CBSE SAMPLE PAPER: 2010 CLASS: XII SUBJECT: BIOLOGY (Theory) Candidates must write the Code on the title page of the answer-book. Please check this question paper contains 6 printed pages. Please check this question paper contains 30 questions. Please write down the Serial Number of the question before attempting it.
Most often, when a man first has problems with lowered potency or with sexual dysfunction viagra australia shipping to pharmacies, paying purveyors, training personnel, or having a huge advertising budget.
Danin.vpWilldenowia 30 – 2000 The inclusion of adventive plants in the second edition of Flora
Danin, A.: The inclusion of adventive plants in the second edition of Flora Palaestina. – Willdenowia30: 305-314. 2000. – ISSN 0511-9618.
Distribution maps for 19 prominent woody adventive gymnosperms, dicots and monocots, which areestablished in the Flora Palaestina area but not included in Flora Palaestina, ed. 1, are presented,showing their presence in grid areas of 5 7 5 km in Israel, and data on their introduction, habitats anddispersal modes are given in this preparatory contribution for the second edition of Flora Palaestina.
The second edition of Flora Palaestina is at the stage of manuscript preparation by various au-thors. The first part, to be published by the Israel Academy for Science and Humanities, is a dis-tribution atlas by the present author, which will display the present state of knowledge on thedistribution of the plants in the Flora Palaestina area, based on herbarium specimens (HUJ), liter-ature data and field records.
While the first edition (Zohary 1966, 1972, Feinbrun-Dothan 1978, 1986) did not include many of the established aliens, among them common and prominent plants escaped from cultiva-tion (e.g., Lantana camara L., present in 10 of the 26 districts of Israel, Fig. 18), the second edi-tion aims at completion in this respect. Some papers reported about the occurrence of adventives(e.g., Danin 1976, 1991, Dafni & Heller 1980, 1982, 1990, Danin 1991) and their numberamounts to c. 200 species by now.
The ecological and distributional data of the 19 woody alien plants in Israel presented here are all based on the author's field observations. The species, which will be included in the 2ndedition of Flora Palaestina, are enumerated in the same order as in Flora Palaestina. Informationon the history of the introduction of trees to Israel is after Lipschitz & Biger (1998).
In the present paper, distribution maps for 19 woody alien species showing their presence in grid areas of 5 7 5 km in Israel are presented and notes on their habitats and dispersal modes aregiven whenever of some importance for the occurrence of the species concerned. The nomencla-ture follows Danin (2000).
Danin: Adventive plants in the Flora Palaestina Distribution of woody alien species in Israel
Pinus brutia Ten., Pinaceae
Origin: E Mediterranean (Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Tur-
key, Cyprus, Greece).
Mode of introduction: Used for afforestation during
the 20th century.
Distribution in Israel: Casually spontaneous in the vi-
cinity of areas planted with P. brutia (Fig. 1). Hybrids
with P. halepensis occur occasionally too.
Ecological notes: P. halepensis is the species of pine
most frequently planted in the Mediterranean moun-
tain regions of Israel. A few spontaneous small popu-
lations occur in the Judean and Samaria mountains,
and large populations in Mt Carmel and the Upper
Galilee. Both, P. halepensis and P. brutia, establish
in areas where dwarf shrubs and shrub communities
cover the area. These replace the annual associations
that are typical to early stages of plant succession in
old fields (Danin 1995). In such shrub and semishrub
associations among P. halepensis and casual trees of
P. brutia also the hybrid P. halepensis 7 P. brutia oc-
curs. P. brutia also grows along roadsides on fissured
limestone outcrops where hills were cut for road con-
struction and planted forests occur in the vicinity.
Cupressus sempervirens L. var. sempervirens, Cupres-
Origin: Mediterranean; cultivated from C. sempervi-
rens var. horizontalis (Mill.) Aiton.
Mode of introduction: Introduced as an ornamental
hundreds of years ago.
Distribution in Israel: See Fig. 2.
Ecological notes: The cultivar is found in the moun-
tains of the Mediterranean territories of Israel near
roads where extreme disturbance of the natural envi-
ronment took place, such as hills cut in order to level
mountains for preparing path for the asphalt road.
Sites where the rocks are of soft layers interbedded
with fissured, hard ones, are occupied by a relatively
Fig. 1. Distribution of Pinus brutia Ten. in high number of trees. Another habitat where self-es- grid areas of 5 7 5 km in Israel.
tablishment of C. sempervirens var. sempervirens takesplace are abandoned quarries with heaps of crushedrocks. In the two habitats also individuals of C. sempervirens var. horizontalis occur. Theirseeds do not originate from natural populations (absent in Israel; see Danin (1999) for a relictpopulation in Edom, Jordan) but from planted forests.
Morus alba L., Moraceae
Origin: Central and E China.
Mode of introduction: Planted as food for butterfly caterpillars ("silkworms"), sometimes also
as a fruit tree.
Distribution in Israel: Spontaneous in abandoned citrus groves, gardens in urban areas, waste-
land, formerly Lake Hula areas (Fig. 3).
Willdenowia 30 – 2000 Ecological notes: Birds frequently disperse M. alba through endozoochory. Preferred restingplaces of birds are elevated, e.g. on orchard trees. Whereas the area below the fruit trees is usu-ally ploughed against weeds, this is not the case in abandoned orchards and the seeds trans-ported and dropped by the birds germinate and the trees are established.
Einadia nutans (R. Br.) A. J. Scott, Chenopodiaceae
Origin: Australia (South Australia and New South Wales).
Mode of introduction: Introduced as an ornamental plant for dry land during the second half of
the 20th century.
Distribution in Israel: Urban areas in the N Negev, mainly in Beer Sheva and its vicinity (Fig. 4).
Ecological notes: This lignified vine escaped from experimental plots of the Plant Introduction
Institute in Beer Sheva. It has juicy and coloured diaspores and is possibly distributed by small
birds through endozoochory. Established in hedges in the urban areas of Beer Sheva.
Atriplex nummularia Lindl., Chenopodiaceae
Origin: Australia; naturalized in North America (California), and in the Middle East.
Mode of introduction: Introduced as a fodder plant during the second half of the 20th century.
Distribution in Israel: Casually spontaneous near places where planted (Fig. 5).
Ecological notes: A. nummularia is established only in a few places. However, since it resem-
bles A. halimus in its general morphology, many individuals were possibly overlooked.
Maireana brevifolia (R. Br.) P. G. Wilson, Chenopodiaceae
Mode of introduction: Introduced as an ornamental and fodder plant for dry land during the sec-
ond half of the 20th century.
Distribution in Israel: Rather common along roadsides in the N Negev (Fig. 6).
Ecological notes: Escaped from cultivation and established along roadsides where plants enjoy
extra supply as runoff from asphalt and competition is low. It is also found in highly disturbed
sites where soil is removed for road construction. It grows mainly on slightly saline loessial
Enchylaena tomentosa R. Br., Chenopodiaceae
Mode of introduction: Introduced as an ornamental and fodder plant for dry land during the sec-
ond half of the 20th century.
Distribution in Israel: Urban areas in the N Negev, mainly in Beer Sheva and its vicinity (Fig. 7).
Ecological notes: An ornamental and fodder shrub, which escaped from cultivation at the Plant
Introduction Institute in Beer Sheva and occurs mainly in the N Negev. Most individuals were
observed in abandoned gardens in the urban areas of Beer Sheva. It has bird-dispersed diaspores
(probably through endozoochory).
Acacia saligna (Labill.) Wendl. f., Mimosaceae
Origin: Western Australia.
Mode of introduction: Introduced as a fast-growing forest tree and used in sand stabilization.
Distribution in Israel: Extensive, throughout the country (Fig. 8).
Ecological notes: Planted throughout the country as a fast-growing shrub or tree, particularly to
stabilize (coastal) sands. Seed-containing pods from afforested areas are dispersed by wind. In
the southern coastal plain individual trees occur among sand dunes, mainly at the foot of the lee-
ward part of the dunes. A. saligna trees are also planted along roads. Wild fires of afforested
pine woodlands 30 km W of Jerusalem (Sha'ar HaGay area), where A. saligna trees are planted
as well, took place in the late 1990s. As an aggressive colonizer of burnt sites with low competi-
tion (Stirton 1978) it became prominent when the strong fire was followed by development of a
Danin: Adventive plants in the Flora Palaestina Fig. 2-7. Distribution of Cupressus sempervirens var. sempervirens (2), Morus alba (3), Einadia nutans (4), Atri-plex nummularia (5), Maireana brevifolia (6) and Enchylaena tomentosa (7) in grid areas of 5 7 5 km in Israel.
Willdenowia 30 – 2000 green mantle of A. saligna seedlings in the first years after the fire. Spontaneously establishedA. saligna trees are also found on crushed rocks, which make up the sides of new roads, on freshcuts of hills near roads and on rubble dumps.
Acacia cyclops A. Cunn ex G. Don, Mimosaceae
Origin: Western Australia.
Mode of introduction: Introduced as a forest plant in the 20th century.
Distribution in Israel: Local (Fig. 9).
Ecological notes: Planted in the arboretum near Kiryat Anavim, 10 km W of Jerusalem.
Following two "strong fire" events in 1987 and 1997 this presumable pyrophyte (seed germi- nation better after fire) became well-established and one of the most prominent species onpine-afforested slopes. It is assumed that additional wild fires in the Mediterranean mountainousarea of Israel will open new habitats for this species.
Parkinsonia aculeata L., Caesalpinaceae
Origin: Central America.
Mode of introduction: Introduced during the 20th century as afforestation tree for dry land.
Distribution in Israel: Common in the Mediterranean and semi-desert districts (Fig. 10).
Ecological notes: P. aculeata is planted as an ornamental tree all over Israel. It became one of the
most aggressive colonizers of roadsides sprayed with herbicides. Growing as a dominant species
in savannas in Nicaragua and Costa Rica in deep clayey soils (known as grumusols or vertisols,
see Danin 1978), it constitutes rather dense stands on clayey soils in Israel. Examples are the
highway sections from Yagur to Tivon and E of Ben Gurion Airport on the way to Jerusalem.
A common habitat are wastelands, rubble dump sites and garbage collection heaps. In all these sites and along roadsides, the establishing seedling faces weak competition for some time.
Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Simarubaceae.
Mode of introduction: Introduced as an ornamental tree during the 20th century.
Distribution in Israel: Casually on disturbed ground and in urban areas throughout the Mediterra-
nean territories (Fig. 11).
Ecological notes: In urban areas often as an ornamental plant. Escapes easily by vegetative
propagation from roots and by germination of seeds and subsequent establishment on disturbed
ground. Frequently in crevices of sidewalks, walls of old buildings and at roadsides. It sends
roots below the asphalt cover and breaks it. A dangerous invader and hard to control.
Melia azedarach L., Meliaceae
Origin: SW Asia.
Mode of introduction: Introduced as an ornamental tree.
Distribution in Israel: Scattered individuals in many of the Mediterranean territories (Fig. 12).
Ecological notes: This ornamental tree established in disturbed habitats throughout the moister
parts of the country, successfully produces fruits wherever it grows. The fruits are bat-dispersed
and sites below resting places of fruit bats may be recognized by huge quantities of M. azedarach
stones, each containing many seeds, on the ground. The trees are found in poorly-managed and
abandoned citrus groves and wasteland, where competition is low for a longer period of time.
Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae
Mode of introduction: Introduced to Europe as an ornamental plant during the 19th century. It is
not known when it was introduced to Israel.
Distribution in Israel: Constant occurrence in human-managed habitats in lowlands but in small
quantities (Fig. 13).
Danin: Adventive plants in the Flora Palaestina Fig. 8-13. Distribution of Acacia saligna (8), A. cyclops (9), Parkinsonia aculeata (10), Ailanthus altissima(11), Melia azedarach (12) and Schinus terebinthifolius (13) in grid areas of 5 7 5 km in Israel.
Willdenowia 30 – 2000 Ecological notes: Habitats of S. terebinthifolius are similar to those of Lantana camara, but thefrequency is lower. It is found in lowlands in (almost) abandoned citrus groves, trickle-pipe-irri-gated date palm plantations and in wastelands.
Schinus molle L., Anacardiaceae
Origin: South America (Andes).
Mode of introduction: Introduced as an ornamental plant.
Distribution in Israel: Casually in the Mediterranean districts (Fig. 14).
Ecological notes: Although being used as an ornamental plant much more than S. terebinthi-
folius, S. molle occurs much less spontaneously in places where it was not actually planted. It is
casually found along roadsides and in wastelands.
Rhamnus alaternus L., Rhamnaceae
Origin: S Europe, Mediterranean, e.g. in the mesic parts of N Israel.
Distribution in Israel: Spontaneous populations are known from N Sharon (Caesarea area), Mt Car-
mel and the Galilee. Trees and shrubs south of this area may be regarded as synanthropic (Fig. 15).
Ecological notes: R. alaternus is a common component of the mesophytic Mediterranean ma-
quis. However, the wide cultivations as an ornamental plant in the rest of the country brought
available seeds to niches where its establishment is possible. Such a habitat is below Eucalyptus
trees that are planted along roadsides in areas with 300 mm mean annual rainfall. Birds consume
the fruits and transfer seeds by means of endozoochory. Competition at the shade of Eucalyptus
trees is not high and casual establishment takes place.
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn., Myrtaceae
Origin: Western Australia.
Mode of introduction: Introduced as an ornamental and forest tree in the 1880s.
Distribution in Israel: Rarely germinating and establishing spontaneously (Fig. 16).
Ecological notes: For many years E. camaldulensis was one of the most common trees used in af-
forestation on various soils types. In its area of origin it dominates riparian vegetation (its com-
mon name in Australia is "river red gum"). The common habitat where spontaneous germination
and establishment of this tree takes place in Israel are ditches along the highway in areas of deep
clayey soil (grumusol), where irrigated agriculture is practiced near the road. Functioning as
drainage canals, the ditches may have wet ground throughout the summer, which probably meets
the germination demands of E. camaldulensis. Millions of seeds are wind-dispersed from the
adult trees every year.
A seminatural establishment of E. camadulensis took place in water courses of the N Negev following the rainy year 1990-91, when much of Israel, including the N Negev received c. 200 %of the average annual rainfall. During the following three years wadis which usually have wateronly sometimes in winter were streaming the year round. In such wadis E. camaldulensis germi-nated and was spontaneously established.
Araujia sericifera Brot., Asclepiadaceae
Origin: S Brazil.
Mode of introduction: Introduced as an ornamental in the late 20th century.
Distribution in Israel: Mainly as a weed in citrus groves in the coastal plain (Fig. 17).
Ecological notes: Escaped from cultivation as ornamental plant and established in almost or fully
abandoned citrus orchards. Being wind-dispersed and a vine, it evidently has a biological advan-
tage in germinating and establishing in the shade of trees where not many competitors can survive.
Lantana camara L., Verbenaceae
Origin: Tropical America.
Mode of introduction: Introduced as an ornamental plant; exact date unknown but, following the
Danin: Adventive plants in the Flora Palaestina Fig. 14-19. Distribution of Schinus molle (14), Rhamnus alaternus (15), Eucalyptus camaldulensis (16), Arau-jia sericifera (17), Lantana camara (18) and Washingtonia filifera (19) in grid areas of 5 7 5 km in Israel.
Willdenowia 30 – 2000 general history recorded by Stirton (1978), it seems to have been introduced during the 20th cen-tury.
Distribution in Israel: A very common invasive weed in irrigated extensive cultivations in thelowlands (Fig. 18).
Ecological notes: L. camara is a noxious weed rated as one of the ten worst weeds of the world(Stirton 1978). It is dispersed from ornamental gardens by birds through endozoochory and eas-ily established in less intensively managed crops such as orchards. Seeds passed through the in-testines and dropped by birds when resting on the trees, fall on soil poor in competing annuals dueto the shade of the trees. L. camara often looks like a vine, entirely covering dead citrus trees. An-other common habitat of L. camara are trickle-pipe-irrigated date palm plantations, which arecommon along the Jordan-Dead Sea-Arava Rift Valley. In this area and especially in the area ofEn Gedi it threats to outcompete even the local flora in its natural habitats. L. camara is also acommon component of the wasteland vegetation in the lowlands of the Mediterranean territoriesof Israel.
Washingtonia filifera Wendl., Palmae
Origin: SW North America (California and Arizona).
Mode of introduction: Introduced as an ornamental plant from California at the beginning of the
Distribution in Israel: Scattered in a few districts (Fig. 19).
Ecological notes: Established in disturbed ground with low competition and sufficiently wet
ground. These conditions may be found in (almost) abandoned citrus groves of the coastal plain,
in flower beds and gardens in the Mediterranean territories, along roadsides and in trickle-pipe-
irrigated date palm groves. Prevailing spontaneously near desert springs in California and Ari-
zona at a wide range of elevations, W. filifera is expected to grow at a wide range of elevations
in Israel as well.
The increase in successful establishment of alien plants in Israel, as in other countries, reflectsthe increase in number and diversity of available alien seeds, and the availability of habitats. Theexpanding urban areas and highly disturbed ground near newly constructed roads increase the ar-eas available for colonizers. Whereas competition of the local flora in the natural vegetationmostly prevents the establishment of alien plants, there are no such "guards" in destructed land.
For a few years until the "wounds" in the landscape have been healed by natural succession, thereis an open habitat available for arriving seeds. Sources of alien seeds are plantations such as for-ests and ornamental gardens in urban areas. The availability of seeds is highly reflected in thespontaneous distribution of forest trees such as Cupressus sempervirens var. sempervirens andPinus brutia mainly along the roadsides of afforested areas. Endozoochory is an important modeof seed-dispersal of many of the aliens discussed here. The distances of dispersal display the reg-ular flight distances of the transporting birds. The constant occurrence of these aliens in predict-able habitats in Israel leads us to include them in the list of species of the Flora Palaestina area.
Dafni, A. & Heller, D. 1980: The threat posed by alien weeds in Israel. – Weed Res. 20: 277-283.
— & Heller, D. 1982: Adventive flora of Israel; phytogeographical, ecological and agricultural
aspects. – Pl. Syst. Evol. 140: 1-18.
— & Heller, D. 1990: Invasions of adventive plants in Israel. – Pp. 135-160 in: Di Castri, F.
(ed.), Biological invasions in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. – Monogr. Biol. 65.
Danin, A. 1976: Notes on four adventive composites in Israel. – Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edin- burgh 34: 403-410.
Danin: Adventive plants in the Flora Palaestina — 1978: Sodic soil as a primary habitat of Portulaca oleracea L. in Nicaragua. – INTECOL, Jerusalem 1: 89.
— 1991: Roadside vegetation in Israel. – Pp. 392-402 in: Öztürk, M. A., Erden, U. & Gürk, G.
(ed.), Urban ecology. – Izmir.
— 1995: Man and the natural environment. – Pp. 24-39 in: Levy, T. E. (ed.), The archaeology of society in the Holy Land. – London.
— 1999: Desert rocks as plant refugia in the Near East. – Bot. Rev. 65(2): 93-170.
— 2000: Distribution atlas of plants in the Flora Palaestina area. – Israel Academy of Science
and Humanities (manuscript submitted).
Feinbrun-Dothan, N. 1978, 1986: Flora palaestina 3-4. – Jerusalem.
Lipschitz, N. & Biger, G. 1998: Trees of Eretz-Israel. – Jerusalem [in Hebrew].
Stirton, C. H. 1978: Plant invaders, beautiful, but dangerous. – Cape Town.
Zohary, M. 1966, 1972: Flora palaestina 1-2. – Jerusalem.
Address of the author:Avinoam Danin, Department of Evolution, Systematics, and Ecology, The A. Silberman Institutefor Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel 91904; e-mail:email@example.com
Journal of Physiology - Paris 99 (2006) 232–244 Development and virtual screening of target libraries Bioinformatics of the Drug, CNRS, UMR 7175, 74 route du Rhin, F-67400 Illkirch, France The concomitant development of in silico screening technologies and of three-dimensional information on therapeutically relevant macromolecular targets makes it possible to navigate in the structural proteome and to identify targets fulﬁlling user-deﬁned queries.This review illustrates some in-house recent advances in the development of target libraries and how they can be browsed to unravelchemogenomic information. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.