UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT NORTHERN DISTRICT OF ILLINOIS EASTERN DIVISION WENDY DOLIN, Individually and as Independent Executor of the ESTATE OF STEWART DOLIN, deceased, Judge James B. Zagel v. SMITHKINE BEECHAM CORPORATION d/b/a GLAXOSMITHKINE, a Pennsylvania Corporation; and MYLAN INC., a Pennsylvania Corporation, Defendants.
Most often, when a man first has problems with lowered potency or with sexual dysfunction buy viagra australia shipping to pharmacies, paying purveyors, training personnel, or having a huge advertising budget.
Check List 8(2): 264-266, 2012 2012 Check List and Authors ISSN 1809-127X (available at www.checklist.org.br) Journal of species lists and distribution Mammalia, Rodentia, Cricetidae, Calomys laucha (Fischer, 1814): Distribution extension in southern Brazil Caroline Badzinski 1*, Daniel Galiano 2 and Jorge R. Marinho 1 1 Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missões – Campus de Erechim, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas. Avenida Sete de Setembro 1621, CEP 99700-000, Erechim, RS, Brasil.
2 Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Zoologia. Avenida Bento Gonçalves 9500, prédio 43435, CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil.
* Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com Abstract: The geographic distribution of Calomys laucha in Brazil, known only from the southern portion of Rio Grande
do Sul state, up to the state's Central Depression region, is extended approximately 350 km to the north with a new record at Faxinalzinho municipality, post Depression region in Rio Grande do Sul state. The species seems to be associated with dense shrubby vegetation in this area.
Calomys laucha is a small rodent of the subfamily was sampled on 5 May 2010, in a shrubby area associated Sigmodontinae (family Cricetidae) that is found only in with forest borders in the city of Faxinalzinho. The South America, more specifically in southern Bolivia, specimen has a body length of 90 mm, tail length of 66 western Paraguay, north and eastern Argentina, Uruguay mm, ear length of 10 mm, foot length with nails of 16 mm, and southeastern Brazil (Musser and Carleton 2005; foot length without nails of 14 mm and weights 16 g. The Bonvicino et al. 2008). In Brazil, this species is found individual was captured during a field study developed with in the Pampas biome in the state of Rio Grande do Sul the rodent community of that region, which consisted of (Mattevi et al. 2005). The species has terrestrial habits three sampling periods between September 2009 and May and is considered to be mainly granivorous (Vieira and 2010. In each trapping period, traps were placed randomly Baumgarten, 1995).
on the ground and the total trapping effort amounted to The conservation status of Calomys laucha has been 2400 trap-nights (800 trap-nights per sampling). Standard current classified as Least Concern (LC), according to Tomahawk® traps of one size (12cm x 12cm x 25cm) were the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2011). The used. Other rodents were concomitantly captured: Akodon species presents a wide distribution and a presumed large montensis (36 specimens), Oligoryzomys flavescens (11), population size (Christoff et al. 2008). This rodent is found Oligoryzomys nigripes (4), Mus musculus (4) and Akodon in dry biotopes (González et al. 1995), agricultural areas, reigi (2). The collection was held under the IBAMA open vegetation, meadows, mountain ranges, coastal (Brazilian Institute for the Environment and for Renewable sandbanks and specimens have been typically recorded in Natural Resources) permit number: 15224-2.
flat open areas (González 2001; Christoff et al. 2008). In Argentina, it generally constitutes the dominant species in cultivated field areas (Polop et al. 1993).
In this paper, we expand the known distribution of C. laucha to about 350 km north of its range. The new location is in the city of Faxinalzinho, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (27°20'11.9" S, 52°40'10.9" W), altitude of 685 meters. This new distributional locality is characterized by a transitional forest between Ombrophilous Mixed and Seasonal Forests (Leyser et al. 2009). The climate has marked seasons and is the Cfb type (Köeppen, 1948): subtropical, with a dominant influence of the territorial pattern, humid, with rainfall uniformly distributed throughout the year, and mild summers. The area has some disturbance caused by cattle that graze in both open and forested habitats and agricultural activity (soybeans) which is the predominant activity of the region and occurs all along the area, which is surrounded by small farming Figure 1. Adult female of Calomys laucha sampled in Faxinalzinho
municipality, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Dorsal (A) and An adult female specimen of Calomys laucha (Figure 1) ventral (B) views of a stuffed skin (Specimen: Nº Zoo 300).
Badzinski et al. Distribution extension of Calomys laucha in southern Brazil Figure 2. Conventional karyotype colored with Giemsa obtained from the sampled female of Calomys laucha (2n=64; FNa=68) in the city of Faxinalzinho,
Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil.
The specimen identification was done based on Since only one individual was captured, we can't confirm external morphological traits (dorsal and lateral pelage that there is a population established in the area or if it is coloration, visual identification of a white tufted hair on an accidental record. This point is crucial since this species the back of the ear, at the basal part, which is characteristic is very abundant in the Argentinean agroecosystems of the genus, and darker color on the upper surface of and this record could represent an invasive species case the foot) and confirmed by karyological examination instead of a natural range extension. Due to the fact that obtained through the method described by Ford and there are no major roads nearby which could facilitate Hamerton (1956) and Guerra and Souza (2002). The an accidental record (truck driven), we believe that this individual presented a diploid karyotype number of 2n new record is a natural range extension, which provides = 64 and a fundamental number of NFa = 68 (Figure 2), a significant contribution for the species expansion range. and was deposited in the Zoological Collection of the Further studies and surveys in the area may bring some Museu Regional do Alto Uruguai (MuRAU) at Universidade answers to this open question.
Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missões – URI, Campus of Erechim (collection number N°Zoo 300). The same karyotype was found by Mattevi et al. (2005) in the extreme south of Brazil (near the border with Uruguay, 32° S), which apparently presented the same karyotype described by Brum-Zorrilla et al. (1990) for individuals of the surroundings of Laguna Negra, in Uruguay.
Little is known about C. laucha in Brazil and this new record represents an increase in the geographical distribution of the species, being the first specimen captured in the north region of Rio Grande do Sul state, which until now has presented records only for the southern portion of this state, in the region of the southern fields (Mattevi et al. 2005; Bonvicino et al. 2008). This register has expanded the distributional area of this species in approximately 350 km, officially confirming the presence of the species above the Central Depression region of the state (Figure 3). According to Christoff et al. (2008), there are no major threats affecting this species due to its wide distribution and occurrence in several protected areas. However, it may present taxonomic problems since a good series of Figure 3. (A) Geographic distribution of Calomys laucha in Brazil
specimens (including males and females of different age (Modified From: Bonvicino et al. 2008). (B) Location of the Faxinalzinho municipality in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. (C) Location of the sampled classes) has never been collected from a single location. area in Faxinalzinho municipality, southern Brazil.
Badzinski et al. Distribution extension of Calomys laucha in southern Brazil Acknowledgments: We thank Mr. Fontana for logistical support and
IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. Electronic URI for provide a student fellowship from PIIC/URI to the first author.
Database accessible at http://www.iucnredlist.org/. Captured on 10 Köeppen, W. 1948. Climatologia com un Estudio de los Climas de la Tierra. Bonvicino, C.R., J.A. Oliveira and P.S. D'andrea. 2008. Guia dos Roedores do Mexico: Fondo Cultura Económica. 477p.
Brasil, com chaves para gêneros baseadas em caracteres externos. Rio Leyser, G., M. Viniski, A.L. Donida, M.E. Zanin and J.C Budke, J.C. 2009. de Janeiro: OPAS/OMS. 120p.
Espectro de dispersão em um fragmento de transição entre floresta Brum-Zorrilla, N., G.H. Catalfo, C. Degiovanangelo, R.L. Wainberg, and G. ombrófila mista e floresta estacional na região do Alto Uruguai, Rio Fronza. 1990. Calomys laucha chromosome (Rodentia, Cricetidae) Grande do Sul, Brasil. Pesquisas, Botânica 60: 355-366. from Uruguay and Argentina. Caryologia 43(1): 65-77. Mattevi, M.S., T. Haag, L.F.B. Oliveira and A.R Langguth. 2005. Chromosome Christoff, A., M. Weksler, E. Vieira, G. D›Elia, J.P Jayat and U. Pardinas. characterization of Brazilian species of Calomys Waterhouse, 2008. Calomys laucha. In IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened 1837 from Amazon, Cerrado and Pampas domains (Rodentia, Species. Version 2011.1. Electronic Database accessible at http:// Sigmodontinae). Arquivos do Museu Nacional 63(1): 175-181.
www.iucnredlist.org/. Captured on 10 June 2011.
Musser, G.G. and M.D. Carleton. 2005. Family Muridae; p. 501-755 In Ford, C.E. and J.L. Hamerton. 1956. A colchicine hypotonic citrate squash R.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (ed.). Mammal Species of the World, A sequence for mammalian chromosomes. Stain Technology 31(6): Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Third Edition. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Gonzalez, E.M. 2001. Guia de Campo de los Mamiferos de Uraguay. Polop, J.J. and M.S. Sabattini. 1993. Rodent abundance and distribution Introduccion al Estudio de los Mamiferos. Montevideo: Vida Silvestre. in habitats of agrocenosis in Argentina. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 28(1): 39-46.
Gonzalez, E.M. and E. Massoia. 1995. Revalidacion del Vieira, E. M. and L. C. Baumgarten. 1995. Daily activity patterns of small genero Deltamys Thomas, 1917, con la descripcion de una nueva mammals in a Cerrado area from central Brazil. Journal of Tropical subespecie de Uruguay y Sur del Brasil (Mammalia, Rodentia: Ecology 11(2): 255–262. Cricetidae). Comunicaciones Zoologicas del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo 12(182): 1-8.
Received: September 2011 Guerra, M. and M.J. Souza. 2002. Como observar cromossomos: um guia Accepted: February 2012 de técnicas em citogenética vegetal, animal e humana. Ribeirão Preto: Published online: May 2012 Funpec. 131p.
Editorial responsibility: Ana Paula Carmignotto
Entfernung spätestens eam 0180/4 09 09 09 eitere Informationen: Mirena® – Kopf frei Mirena®-PassBei der Einlage von Mirena®können Sie sich von IhremFrauenarzt /Ihrer Frauen-ärztin diesen Pass mit Einlege- Mirena® und Entfernungsdatum aus- stellen lassen, damit Sie diese Daten immer präsent haben. Name der Anwenderin Bitte markieren Sie IhreBlutungstage und bringenden Zykluskalender bei