yes, comprehensive policies and programmes are in place (please provide details below) Further information on sustainable use programmes and policies. 76. ? Has your country developed or explored mechanisms to involve the private sector in
initiatives on the sustainable use of biodiversity? (decision V/24) No, but mechanisms are under development Yes, mechanisms are in place (please describe below) Further comments on the development of mechanisms to involve the private sector in initiatives on the sustainable use of biodiversity. Guardian Life Wildlife Trust Fund, bpTT and other corporate clients assist in funding or sponsoring events related to sustainable use of biodiversity. 77. Has your country initiated a process to apply the Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for the
Sustainable Use of Biodiversity? (decision VII/12)
b) No, but the principles and guidelines are under review c) Yes, a process is being planned d) Yes, a process has been initiated (please provide detailed information) Further information on the process to apply the Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for the Sustainable Use of Biodiversity. 78. Has your country taken any initiative or action to develop and transfer technologies and provide
financial resources to assist in the application of the Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for the Sustainable Use of Biodiversity? (decision VII/12) b) No, but relevant pro grammes are under development c) Yes, some technologies developed and transferred and limited financial resources provided (please provide details below) d) Yes, many technologies developed and transferred and significant financial resources provided (please provide details below) Further comments on the development and transfer of technologies and provision of financial resources to assist in the application of the Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for the Sustainable Use of Biodiversity. Biodiversity and Tourism
79. ? Has your country established mechanisms to assess, monitor and measure the impact of
tourism on biodiversity?
b) No, but mechanisms are under development c) Yes, mechanisms are in place (please specify below) d) Yes, existing mechanisms are under review Further comments on the establishment of mechanisms to assess, monitor and measure the impact of tourism on biodiversity. Some mechanisms are in place which relates to tourism and biodiversity. These include: • Tourism Development Act - under this Act a Certificate of Environmental Clearance is required for any activity. • Trinidad and Tobago signed the Convention establishing the Sustainable Tourism Zone of the Caribbean. Under this Convention is the Sustainable Tourism Indicators which recognises biodiversity as part of sustainability. The Convention is still to be ratified. 80. ? Has your country provided educational and training programmes to the tourism operators so
as to increase their awareness of the impacts of tourism on biodiversity and upgrade the technical
capacity at the local level to minimize the impacts? (decision V/25)
b) No, but programmes are under development c) Yes, programmes are in place (please describe below) Further comments on educational and training progra mmes provided to tourism operators. 81. Does your country provide indigenous and local communities with capacity-building and financial
resources to support their participation in tourism policy-making, development planning, product
development and management? (decision VII/14) b) No, but relevant programmes are being considered c) Yes, some programmes are in place (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive programmes are in place (please provide details Further comments in the capacity-building and financial resources provided to indigenous and local communities to support their participation in tourism policy-making, development planning, product development and management. Management Committees for Environmentally Sensitive Areas have had specific capacity building activities to assist members in understanding their functions. 82. Has your country integrated the Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism Development in the
development or review of national strategies and plans for tourism development, national biodiversity strategies and actions plans, and other related sectoral strategies? (decision VII/14) a) No, but the guidelines are under review b) No, but a plan is under consideration to integrate some principles of the guidelines into relevant strategies c) Yes, a few principles of the guidelines are integrated into some sectoral plans and NBSAPs (please specify which principle and sector) d) Yes, many principles of the guidelines are integrated into some sectoral plans and NBSAPs (please specify which principle and sector) Further information on the sectors where the principles of the Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism Development are integrated. Box XLIX.
Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article and associated decisions specifically a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. No national programme on sustainable use has been developed. Actions by tourism sector
and others have been ad hoc. Sustainable use by one industry may have a different

interpretation by another industry. No active coordinating mechanism exists to ensure
sustainable use of biodiversity among ministries.

Article 11 - Incentive measures
83. ? Has your country established programmes to identify and adopt economically and socially
sound measures that act as incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of components of
biological diversity? b) No, but relevant programmes are under development c) Yes, some programmes are in place (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive programmes are in place (please provide details Further comments on the programmes to identify and adopt incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. 84. ? Has your country developed the mechanisms or approaches to ensure adequate incorporation
of both market and non-market values of biological diversity into relevant plans, policies and
programmes and other relevant areas? (decisions III/18 and IV/10)
b) No, but relevant mechanisms are under development c) Yes, mechanisms are in place (please provide details below) d) Yes, review of impact of mechanisms available (please provide details Further comments on the mechanism or approaches to incorpora te market and non-market values of biodiversity into relevant plans, policies and programmes. 85. ? Has your country developed training and capacity-building programmes to implement
incentive measures and promote private-sector initiatives? (decision III/18)
b) No, but relevant programmes are under development c) Yes, some programmes are in place d) Yes, many programmes are in place 86. Does your country take into consideration the proposals for the design and implementation of
incentive measures as contained in Annex I to decision VI/15 when designing and implementing incentive measures for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity? (decision VI/15) b) Yes (please provide details below) Further information on the proposals considered when designing and implementing the incentive measures for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. 87. Has your country made any progress in removing or mitigating policies or practices that
generate perverse incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity?
(decision VII/18) b) No, but identification of such policies and practices is under way c) Yes, relevant policies and practices identified but not entirely removed or mitigated (please provide details below) d) Yes, relevant policies and practices identified and removed or mitigated (please provide details below) Further information on perverse incentives identified and/or removed or mitigated. Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article and associated decisions specifically focusing on: a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. Incentive measures have not yet been considered a priority, so no resources have been
allocated to develop such measures.
Article 12 - Research and training
88. ? On Article 12(a), has your country established programmes for scientific and technical
education and training in measures for the identification, conservation and sustainable use of
biological diversity and its components?
b) No, but programmes are under development c) Yes, programmes are in place (please provide details below) Further information on the programmes for scientific and technical education and training in the measures for identification, conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Programmes at the University of the West Indies allow for training in some of these areas. The Department of Life Sciences offers the following degrees and courses: • BSc. Environmental and Natural Resource Management • MSc. Tropical Animal Science and Production • Conservation Biology- The syllabus covers general principles of conservation biology including types and distribution of biodiversity, population viability analysis and monitoring, conservation practices (protected areas, biosphere reserves, restoration ecology); ex-situ conservation stra tegies; legal and institutional aspects; international conservation treaties and conventions. • Tropical Forest Ecology and Management- Syllabus includes: the characteristics of tropical biomes and tropical forests, regulation of biodiversity in tropical forests, tropical forest inventory, tropical forestry and the goal of sustainable yield. • Zoo and Wildlife Production Management- Syllabus includes: the history and role of zoos in
the world with particular reference to the tropics, the management of non-domestic animals in captivity, approaches to the management of zoos, strategies and methods used in Wildlife Management, endangered species and the CITIES accord, local laws for the protection of wildlife and endangered species. Other institutions involved in environmental management training include: • University of Trinidad and Tobago • College Of Science,Technology and Applied Arts (COSTAATT) • Eastern Caribbean Institute of Agriculture and Forestry (ECIAF) • Cipriani College of Labour and Cooperative Studies • The Forestry Division has regular in-house training sessions • Training is also done with other agencies e.g. EMA 89. ? On Article 12(b), does your country promote and encourage research which contributes to the
conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity?
Yes (please provide details below) Further information on the research which contributes to the conservation and sustainable use of Research programmes at the University of the West Indies include: • Plant anatomy and morphology. • Plant taxonomy, systematics; Ecological distribution of ferns and palms. • Algal biology. • Plant structure and function. • Genetic biodiversity of Caribbean plants. • Biology of amphibians and reptiles; animal behaviour; wildlife ecology. • Ecology and conservation of sea turtles. • Regeneration of coral reefs; fisheries management. • Fisheries management; aquaculture. • Matura Environmentally Sensitive Area research with the Environmental Management Pioneering work has also begun on the development of intensive production models for wildlife spe-cies with special reference to the Caribbean and Latin America. Work has b egun on Agouti (Dasyprocta leporina), Cocrico (Ortalis ruficauda), Deer (Mazama Americana), Capybara (Hydrochoe- rus hydrochoeris), and Iguana (Iguana iguana); additionally work with other wildlife species, wildlife farmers is ongoing. Collaboration with zoos worldwide and the School of Veterinary Medicine (Univer- sity of the West Indies) is also o ngoing. The National Herbarium is also involved in research and training. The Institute of Marine Affairs is involved in the following research programmes: • Report on the State of the Marine Environment. Report is currently in draft form • Investigation of pollution from land based sources and the impacts on the marine environment (with special focus on the Caroni River Basin). • Caribbean Coastal Monitoring Productivity Programme (CARICOMP)- focus is on coral reefs and sea grass beds • Investigation of contamination in marine areas in Chaguaramas and the impacts on marine 90. ? On Article 12(c), does your country promote and cooperate in the use of scientific advances in
biological diversity research in developing methods for conservation and sustainable use of biological
b) Yes (please provide details below) Further information on the use of scientific advances in biodiversity research in developing methods for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article specifically focusing on: a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. Although training programmes are in place at the university level, employment opportunities
in the area of training are very limited or often non-existent in the public and private

sectors. Many times persons with training in biodiversity conservation are employed in jobs
that do not specifically require such training.

Article 13 - Public education and awareness
91. Is your country implementing a communication, education and public awareness strategy and
promoting public participation in support of the Convention? (Goal 4.1 of the Strategic Plan)
b) No, but a CEPA strategy is under development c) Yes, a CEPA strategy developed and public participation promoted to a limited extent (please provide details below) d) Yes, a CEPA strategy developed and public participation promoted to a significant extent (please provide details below) Further comments on the implementation of a CEPA strategy and the promotion of public participation in support of the Convention. Forestry Division : • Produces some educational material (brochures, pamphlets) • Workshops and seminars are done for the media • An office is being established in south Trinidad which will facilitate school field trips Environmental Management Authority- objective for 2004-2005: • Design and implement an Education and Public Awareness campaign to achieve the Obje c- tives for Healthy Ecosystems. The Manatee was chosen for a public awareness campaign throughout Trinidad and Tobago because the other two (2) species carded for designation has had some degree of public awareness in the past and the species resides in the Nariva Swamp. Under the Cartegena Protocol and the Convention on Biological Diversity, public awareness must be met through Internet based networks, and the EMA is responsible for the implementation of such. The Environmental Management Authority also produces many educational brochures and promotes awareness on environmental issues such as biodiversity through primary and secondary school com-petitions. Institute of Marine Affairs • Worked in collaboration with the EMA on the public awareness ca mpaign for the manatee • Has a Marine Education Centre which can be visited by schools • Visits community schools in the Chaguaramas area to increase students' awareness of the marine environment. The National Herbarium is open to the public and conducts its own education and awareness activi-ties for schools. NGOs • Involved in educational activities with local communities. e.g. Environment Tobago, Buccoo Reef Trust, Pointe a Pierre Wildfowl Trust, Council of Presidents of the Environment, Carib-bean Forest Conservation Association, Trinidad and Tobago Field Naturalist Club and Asa Wright Centre. The Emperor Valley Zoo and the Botanical Gardens are places that increase public awareness on bio- diversity. Fisheries Division and the Tobago House of Assembly are also involved in education and awareness activities for school children and fishermen. 92. Is your country undertaking any activities to facilitate the implementation of the programme of
work on Communication, Education and Public Awareness as contained in the annex to decision
VI/19? (decision VI/19) b) No, but some programmes are under development c) Yes, some activities are being undertaken (please provide details d) Yes, many activities are being undertaken (please provide details Further comments on the activities to facilitate the implementation of the programme of work on CEPA. 93. Is your country strongly and effectively promoting biodiversity-related issues through the press,
the various media and public relations and communications networks at national level? (decision
b) No, but some programmes are under development c) Yes, to a limited extent (please provide details below) d) Yes, to a significant extent (please provide details below) Further comments on the promotion of biodiversity-related issues through the press, the various media and public relations and communications networks at national level. Some articles related to biodiversity appear infrequently in the media; its effectiveness has not been determined. 94. Does your country promote the communication, education and public awareness of biodiversity
at the local level? (decision VI/19)
b) Yes (please provide details below) Further information on the efforts to promote the communication, education and public awareness of biodiversity at the local level. 95. Is your country supporting national, regional and international activities prioritized by the
Global Initiative on Education and Public Awareness? (decision VI/19) No, but some programmes are under development Yes, some activities supported (please provide details below) Yes, many activities supported (please provide details below) Further comments on the support of national, regional and international activities prioritized by the Global Initiative on Education and Public Awareness. 96. Has your country developed adequate capacity to deliver initiatives on communication,
education and public awareness? No, but some programmes are under development Yes, some programmes are being implemented (please provide details Yes, comprehensive programmes are being implemented (please provide details below) Further comments on the development of adequate capacity to deliver initiatives on communication, education and public awareness. 97. Does your country promote cooperation and exchange programmes for biodiversity education
and awareness at the national, regional and international levels? (decisions IV /10 and VI/19)
b) Yes (please provide details below) Further comments on the promotion of cooperation and exchange programmes for biodiversity education and awareness, at the national, regional and international levels. At the regional and international levels cooperation exist in various forms with the following organizations: UNEP, FAO, CCA, CREP, RARE, CRFM, TRAMIL (medicinal plants), USFWS, RAMSAR Secretariat, Smithsonian Institution, CARAPA (herbal researchers), Ducks Unlimited. CCA has developed its own manual for schools which is used throughout the Caribbean. 98. Is your country undertaking some CEPA activities for implementation of cross-cutting issues
and thematic programmes of work adopted under the Convention?
a) No (please specify reasons below) b) Yes, some activities undertaken for some issues and thematic areas (please provide details below) c) Yes, many activities undertaken for most issues and thematic areas (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive activities undertaken for all issues and thematic areas (please provide details below) Further comments on the CEPA activities for implementation of cross-cutting issues and thematic programmes of work adopted under the Convention. Not yet a priority 99. ? Does your country support initiatives by major groups, key actors and stakeholders that
integrate biological diversity conservation matters in their practice and education programmes as well as into their relevant sectoral and cross-sectoral plans, programmes and policies? (decision IV/10 and Goal 4.4 of the Strategic Plan) b) Yes (please provide details below) Further comments on the initiatives by major groups, key actors and stakeholders that integrate biodiversity conservation in their practice and education programmes as well as their relevant sectoral and cross-sectoral plans, programmes and policies. There is no coherent support mechanism, however nothing prevents any group from integrating biodiversity conservation in their programmes. 100. Is your country communicating the various elements of the 2010 biodiversity target and
establishing appropriate linkages to the Decade on Education for Sustainable Development in the
implementation of your national CEPA programmes and activities? (decision VII/24)
b) No, but some programmes are under development c) Yes, some programmes developed and activities undertaken for this purpose (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive programmes developed and many activities undertaken for this purpose (please provide details below) Further comments on the communication of the various elements of the 2010 biodiversity target and the establishment of linkages to the Decade on Education for Sustainable Development. Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article and associated decisions specifically focusing on: a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. There is no national programme for CEPA or that promotes the integration of CEPA into
sectoral or NGO programmes. Limited action by NGOs and government departments will
partially achieve some of the expected outcomes.
A major constraint is the lack of an evaluation of the effectiveness of the education and
awareness activities undertaken so far. Also the sporadic frequency of the PA messages

and the targeting of audiences may limit effectiveness.

Article 14 - Impact assessment and minimizing adverse impacts
101. ? On Article 14.1(a), has your country developed legislation requiring an environmental
impact assessment of proposed projects likely to have adverse effects on biological diversity?
b) No, legislation is still in early stages of development c) No, but legislation is in advanced stages of development d) Yes, legislation is in place (please provide details below) e) Yes, review of implementation available (please provide details below) Further information on the legislation requiring EIA of proposed projects likely to have adverse effects on biodiversity. The Environmental Management Authority Act requires a Certificate of Environmental Clearance for most projects and is granted on the submission, review and approval of an EIA. • Certificate of Environment Clearance (CEC) Rules and the Certificate of Environment Clear- ance (CEC) Order • Some of the categories of projects that are identified for a Certificate of Environmental Clearance in the Certificate of Environmental Clearance Order include: agriculture, coastal and marine development, mining and quarrying, oil and gas exploitation and heavy manu- facturing industries.
• A certificate of Environmental Clearance is usually granted after the submission and review 102. ? On Article 14.1(b), has your country developed mechanisms to ensure that due
consideration is given to the environmental consequences of national programmes and policies that
are likely to have significant adverse impacts on biological diversity?
b) No, mechanisms are still in early stages of development c) No, but mechanisms are in advanced stages of development d) Yes, mechanisms are in place (please provide details below) Further comments on the mechanisms developed to ensure that due consideration is given to the environmental consequences of national programmes and policies that are likely to have significant adverse impacts on biodiversity. Conditions attached to Certificate of Environmental Clearance allow for due consideration of environmental consequences Environmental police assist in compliance Town and Country Planning Division also has compliance officers 103. ? On Article 14.1(c), is your country implementing bilateral, regional and/or multilateral
agreements on activities likely to significantly affect biological diversity outside your country's
No, but assessment of options is in progress Yes, some completed, others in progress (please provide details below) Yes (please provide details below) Further information on the bilateral, regional and/or multilateral agreements on activities likely to significantly affect biodiversity outside your country's jurisdiction. 104. ? On Article 14.1(d), has your country put mechanisms in place to prevent or minimize
danger or damage originating in your territory to biological diversity in the territory of other Parties
or in areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction? b) No, mechanisms are still in early stages of development c) No, but mechanisms are in advanced stages of development d) Yes, mechanisms are in place based on current scientific knowledge 105. ? On Article 14.1(e), has your country established national mechanisms for emergency
response to activities or events which present a grave and imminent danger to biological diversity? b) No, mechanisms are still in early stages of development c) No, but mechanisms are in advanced stages of development d) Yes, mechanisms are in place (please provide details below) Further information on national mechanisms for emergency response to the activities or events which present a grave and imminent danger to biodiversity. Oil spill control by the Ministry of Energy. Caribbean Whale Stranding Network 106. Is your country applying the Guidelines for Incorporating Biodiversity-related Issues into
Environment-Impact-Assessment Legislation or Processes and in Strategic Impact Assessment as
contained in the annex to decision VI/7 in the context of the implementation of paragraph 1 of Article 14? (decision VI/7) b) No, but application of the guidelines under consideration c) Yes, some aspects being applied (please specify below) d) Yes, major aspects being applied (please specify below) Further comments on application of the guidelines. 107. On Article 14 (2), has your country put in place national legislative, administrative or policy
measures regarding liability and redress for damage to biological diversity? (decision VI/11) b) Yes (please specify the measures) Further comments on national legislative, administrative or policy measures regarding liability and redress for damage to biological diversity. 108. Has your country put in place any measures to prevent damage to biological diversity?
b) No, but some measures are being developed c) Yes, some measures are in place (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive measures are in place (please provide details Further information on the measures in place to prevent damage to biological diversity. 109. Is your country cooperating with other Parties to strengthen capacities at the national level for
the prevention of damage to biodiversity, establishment and implementation of national legislative
regimes, policy and administrative measures on liability and redress? (decision VI/11) b) No, but cooperation is under consideration c) No, but cooperative programmes are under development d) Yes, some cooperative activities being undertaken (please provide e) Yes, comprehensive cooperative activities being undertaken (please provide details below) Further comments on cooperation with other Parties to strengthen capacities for the prevention of damage to biodiversity.
Box LIII.

Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article and associated decisions specifically focusing on: a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. Legislatively, EIAs are required for most projects, however a lack of monitoring to ensure
compliance with mitigation measures is a major constraint. EIAs alone are insufficient to
regulate the loss of biodiversity that is still occurring in many parts of the country.

Article 15 - Access to genetic resources
110. ? Has your country endeavored to facilitate access to genetic resources for environmentally
sound uses by other Parties, on the basis of prior informed consent and mutually agreed terms, in
accordance with paragraphs 2, 4 and 5 of Article 15?
b) Yes (please provide details below) Further information on the efforts taken by your country to facilitate access to genetic resources for environmentally sound uses by other Parties, on the basis of prior informed consent and mutually Cocoa Gene bank has p rotocol for sharing germplasm, Forestry Divsion provides permit for harvest and export of forest species, including animal CITES permit also issued. Fisheries Dept has permits for aquarium fish export 111. ? Has your country taken measures to ensure that any scientific research based on genetic
resources provided by other Parties is developed and carried out with the full participation of such Parties, in accordance with Article 15(6)? b) No, but potential measures are under review c) Yes, some measures are in place (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive measures are in place (please provide details Further information on the measures to ensure that any scientific research based on genetic resources provided by other Contracting Parties is developed and carried out with the full participation of such Contracting Parties. Scientific research done on the following: Cocoa and other agricultural crops Teak and other timber species 112. ? Has your country taken measures to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of the results of
research and development and of the benefits arising from the commercial and other use of genetic
resources with any Contracting Party providing such resources, in accordance with Article 15(7)?
b) No, but potential measures are under review c) Yes, some measures are in place (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive legislation is in place (please provide details e) Yes, comprehensive statutory policy or subsidiary legislation are in place (please provide details below) f) Yes, comprehensive policy and administrative measures are in place (please provide details below) Further information on the type of measures taken. 113. ? In developing national measures to address access to genetic resources and benefit-
sharing, has your country taken into account the multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing set out in the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture? b) Yes (please provide details below) Further informatio n on national measures taken which consider the multilateral system of access and benefit-sharing as set out in the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and 114. Is your country using the Bonn Guidelines when developing and drafting legislative,
administrative or policy measures on access and benefit-sharing and/or when negotiating contracts and other arrangements under mutually agreed terms for access and benefit-sharing? (decision b) No, but steps being taken to do so (please provide details below) c) Yes (please provide details below) Please provide details and specify successes and constraints in the implementation of the Bonn Guidelines. 115. Has your country adopted national policies or measures, including legislation, which address
the role of intellectual property rights in access and benefit-sharing arrangements (i.e. the issue of
disclosure of origin/source/legal provenance of genetic resources in applications for intellectual property rights where the subject matter of the application concerns, or makes use of, genetic resources in its development)? b) No, but potential policies or measures have been identified (please c) No, but relevant policies or measures are under development (please d) Yes, some policies or measures are in place (please specify below) e) Yes, comprehensive policies or measures adopted (please specify Further information on policies or measures that address the role of IPR in access and benefit-sharing arrangements. 116. Has your country been involved in capacity-building activities related to access and benefit-
a) Yes (please provide details below) Please provide further information on capacity-building activities (your involveme nt as donor or recipient, key actors involved, target audience, time period, goals and objectives of the capacity- building activities, main capacity-building areas covered, nature of activities). Please also specify whether these activities took into acco unt the Action Plan on capacity-building for access and benefit- sharing adopted at COP VII and available in annex to decision VII/19F. Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article and associated decisions specifically a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. Trinidad and Tobago is a signatory to the Global Crop Diversity Trust. This allows the country
to collect and conserve named crop species and in so doing reap any commercial benefits
derived from them. Apart from this Trinidad and Tobago has no access laws at present and

this has not yet been recognized as a priority.
Article 16 - Access to and transfer of technology
117. ? On Article 16(1), has your country taken measures to provide or facilitate access for and
transfer to other Parties of technologies that are relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of
biological diversity or make use of genetic resources and do not cause significant damage to the environment? b) No, but potential measures are under review c) Yes, some measures are in place (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive measures are in place (please provide details Further information on the measures to provide o r facilitate access for and transfer to other Parties of technologies that are relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity or make use of genetic resources and do not cause significant damage to the environment. 118. ? On Article 16(3), has your country taken measures so that Parties which provide genetic
resources are provided access to and transfer of technology which make use of those resources, on
mutually agreed terms?
b) No, but potential measures are under review c) Yes, some measures are in place d) Yes, comprehensive legislation is in place e) Yes, comprehensive statutory policy or subsidiary legislation are in f) Yes, comprehensive policy and administrative arrangements are in g) Not applicable 119. ? On Article 16(4), has your country taken measures so that the private sector facilitates
access to joint development and transfer of relevant technology for the benefit of Government
institutions and the private sector of developing countries?
No, but potential measures are under review Yes, some policies and measures are in place (please provide details Yes, comprehensive policies and measures are in place (please provide Further information on the measures taken. Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article specifically focusing on: a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. The issue of access to and transfer of technology is one that has not received much
attention. However the use of appropriate research technologies and technology transfer
has been identified as a priority in the NBSAP.

Programme of Work on transfer of technology and technology cooperation
120. Has your country provided financial and technical support and training to assist in the
implementation of the programme of work on transfer of technology and technology cooperation? (decision VII/29) b) No, but relevant programmes are under development c) Yes, some programmes being implemented (please provide details d) Yes, comprehensive programmes being implemented (please provide Further comments on the provision of financial and technical support and training to assist in the implementation of the programme of work on transfer of technology and technology cooperation. 121. Is your country taking any measures to remove unnecessary impediments to funding of multi-
country initiatives for technology transfer and for scientific and technical cooperation? (decision
b) No, but some measures being considered c) Yes, some measures are in place (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive measures are in place (please provide details Further comments on the measures to remove unnecessary impediments to funding of multi-country initiatives for technology transfer and for scientific and technical cooperation. 122. Has your country made any technology assessments addressing technology needs,
opportunities and barriers in relevant sectors as well as related needs in capacity building? (annex to decision VII/29) b) No, but assessments are under way c) Yes, basic assessments undertaken (please provide details below) d) Yes, thorough assessments undertaken (please provide details Further comments on technology assessments addressing technology needs, opportunities and barriers in relevant sectors as well as related needs in capacity building. 123. Has your country made any assessments and risk analysis of the potential benefits, risks and
associated costs with the introduction of new technologies? (annex to decision VII/29)
b) No, but assessments are under way c) Yes, some assessments undertaken (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive assessments undertaken (please provide details Further comments on the assessments and risk analysis of the potential benefits, risks and associated costs with the introduction of new technologies. 124. Has your country identified and implemented any measures to develop or strengthen
appropriate information systems for technology transfer and cooperation, including assessing
capacity building needs? (annex to decision VII/29) b) No, but some programmes are under development c) Yes, some programmes are in place and being implemented (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive programmes are being implemented (please provide details below) Further comments on measures to develop or strengthen appropriate information systems for technology transfer and cooperation. 125. Has your country taken any of the measures specified under Target 3.2 of the programme of
work as a preparatory phase to the development and implementation of national institutional,
administrative, legislative and policy frameworks to facilitate cooperation as well as access to and adaptation of technologies of relevance to the Convention? (annex to decision VII/29) No, but a few measures being considered Yes, some measures taken (please specify below) Yes, many measures taken (please specify below) Further comments on the measures taken as a preparatory phase to the development and implementation of national institutional, administrative, legislative and policy frameworks to facilitate cooperation as well as access to and adaptation of technologies of relevance to the Convention. Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article and associated decisions specifically a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. A programme of work on transfer of technology and technology cooperation has not yet
been developed. The existing legislative and policy frameworks related to environmental
issues do not include specific provisions for transfer of technology and technology

cooperation.

Article 17 - Exchange of information
126. ? On Article 17(1), has your country taken measures to facilitate the exchange of information
from publicly available sources with a view to assist with the implementation of the Convention and
promote technical and scientific cooperation?
b) No, but potential measures are under review c) Yes, some measures are in place d) Yes, comprehensive measures are in place The following question (127) is for DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
127. ? On Article 17(1), do these measures take into account the special needs of developing
countries and include the categories of information listed in Article 17(2), such as technical, scientific and socio-economic research, training and surveying programmes, specialized knowledge, repatriation of information and so on? b) Yes, but they do not include the categories of information listed in Article 17(2), such as technical, scientific and socio-economic research, training and surveying programmes, specialized knowledge, repatriation of information and so on c) Yes, and they include categories of information listed in Article 17 (2), such as technical, scientific and socio-economic research, training and surveying programmes, specialized knowledge, repatriation of information and so on Box LVII.
Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article and associated decisions specifically focusing on: a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. The following facilitates to some extent the exchange of information:
UWI Centre for Biodiversity website under development
Guardian Life Wildlife Fund website.
Orchid Society website and database on local orchids

Lack of coordination and information sharing among the various agencies involved in

biodiversity-related activities is still a major constraint. A mechanism needs to be
developed for effective sharing of information among such agencies.

Article 18 - Technical and scientific cooperation
128. ? On Article 18(1), has your country taken measures to promote international technical and
scientific cooperation in the field of conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity?
b) No, but potential measures are under review c) Yes, some measures are in place (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive measures are in place (please provide details Further information on the measures to promote international technical and scientific cooperation. - Joint research with the University of the West Indies and UK and USA universities e.g. The Darwin Initiative. - Fisheries: JICA Phase 2 Project sustainable use of marine resources. - Buccoo Reef Trust/Tobago House of Assembly: WRI economic evaluation of coral reefs in Tobago, - Oxford University and Newcastle UNI Masters Programme on Conservation. - Forestry Division/Environme ntal Management Authority/Ducks Unlimited: restoration of Nariva swamp. 129. ? On Article 18(4), has your country encouraged and developed methods of cooperation for
the development and use of technologies, including indigenous and traditional technologies, in
pursuance of the objectives of this Convention? No, but relevant methods are under development Yes, methods are in place 130. ? On Article 18(5), has your country promoted the establishment of joint research
programmes and joint ventures for the development of technologies relevant to the objectives of the
b) Yes (please provide some examples below) Examples for the establishment of joint research programmes and joint ventures for the development of technologies relevant to the objectives of the Convention. 131. Has your country established links to non-governmental organizations, private sector and other
institutions holding important databases or undertaking significant work on biological diversity
through the CHM? (decision V/14) b) No, but coordination with relevant NGOs, private sector and other institutions under way c) Yes, links established with relevant NGOs, private sector and The following question (132) is for DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
132. Has your country further developed the CHM to assist developing countries and countries with
economies in transition to gain access to information in the field of scientific and technical
cooperation? (decision V/14) b) Yes, by using funding opportunities c) Yes, by means of access to, and transfer of technology d) Yes, by using research cooperation facilities e) Yes, by using repatriation of information f) Yes, by using training opportunities g) Yes, by using promotion of contacts with relevant institutions, organizations and the private sector h) Yes, by using other means (please specify below) Further comments on CHM developments to assist developing countries and countries with economies in transition to gain access to information in the field of scientific and technical cooperation. 133. Has your country used CHM to make information available more useful for researchers and
decision-makers? (decision V/14)
b) No, but relevant initiatives under consideration c) Yes (please provide details below) Further comments on development of relevant initiatives. 134. Has your country developed, provided and shared services and tools to enhance and facilitate
the implementation of the CHM and further improve synergies among biodiversity-related Conventions? (decision V/14) b) Yes (please specify services and tools below) Further comments on services and tools to enhance and facilitate the implementation of CHM and further improve synergies among biodiversity-related Conventions. Box LVIII.
Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article and associated decisions specifically a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. The National Biodiversity Clearing House Website has been developed to promote and
facilitate technical and scientific cooperation among biodiversity stakeholders in the

country. The website which is located at http://trinbagobiodiversity.gov.tt/ will be further
developed to establish links with non-governmental organisations, private sector and other
institutions holding important databases or undertaking significant work on biological

diversity. An important initiative in this regard is the Inter-American Biodiversity
Information Network.

Article 19 - Handling of biotechnology and distribution of its benefits
135. ? On Article 19(1), has your country taken measures to provide for the effective participation
in biotechnological research activities by those Contracting Parties which provide the genetic
resources for such research?
b) No, but potential measures are under review c) Yes, some measures are in place d) Yes, comprehensive legislation are in place e) Yes, comprehensive statutory policy and subsidiary legislation are in f) Yes, comprehensive policy and administrative measures are in place 136. ? On Article 19(2), has your country taken all practicable measures to promote and advance
priority access by Parties, on a fair and equitable basis, to the results and benefits arising from
biotechnologies based upon genetic resources provided by those Parties?
b) No, but potential measures are under review c) Yes, some measures are in place d) Yes, comprehensive measures are in place Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article and associated decisions specifically a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation.
Work is ongoing on the development of a policy and regulatory framework for GMOs.

Workshops and stakeholder consultations have already been completed. Training on GMOs
and detection of GMOs using molecular tools is expected to start soon.
UWI is developing a Masters programme on Plant Biotechnology. The tentative starting date

for this programme is September 2006.

Article 20 – Financial resources
Please describe for each of the following items the quantity of financial resources, both internal and external, that have been utilized, received or provided, as applicable, to implement the Convention on Biological Diversity, on an annual basis, since your country became a Party to the Convention. a) Budgetary allocations by national and local Governments as well as different sectoral ministries b) Extra-budgetary resources (identified by donor agencies) c) Bilateral channels (identified by donor agencies) d) Regional channels (identified by donor agencies) e) Multilateral channels (identified by donor agencies) f) Private sources (identified by g) Resources generated through financial instruments, such as charges for use of Please describe in detail below any major financing programmes, such as biodiversity trust funds or specific programmes that have been established in your country. 137. ? On Article 20(1), has your country provided financial support and incentives to those
national activities that are intended to achieve the objectives of the Convention?
b) Yes, incentives only (please provide a list of such incentives below) c) Yes, financial support only d) Yes, financial support and incentives (please provide details below) Further comments on financial support and incentives provided. EMA has provided funds for the Matura ESA biological baseline survey. Funds have also been provided by the government for the following: • Wildlife research education project in Tobago • National Reafforestation and Watershed Rehabilitation Programme • Tobago House of Assembly Fish Stock Assessment The next question (138) is for DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
138. ? On Article 20(2), has your country provided new and additional financial resources to enable
developing country Parties to meet the agreed incremental costs to them of implementing measures
which fulfill the obligations of the Convention?
b) Yes (please indicate the amount, on an annual basis, of new and additional financial resources your country has provided) Further comments on new and additional financial resources provided. The next question (139) is for DEVELOPING COUNTRIES OR COUNTRIES WITH ECONOMIES
IN TRANSITION
139. ? On Article 20(2), has your country received new and additional financial resources to enable
it to meet the agreed full incremental costs of implementing measures which fulfill the obligations of
140. ? Has your country established a process to monitor financial support to biodiversity,
including support provided by the private sector? (decision V/11) b) No, but procedures being established c) Yes (please provide details below) Further comments on processes to monitor financial support to biodiversity, including support provided by the private sector. 141. ? Has your country considered any measures like tax exemptions in national taxation systems
to encourage financial support to biodiversity? (decision V/11)
b) No, but exemptions are under development (please provide details c) Yes, exemptions are in place (please provide details below) Further comments on tax exemptions for biodiversity-related donations. 142. Has your country reviewed national budgets and monetary policies, including the effectiveness
of official development assistance allocate d to biodiversity, with particular attention paid to positive
incentives and their performance as well as perverse incentives and ways and means for their removal or mitigation? (decision VI/16) b) No, but review is under way c) Yes (please provide results of review below) Further comments on review of national budgets and monetary policies, including the effectiveness of official development assistance. 143. Is your country taking concrete actions to review and further integrate biodiversity
considerations in the development and implementation of major international development initiatives, as well as in national sustainable development plans and relevant sectoral policies and plans? (decisions VI/16 and VII/21) b) No, but review is under way c) Yes, in some initiatives and plans (please provide details below) d) Yes, in major initiatives and plans (please provide details below) Further comments on review and integration of biodiversity considerations in relevant initiatives, policies and plans. 144. Is your country enhancing the integration of biological diversity into the sectoral development
and assistance programmes? (decision VII/21)
b) No, but relevant programmes are under development c) Yes, into some sectoral development and assistance programmes (please provide details below) d) Yes, into major sectoral development and assistance programmes (please provide details below) Further comments on the integration of biodiversity into sectoral development and assistance programmes The next question (145) is for DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
145. Please indicate with an " X" in the table below in which area your country has provided financial
support to developing countries and/or countries with economies in transition. Please elaborate in the
space below if necessary.
provided
a) Undertaking national or regional assessments within the framework of MEA b) In-situ conservation (decision V/16) c) Enhance national capacity to establish and maintain the mechanisms to protect traditional knowledge (decision VI/10) d) Ex-situ conservation (decision V/26) e) Implementation of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (decision VI/9) f) Implementation of the Bonn Guidelines (decision VI/24) g) Implementation of programme of work on agricultura l biodiversity (decision h) Preparation of first report on the State of World's Animal Genetic Resources (decision VI/17) i) Support to work of existing regional coordination mechanisms and development of regional and sub regional networks or processes (decision j) Development of partnerships and other means to provide the necessary support for the implementation of the programme of work on dry and subhumid lands biological diversity (decision VII/2) k) Financial support for the operations of the Coordination Mechanism of the Global Taxonomy Initiative (decision VII/9) l) Support to the implementation of the Action Plan on Capacity Building as contained in the annex to decision VII/19 (decision VII/19) m) Support to the implementation of the programme of work on mountain biological diversity (decision VII/27) n) Support to the implementation of the programme of work on protected areas (decision VII/28) o) Support to the development of national indicators (decision VII/30) p) Others (please specify) Further information on financial support provided to developing countries and countries with economies in transition. The next question (146) is for DEVELOPING COUNTRIES OR COUNTRIES WITH ECONOMIES
IN TRANSITION
146. Please indicate with an "X" in the table below in which areas your country has applied for funds
from the Global Environment Facility (GEF), from developed countries and/or from other sources. The same area may have more than one source of financial support. Please elaborate in the space below if necessary. Applied for funds from
Bilateral
a) Preparation of national biodiversity strategies or action plans X
b) National capacity self-assessment for implementation of X
Convention (decision VI/27) c) Priority actions to implement the Global Taxonomy Initiative d) In-situ conservation (decision V/16) e) Development of national strategies or action plans to deal with alien species (decision VI/23) f) Ex-situ conservation, establishment and maintenance of Ex- situ conservation facilities (decision V/26) g) Projects that promote measures for implementing Article 13 (Education and Public Awareness) (decision VI/19) h) Preparation of national reports (decisions III/9, V/19 and i) Projects for conservation and sustainable use of inland water biological diversity (decision IV/4) j) Activities for conservation and sustainable use of agricultural biological diversity (decision V/5) k) Implementation of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (decision VI/26) l) Impleme ntation of the Global Taxonomy Initiative m) Implementation of the Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for the Sustainable Use of Biodiversity n) Others (please specify) Further information on application for financial support. NBSAP prepared with GEF funds in 2001. National Capacity Needs Self Assessment
Proposal approved 1 year now, but no draw down on funds yet….low priority.
Box LXII.
Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article and associated decisions specifically focusing on: a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. D. THEMATIC AREAS
147. Please use the scale indicated below to reflect the level of challenges faced by your country in
implementing the thematic programmes of work of the Convention (marine and coastal biodiversity,
agricultural biodiversity, forest biodiversity, inland waters biodiversity, dry and sub-humid lands and mountain biodiversity). 3 = High Challenge 1 = Low Challenge 2 = Medium Challenge 0 = Challenge has been successfully overcome N/A = Not applicable Programme of Work
Challenges
subhumid
Mountain
ecosystem
Lack of political will and support participation and stakeholder involvement streaming and integration of biodiversity issues into other sectors precautionary and proactive measures capacity to act, caused by institutional weakness Lack of transfer of technology and expertise Loss of traditional Lack of adequate scientific research capacities to support all the objectives Lack of accessible knowledge and information education and awareness at all levels Existing scientific and traditional knowledge not fully utilized Loss of biodiversity and the corresponding goods and services it provides not properly understood and documented (m) Lack of financial, human, technical resources Lack of economic incentive measures Lack of synergies at national and international levels Lack of horizontal cooperation among stakeholders Lack of effective engagement of scientific community Lack of appropriate policies and laws consumption and production patterns Lack of capacities for local communities Lack of knowledge approaches to management enforcement capacity (aa) Natural disasters and environmental change (bb) Others (please Inland water ecosystems
148. Has your country incorporated the objectives and relevant activities of the programme of work
into the following and implemented them? (decision VII/4)
Yes, partially,
Yes, fully integrated
Strategies, policies, plans and activ ities
integrated but not
and implemented
implemented
a) Your biodiversity strategies and b) Wetland policies and strategies c) Integrated water resources management and water efficiency plans being developed in line with paragraph 25 of the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Deve lopment d) Enhanced coordination and cooperation between national actors responsible for inland water ecosystems and biological diversity Further comments on incorporation of the objectives and activities of the programme of work 149. Has your country identified priorities for each activity in the programme of work, including
timescales, in relation to outcome oriented targets? (decision VII/4 )
b) Outcome oriented targets developed but priority activities not c) Priority activities developed but not outcome oriented targets d) Yes, comprehensive outcome oriented targets and priority activities Further comments on the adoption of outcome oriented targets and priorities for activities, including providing a list of targets (if developed). 150. Is your country promoting synergies between this programme of work and related activities
under the Ramsar Convention as well as the implementation of the Joint Work Plan (CBD-Ramsar) at
the national level? (decision VII/4 )
a) Not applicable (not Party to Ramsar Convention) c) No, but potential measures were identified for synergy and joint d) Yes, some measures taken for joint implementation (please specify e) Yes, comprehensive measures taken for joint implementation (please Further co mments on the promotion of synergies between the programme of work and related activities under the Ramsar Convention as well as the implementation of the Joint Work Plan (CBD- Ramsar) at the national level. 151. Has your country taken steps to improve national data on: (decision VII/4 )
No, but development
is under way
a) Goods and services provided by inland water ecosystems? b) The uses and related socioeconomic variables of such goods and services? c) Basic hydrological aspects of water supply as they relate to maintaining ecosystem function? d) Species and all taxonomic levels? e) On threats to which inland water ecosystems are subjected? Further comments on the development of data sets, in particular a list of data sets developed in case
you have replied "YES" above.
CHECKLIST of flora for the country exists at the national herbarium, but it is not a public document. 152. Has your country promoted the application of the guidelines on the rapid assessment of the
biological diversity of inland water ecosystems? (decision VII/4 )
a) No, the guidelines have not been reviewed b) No, the guidelines have been reviewed and found inappropriate c) Yes, the guidelines have been reviewed and application/promotion is d) Yes, the guidelines promoted and applied Further comments on the promotion and application of the guidelines on the rapid assessment of the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems. Box LXIII.
Please elaborate below on the implementation of this programme of work and associated decisions specifically focusing on: a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. Marine and coastal biological diversity
153. Do your country's strategies and action plans include the following? Please use an "X" to
indicate your response. (decisions II/10 and IV/15) a) Developing new marine and coastal protected areas b) Improving the management of existing marine and coastal protected c) Building capacity within the country for management of marine and coastal resources, including through educational programmes and targeted research initiatives (if yes, please elaborate on types of initiatives in the box below) d) Instituting improved integrated marine and coastal area management (including catchments management) in order to reduce sediment and nutrient loads into the marine environment e) Protection of areas important for reproduction, such as spawning and f) Improving sewage and other waste treatment g) Controlling excessive fishing and destructive fishing practices h) Developing a comprehensive oceans policy (if yes, please indicate current stage of development in the box below) i) Incorporation of local and traditional knowledge into management of marine and coastal resources (if yes, please elaborate on types of management arrangements in the box below) j) Others (please specify below) k) Not applicable Please elaborate on the above activities and list any other priority actions relating to conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal biodiversity. Implementation of Integrated Marine and Coastal Area Management
154. Has your country established and/or strengthened institutional, administrative and legislative
arrangements for the development of integrated management of marine and coastal ecosystems?
b) Early stages of development c) Advanced stages of development d) Arrangements in place (please provide details below) e) Not applicable Further comments on the current status of implementation of integrated marine and coastal area 155. Has your country implemented ecosystem-based management of marine and coastal
resources, for example through integration of coastal management and watershed management, or through integrated multidisciplinary coastal and ocean management? b) Early stages of development c) Advanced stages of development d) Arrangements in place (please provide details below) e) Not applicable Further comments on the current status of application of the ecosystem to management of marine and coastal resources. Marine and Coastal Living Resources
156. Has your country identified components of your marine and coastal ecosystems, which are
critical for their functioning, as well as key threats to those ecosystems?
b) Plans for a comprehensive assessment of marine and coastal ecosystems are in place (please provide details below) c) A comprehensive assessment is currently in progress d) Critical ecosystem components have been identified, and management plans for them are being developed (please provide details below) e) Management plans for important components of marine and coastal ecosystems are in place (please p rovide details below) f) Not applicable Further comments on the current status of assessment, monitoring and research relating to marine and coastal ecosystems, as well as key threats to them 157. Is your country undertaking the following activities to implement the Convention's work plan
on coral reefs? Please use an "X" to indicate your response.
Currently
implemented
implemented
implemented
applicable
nor a priority
but a priority
a) Ecological assessment and monitoring of reefs b) Socio-economic assessment and monitoring of communities and c) Management, particularly through application of integrated coastal management and marine and coastal protected areas in coral reef e nvironments d) Identification and implementation of additional and alternative measures for securing livelihoods of people who directly depend on coral e) Stakeholder partnerships, community participation programmes and public education campaigns f) Provision of training and career opportunities for marine taxonomists and X g) Development of early warning X systems of coral bleaching h) Development of a rapid response capability to document coral bleaching and X i) Restoration and rehabilitation of degraded coral reef j) Others (please specify below) Please elaborate on ongoing activities. Marine and Coastal Protected Areas
158. Which of the following statements can best describe the current status of marine and coastal
prote cted areas in your country? Please use an "X" to indicate your response.
a) Marine and coastal protected areas have been declared and gazetted (please indicate below how many) b) Management plans for these marine and coastal protected areas have been developed with involvement of all stakeholders c) Effective management with enforcement and monitoring has been put d) A national system or network of marine and coastal protected areas is under development e) A national system or network of marine and coastal protected areas has been put in place f) The national system of marine and coastal protected areas includes areas managed for purpose of sustainable use, which may allow extractive activities g) The national system of marine and coastal protected areas includes areas which exclude extractive uses h) The national system of marine and coastal protected areas is surrounded by sustainable management practices over the wider marine and coastal environment. i) Other (please describe below) j) Not applicable Further comments on the current status of marine and coastal protected areas. Mariculture
159. Is your country applying the following techniques aimed at minimizing adverse impacts of
mariculture on marine and coastal biodiversity? Please check all that apply.
Application of environmental impact assessments for mariculture Development and application of effective site selection methods in the framework of integrated marine and coastal area management Development of effective methods for effluent and waste control Development of appropriate genetic resource management plans at the hatchery level Development of controlled hatchery and genetically sound reproduction methods in order to avoid seed collection from nature. If seed collection from nature cannot be avoided, development of environmentally sound practices for spat collecting operations, including use of selective fishing gear to avoid by-catch Use of native species and subspecies in mariculture Implementation of effective measures to prevent the inadvertent release of mariculture species and fertile polypoids. Use of proper methods of breeding and proper places of releasing in order to protect genetic diversity Minimizing the use of antibiotics through better husbandry Use of selective methods in commercial fishing to avoid or minimize Considering traditional knowledge, where applicable, as a source to develop sustainable mariculture techniques Further comments on techniques that aim at minimizing adverse impacts of mariculture on marine and coastal biodiversity. Alien Species and Genotypes
160. Has your country put in place mechanisms to control pathways of introduction of alien species
in the marine and coastal environment? Please check all that apply and elaborate on types of
measures in the space below.
b) Mechanisms to control potential invasions from ballast water have been put in place (please provide details below) c) Mechanisms to control potential invasions from hull fouling have been put in place (please provide details below) d) Mechanisms to control potential invasions from aquaculture have been put in place (please provide details below) e) Mechanisms to control potential invasions from accidental releases, such as aquarium releases, have been put in place (please provide f) Not applicable Further comments on the current status of activities relating to prevention of introductions of alien species in the marine and coastal environment, as well as any eradication activities. Box LXIV.
Please elaborate below on the implementation of this programme of work and associated decisions specifically focusing on: a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. Agricultural biological diversity
161. ? Has your country developed national strategies, programmes and plans that ensure the
development and successful implementation of policies and actions that lead to the conservation and
sustainable use of agrobiodiversity components? (decisions III/11 and IV/6)
b) No, but strategies, programmes and plans are under development c) Yes, some strategies, programmes and plans are in place (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive strategies, programmes and plans are in place (please provide details below) Further comments on agrobiodiversity components in national strategies, programmes and plans. 162. ? Has your country identified ways and means to address the potential impacts of genetic use
restriction technologies on the In-situ and Ex-situ conservation and sustainable use, including food
security, of agricultural biological diversity? (decision V/5) b) No, but potential measures are under review c) Yes, some measures identified (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive measures identified (please provide details below) Further information on ways and means to address the potential impacts of genetic use restriction technologies on the In-situ and Ex-situ conservation and sustainable use of agricultural biodiversity. Annex to decision V/5 - Programme of work on agricultural biodiversity
Programme element 1 – Assessment
163. Has your country undertaken specific assessments of components of agricultural biodiversity
such as on plant genetic resources, animal genetic resources, pollinators, pest management and nutrient cycling? b) Yes, assessments are in progress (please specify components below) c) Yes, assessments completed (please specify components and results of assessments below) Further comments on specific assessments of components of agricultural biodiversity. 164. Is your country undertaking assessments of the interactions between agricultural practices and
the conservation and sustainable use of the components of biodiversity referred to in Annex I of the
Convention (e.g. ecosystems and habitats; species and communities; genomes and genes of social, scientific or economic importance)? b) Yes, assessments are under way c) Yes, some assessments completed (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive assessments completed (please provide details Further comments on assessment of biodiversity components (e.g. ecosystems and habitats; species and communities; genomes and genes of social, scientific or economic importance). 165. Has your country carried out an assessment of the knowledge, innovations and practices of
farmers and indigenous and local communities in sustaining agricultural biodiversity and agro-ecosystem services for food production and food security? b) Yes, assessment is under way c) Yes, assessment completed (please specify where information can be retrieved below) Further comments on assessment of the knowledge, innovations and practices of farmers and indigenous and local communities. 166. Has your country been monitoring an overall degradation, status quo or
restoration/rehabilitation of agricultural biodiversity since 1993 when the Convention entered into
force?
b) Yes, no change found (status quo) c) Yes, overall degradation found (please provide details below) d) Yes, overall restoration or rehabilitation observed (please provide Further comments on observations. Programme element 2 - Adaptive management
167. Has your country identified management practices, technologies and policies that promote the
positive, and mitigate the negative, impacts of agriculture on biodiversity, and enhance productivity and the capacity to sustain livelihoods? b) No, but potential practices, technologies and policies being identified c) Yes, some practices, technologies and policies identified (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive practices, technologies and policies identified (please provide details below) Further comments on identified management practices, technologies and policies. Programme element 3 - Capacity-building
168. Has your country increased the capacities of farmers, indigenous and local communities, and
their organizations and other stakeholders, to manage sustainable agricultural biodiversity and to
develop strategies and methodologies for In-situ conservation, sustainable use and management of agricultural biological diversity? Yes (please specify area/component and target groups with increased capacity) Further comments on increased capacities of farmers, indigenous and local communities, and their organizations and other stakeholders. 169. Has your country put in place operational mechanisms for participation by a wide range of
stakeholder groups to develop genuine partnerships contributing to the implementation of the programme of work on agricultural biodiversity? No, but potential mechanisms being identified No, but mechanisms are under development Yes, mechanisms are in place 170. Has your country improved the policy environment, including benefit-sharing arrangements
and incentive measures, to support local-level management of agricultural biodiversity?
No, but some measures and arrangements being identified No, but measures and arrangements are under development Yes, measures and arrangements are being implemented (please Further comments on the measures taken to improve the policy environment. Programme element 4 – Mainstreaming
171. Is your country mainstreaming or integrating national plans or strategies for the conservation
and sustainable use of agricultural biodiversity in sectoral and cross-sectoral plans and programmes? b) No, but review is under way c) No, but potential frameworks and mechanisms are being identified d) Yes, some national plans or strategies mainstreamed and integrated into some sectoral plans and programmes (please provide details e) Yes, some national plans or strategies mainstreamed into major sectoral plans and programmes (please provide details below) Further comments on mainstreaming and integrating national plans or strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of agricultural biodiversity in sectoral and cross-sectoral plans and programmes. 172. Is your country supporting the institutional framework and policy and planning mechanisms for
the mainstreaming of agricultural biodiversity in agricultural strategies and action plans, and its
integration into wider strategies and action plans for biodiversity? b) Yes, by supporting institutions in undertaking relevant assessments c) Yes, by developing policy and planning guidelines d) Yes, by developing training material e) Yes, by supporting capacity-building at policy, technical and local levels f) Yes, by promoting synergy in the implementation of agreed plans of action and between ongoing assessment and intergovernmental Further comments on support for institutional framework and policy and planning mechanisms. 173. In the case of centers of origin in your country, is your country promoting activities for the
conservation, on farm, In-situ, and Ex-situ, of the variability of genetic resources for food and
agriculture, including their wild relatives? Yes (please provide details below) Further comments on of the conservation of the variability of genetic resources for food and agriculture in their center of origin. Please provide information concerning the actions taken by your country to implement the Plan of Action for the International Initiative for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Pollinators.
Box LXVI.

Please elaborate below on the implementation of this programme of work and associated decisions specifically focusing on: a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. Forest Biological Diversity
174. Has your country incorporated relevant parts of the work programme into your national
biodiversity strategies and action plans and national forest programmes?
b) Yes, please describe the process used c) Yes, please describe constraints/obstacles encountered in the d) Yes, please describe lessons learned e) Yes, please describe targets for priority actions in the programme of Further comments on the incorporation of relevant parts of the work programme into your NBSAP and forest programmes Departmental work programmes were developed independent of the Forest Biodiversity work
Box LXVII.

Please indicate what recently applied tools (policy, planning, management, assessment and measurement) and measures, if any, your country is using to implement and assess the programme of work. Please indicate what tools and measures would assist the implementation. None recently applied.
Box LXVIII.

Please indicate to what extent and how your country has involved indigenous and local communities, and respected their rights and interests, in implementing the programme of work.
Box LXIX.

Please indicate what efforts your country has made towards capacity building in human and capital resources for the implementation of the programme of work. Please indicate how your country has collaborated and cooperated (e.g., south-south, north-south, south-north, north-north) with other governments, regional or international organizations in implementing the programme of work. Please also indicate what are the constraints and/or needs Expanded programme of work on forest biological diversity
Programme element 1 – Conservation, sustainable use and benefit-sharing
175. Is your country applying the ecosystem approach to the management of all types of forests?
a) No (please provide reasons below) b) No, but potential measures being identified (please provide details c) Yes (please provide details below) Comments on application of the ecosystem approach to management of forests (including effectiveness of actions taken, lessons learned, impact on forest management, constraints, needs, tools, and targets). Forests managed essentially for timber extraction or watershed value….although extraction has taken place in several watersheds. 176. Has your country undertaken measures to reduce the threats to, and mitigate its impacts on
forest biodiversity? Please specify below the major threats identified in relation to each objective of goal 2 and the measures undertaken to address priority actions Major threats to forests are as follows: • Hunting - issue of hunting permits, monitoring by game wardens • Illegal logging- patrolling • Oil exploration – CEC must be obtained. Forestry Division is on the review panel for CEC. Also a monitoring clause is included in the CEC. • Pipeline corridors - CEC • Forest Fires • Clearing of lands for development • Lack of/ selective enforcement Please provide reasons below Further comments on measures to reduce threats to, and mitigate the impacts of threatening processes on forest biodiversity (including effectiveness of actions taken, lessons learned, impacts on forest biodive rsity, constraints, needs, tools and targets). 177. Is your country undertaking any measures to protect, recover and restore forest biological
Please identify priority actions in relation to each objective of goal 3 and describe measures undertaken to address these priorities Some reafforestation has started in parts of the country. Please provide reasons below Further comments on measures to protect, recover and restore forest biological diversity (including effectiveness of actions taken, lessons learned, impacts on forest biodiversity, constraints, needs, tools and targets). 178. Is your country undertaking any measures to promote the sustainable use of forest biological
diversity?
Please specify priority actions in relation to each objective of goal 4 and describe measures undertaken to address these priorities Please provide reasons below Low national priority Further comments on the promotion of the sustainable use of forest biological diversity (including effectiveness of actions taken, lessons learned, impacts on forest biodiversity, constraints, needs, tools and targets). 179. Is your country undertaking any measures to promote access and benefit-sharing of forest
genetic resources? Please specify priority actions in relation to each objective of goal 5 and describe measures undertaken Please provide reasons below Further comments on the promotion of access and benefit-sharing of forest genetic resources. (including effectiveness of actions taken, lessons learned, impacts on forest biodiversity, constraints, needs, tools and targets) Programme element 2 – Institutional and socio-economic enabling environment
180. Is your country undertaking any measures to enhance the institutional enabling environment
for the conservation and sustainable use of forest biological diversity, including access and benefit-
Please identify priority actions in relation to each objective of Goal 1 and describe measures undertaken to address these priorities Please provide reasons below Further comments on the enhancement of the institutional enabling environment for the conservation and sustainable use of forest biological diversity, including access and benefit-sharing (including effectiveness of actions taken, lessons learned, impacts on forest biodiversity, constraints, needs, tools and targets). 181. Is your country undertaking any measures to address socio -economic failures and distortions
that lead to decisions that result in loss of forest biological diversity? Please identify priority actions in relation to each objective of Goal 2 and describe measures undertaken to address these priorities Please provide reasons below Further comments on review of socio-economic failures and distortions that lead to decisions that result in loss of forest biological diversity (including effectiveness of actions taken, lessons learned, impacts on forest biodiversity, constraints, needs, tools and targets). 182. Is your country undertaking any measures to increase public education, participation and
awareness in relation to forest biological diversity?
Please identify priority actions in relation to each objective of goal 3 and describe measures undertaken to addre ss these priorities Public awareness programme of the Forestry Division caters to special events and schools Please provide reasons below Further comments on measures to increase public education, participation and awareness in relation to forest biological diversity (including effectiveness of actions taken, lessons learned, impacts on forest biodiversity, constraints, needs, tools and targets). Programme element 3 – Knowledge, assessment and monitoring
183. Is your country undertaking any measures to characterize forest ecosystems at various scales
in order to improve the assessment of the status and trends of forest biological diversity?
Please identify priority actions in relation to each objective of Goal 1 and describe measures undertaken to address these priorities Please provide reasons below Further comments on characterization of forest ecosystems at various scales (including effectiveness of actions taken, lessons learned, impacts on forest biodiversity, constraints, needs, tools and 184. Is your country undertaking any measures to improve knowledge on, and methods for, the
assessment of the status and trends of forest biological diversity? Please identify priority actions in relation to each objective of goal 2 and describe measures undertaken to address these priorities Please provide reasons below Further comments on improvement of knowledge on and methods for the assessment of the status and trends (including effectiveness of actions taken, lessons learned, impacts on forest biodiversity, constraints, needs, tools and targets). 185. Is your country undertaking any measures to improve the understanding of the role of forest
biodiversity and ecosystem functioning?
Please identify priority actions in relation to each objective of goal 3 and describe measures undertaken to address these priorities Please provide reasons below Further comments on the improvement of the understanding of the role of forest biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (including effectiveness of actions taken, lessons learned, impacts on forest biodiversity, constraints, needs, tools and targ ets). 186. Is your country undertaking any measures at national level to improve the infrastructure for
data and information management for accurate assessment and monitoring of global forest Please identify priority actions in relation to each objective of goal 4 and describe measures undertaken to address these priorities Please provide reasons below Further comments on the improvement of the infrastructure for data and information management (including effectiveness of actions taken, lessons learned, impacts on forest biodiversity, constraints, needs, tools and targets).
Box LXXI.

Please elaborate below on the implementation of this programme of work and associated decisions specifically focusing on: a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action pla ns; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. Biological diversity of dry and sub-humid lands
187. Is your country supporting scientifically, technically and financially, at the national and regional
levels, the activities identified in the programme of work? (decisions V/23 and VII/2 )
b) Yes (please provide details below) Further comments on scientific, technical and financial support, at the national and regional levels, to the activities identified in the programme of work. 188. Has your country integrated actions under the programme of work of dry and sub-humid lands
into its national biodiversity strategies and action plans or the National Action Programme (NAP) of the UNCCD? (decisions V/23, VI/4 and VII/2) b) Yes (please provide details below) Further comments on actions under the programme of work of dry and sub-humid lands integrated into national biodiversity strategies and action plans or the National Action Programme (NAP) of the 189. Has your country undertaken measures to ensure synergistic/collaborative implementation of
the programme of work between the national UNCCD process and other processes under related
environmental conventions? (decisions V/23, VI/4 and VII/2)
b) Yes, some linkages established (please provide details below) c) Yes, extensive linkages established (please provide details below) Further comments on the measures to ensure the synergistic/collaborative implementation of the programme of work between the national UNCCD processes and other processes under related environmental conventions. Programme Part A: Assessment
190. Has your country assessed and analyzed information on the state of dryland biological diversity
and the pressures on it, disseminated existing knowledge and best practices, and filled knowledge gaps in order to determine adequate activities? (Decision V/23, Part A: Assessment, Operational objective, activities 1 to 6) b) No, but assessment is ongoing c) Yes, some assessments undertaken (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive assessment undertaken (please provide details Further comments on the relevant information on assessments of the status and trends and dissemination of existing knowledge and best practices. Programme Part B: Targeted Actions
191. Has your country taken measures to promote the conservation and sustainable use of the
biological diversity of dry and sub-humid lands and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits
arising out of the utilization of its genetic resources, and to combat the loss of biological diversity in
dry and sub-humid lands and its socio-economic consequences? (part B of annex I of decision V/23, activities 7 to 9) b) Yes, some measures taken (please provide details below) c) Yes, many measures taken (please provide details below) Further comments on the measures taken to promote the conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity of dry and sub-humid lands and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of its genetic resources, and to combat the loss of biological diversity in dry and sub-humid lands and its socio-economic consequences. 192. Has your country taken measures to strengthen national capacities, including local capacities,
to enhance the implementation of the programme of work? b) Yes, some measures taken (please provide details below) c) Yes, comprehensive measures taken (please provide details below) d) Yes, all identified capacity needs met (please provide details below) Further comments on measures taken to strengthen national capacities, including local capacities, to enhance the implementation of the programme of work. Box LXXII.
Please elaborate below on the implementation of this programme of work and associated decisions specifically focusing on: a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. Mountain Biodiversity
Programme Element 1. Direct actions for conservation, sustainable use ad benefit sharing
193. Has your country taken any measures to prevent and mitigate the negative impacts of key
threats to mountain biodiversity?
b) No, but relevant measures are being considered c) Yes, some measures taken (please provide details below) d) Yes, many measures taken (please provide details below) Further comments on the measures taken to prevent and mitigate the negative impacts of key threats to mountain biodiversity 194. Has your country taken any measures to protect, recover and restore mountain biodiversity?
b) No, but some measures are being considered c) Yes, some measures taken (please provide details below) d) Yes, many measures taken (please provide details below) Further comments on the measures taken to protect, recover and restore mountain biodiversity 195. Has your country taken any measures to promote the sustainable use of mountain biological
resources and to maintain genetic diversity in mountain ecosystems?
b) No, but some measures are being considered c) Yes, some measures taken (please provide details below) d) Yes, many measures taken (please provide details below) Further comments on the measures to promote the sustainable use of mountain biological resources and to maintain genetic diversity in mountain ecosystems 196. Has your country taken any measures for sharing the benefits arising from the utilization of
mountain genetic resources, including preservation and maintenance of traditional knowledge?
b) No, but some measures are being considered c) Yes, some measures taken (please provide details below) d) Yes, many measures taken (please provide details below) Further comments on the measures for sharing the benefits arising from the utilization of mountain genetic resources Programme Element 2. Means of implementation for conservation,
sustainable use and benefit sharing
197. Has your country developed any legal, policy and institutional framework for conservation and
sustainable use of mountain biodiversity and for implementing this programme of work?
b) No, but relevant frameworks are being developed c) Yes, some frameworks are in place (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive frameworks are in place (please provide details Further comments on the legal, policy and institutional frameworks for conservation and sustainable use of mountain biodiversity and for implementing the programme of work on mountain biodiversity. 198. Has your country been involved in regional and/or transboundary cooperative agreements on
mountain ecosystems for conservation and sustainable use of mountain biodiversity?
b) No, but some cooperation frameworks are being considered c) Yes (please provide details below) Further information on the regional and/or transboundary cooperative agreements on mountain ecosystems for conservation and sustainable use of mountain biodiversity Programme Element 3. Supporting actions for conservation,
sustainable use and benefit sharing
199. Has your country taken any measures for identification, monitoring and assessment of
mountain biological diversity?
b) No, but relevant programmes are under development c) Yes, some measures are in place (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive measures are in place (please provide details Further comments on the measures for identification, monitoring and assessment of mountain biodiversity 200. Has your country taken any measures for improving research, technical and scientific
cooperation and capacity building for conservation and sustainable use of mountain biodiversity?
No, but relevant programmes are under development Yes, some measures are in place (please provide details below) Yes, comprehensive measures are in place (please provide details Further comments on the measures for improving research, technical and scientific cooperation and capacity building for conservation and sustainable use of mountain biodiversity 201. Has your country taken any measures to develop, promote, validate and transfer appropriate
technologies for the conservation of mountain ecosystems?
b) No, but relevant programmes are under development c) Yes, some measures are in place (please provide details below) d) Yes, comprehensive measures are in place (please provide details Further comments on the measures to develop, promote, validate and transfer appropriate technologies for the conservation of mountain ecosystems
Box LXXIII.

Please elaborate below on the implementation of this programme of work and associated decisions specifically focusing on: a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodivers ity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. E. OPERATIONS OF THE CONVENTION
202. Has your country actively participated in subregional and regional activities in order to prepare
for Convention meetings and enhance implementation of the Convention? (decision V/20) b) Yes (please provide details below) Further comments on the regional and subregional activities in which your country has been 203. Is your country strengthening regional and subregional cooperation, enhancing integration and
promoting synergies with relevant regional and subregional processes? (decision VI/27 B)
b) Yes (please provide details below) Further comments on regional and subregional cooperation and processes. The following question (204) is for DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
204. Is your country supporting the work of existing regional coordination mechanisms and the
development of regional and subregional networks or processes? (decision VI/27 B) b) No, but programmes are under development c) Yes, included in existing cooperation frameworks (please provide d) Yes, some cooperative activities ongoing (please provide details below) Further comments on support for the work of existing regional coordination mechanisms and the development of regional and subregional networks or processes. 205. Is your country working with other Parties to strengthen the existing regional and subregional
mechanisms and initiatives for capacity-building? (decision VI/27 B)
206. Has your country contributed to the assessment of the regional and subregional mechanisms
for implementation of the Convention? (decision VI/27 B)
b) Yes (please provide details below) Further comments on contribution to the assessment of the regional and subregional mechanisms.
Box LXXIV.

Please elaborate below on the implementation of the above decisions specifically focusing on: a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken; b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention; c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target; d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans; e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals; f) constraints encountered in implementation. F. COMMENTS ON THE FORMAT
Box LXXV.
Please provide below recommendations on how to improve this reporting format.

Source: http://www.biodiversity.gov.tt/home/images/stories/pdf/third_national_report.pdf

Anexo iii emergencias definitivo

ANEXO III AL CONVENIO MARCO FIRMADO ENTRE CRUZ ROJA ESPAÑOLA Y LA EXCMA. DIPUTACIÓN PROVINCIAL DE SALAMANCA EN MATERIA DE EMERGENCIAS En Salamanca, a 27 de octubre de 2005 R E U N I D O S De una parte, la Ilma. Sra. Dª. Isabel Jiménez García, Presidenta de la Excma. Diputación de Salamanca. De otra parte, D. Pedro García García, Presidente de Cruz Roja Española en Salamanca. Actuando, la primera en nombre y representación de la Institución de la que es Presidenta, el segundo en

219-224.mdi

Asian J Androl 2006; 8 (2): 219–224 .Clinical Experience .Long-term treatment with intracavernosal injections in diabetic men with erectile dysfunction P. Perimenis, A. Konstantinopoulos, P. P. Perimeni, K. Gyftopoulos, G. Kartsanis, E. Liatsikos, A. Athanasopoulos Department of Urology, University Hospital, 26500 Patras, Greece Aim: To assess the behavior of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and erectile dysfunction (ED) during 10 con-secutive years of treatment with self-injection of vasoactive drugs. Methods: Thirty-eight diabetic men, including 12with type I and 26 with type II diabetes, were followed up regularly for 10 years after they began self-injecting forsevere ED. Real time rigidity assessment was used for the objective determination of the initial dosage and then doseswere regulated in order to introduce an erection suitable for penetration and maintenance of erection for approximately30 min. Patients were followed up every two months, and doses were increased only when the treatment responsewas not satisfactory. Results: The number of injections used per year by the patients was reduced each year (meannumbers: 50 in the first year and 22.5 in the 10th) and treatment shifted towards stronger therapeutic modalities(mixtures of vasoactive drugs instead of prostaglandin E1 alone). Type I diabetic men were standardized to a level oftreatment as early as 5 years after the initiation of treatment. That level was finally reached by type II patients afteranother 4-5 years. Conclusion: Treatment with self-injections of vasoactive drugs in diabetic men with severe ED isa safe and effective alternative in the long term. Diabetic men of both types show the same preferences in quality andquantity of treatment after 10 years. The key point for maintenance in treatment is the adjustment of the therapeuticmethod and dosage to optimal levels for satisfactory erections. (Asian J Androl 2006 Mar; 8: 219–224)