Government of nepal

Government of Nepal Ministry of Physical Planning and Works Department of Roads Environmental & Social Management Framework
A guide to the environmental and social issues associated with new road construction and upgrading (Final Version) April, 2007 ANNEXES

Annex 1 The Consultant's Terms of Reference

for Preparing the ESMF

Annex 2 Environmental Code of Practice
Annex 3 Glossary for Technical Terms used in

Annex 4 Reference

The Consultants Terms of Reference
for Preparing the ESMF
Environmental and Social Management Framew The following text is extracted from the General ToR for the SWRP&PIP provided to the Consultants. Hereunder, only those sections are printed in bold which relate
to the Environmental and Social Management Framework: TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR CONSULTING SERVICES FOR STUDY FOR
1. Background:

Geographically, Nepal comprises a mountainous region, hill districts, and lowland plains. The economy is dominated by agriculture, which represents 44 percent of Gross National Product (GNP) and employs the majority of the population. Apart from trails and air transport, roads are the only means of transport. They are essential to economic development, carrying approximately 90 percent of freight and passenger traffic. Road transport in Nepal is vital to reducing isolation and distributing economic development to remote areas. Nepal's road network can be broadly divided into two parts: the Strategic Road Network (SRN) and the Rural Roads (RR). The SRN is currently being updated to include approximately 5500 kilometers of completed and proposed national highways and feeder roads. It carries most of the road traffic and provides the national transportation links between main centers and to neighboring countries. Within the SRN is the loosely defined core road network (CRN). It comprises approximately 1,500 km of national highways with the highest traffic volumes (greater than 1,000 vehicles per day). The CRN carries the bulk of longer distance commercial traffic movements, linking all major commercial centers, economic centers and main border crossings. The RR comprises approximately 4,600 km of district roads, plus trails, tracks and suspension bridges. His Majesty's Government of Nepal (HMG/N) has prepared a Priority Investment Plan (PIP) for the Road Sector as part of the Road Maintenance and Rehabilitation Project (RMRP) funded by the World Bank. In addition to it Department of Roads (DoR) has recently carried out a North-South Road Corridor study and prepared a 20-year Road Master Plan for the Road Sector covering the 10th, 11th, 12th and 13th Five-year plans of His Majesty's Government of Nepal. Based on these Plans and Study along with the aims and objectives set in the current 10th Five Year Plan and National Transport Policy (2058) HMG/N plans to carry out a Study for Sector Wide Road Program & Priority Investment Plan. Part of the proceeds from Road Maintenance and Development Project (RMDP) under the loan assistance from the World Bank (IDA Cr. 3293-NEP) will be utilized to carry out proposed Study. The key object of the Study is to prepare a sector wide investment plan for the road sub-sector in order to provide all weather motor able access within four hours walk from remote settlements. The study consists of two parts: April 2007 Annex 1 - 1 Environmental and Social Management Framew Part I - Sector Wide Road Program & Priority Investment Plan for The
Strategic Road Network
To generate the total length of all weather national grid of road networks comprising both strategic and rural roads to allow accessibility to the populace not farther than four (4) hours walk in the hills and two (2) hours walk in the Terai. The consultant shall estimate an optimum investment need based on expected traffic volume and other economic activities in the area. To Review the present Priority Investment Plan (PIP) and update it for the period of ten years (2007-2016) covering about 5000 km of existing strategic road network out of which 2800 km of upgrading and improvement (rehabilitation). The updated plan shall include additional 2200 km for new construction including optimum maintenance costs forecasts for all the strategic road networks required for that period. Part II - Detailed Technical and Economic Feasibility Study of Selected 600 km
To carry out detailed technical and economic feasibility studies for new construction, upgrading and improvement (rehabilitation) of about selected 600 Km of the Strategic Road Network. The roads for the study will be screened from the updated plan. Out of the 600 km of roads about 200 km will be studied for new construction and the rest about 400 km for upgrading and improvement excluding the roads whose feasibility studies have already been carried out. Part I Sector Wide Road Program & Priority Investment Plan for The Strategic
Road Network
2. Objectives
The main objectives of Part I are:
a. to develop and suggest a futuristic national grid of road networks including both the strategic and rural roads based in the twenty year road master plan, district road transport plan and the north-south road corridor study. b. to prepare an appropriate Priority Investment Plan (PIP) of strategic road network covering about 7200 km roads for the period from 2007 to 2016 and a review process under the policy objectives set by the twenty year road master plan identifying potential programs and projects for the strategic road network. c. to determine the optimal balance among construction of new roads (national
highways, feeder roads and bridges) and improvement, rehabilitation and
maintenance of the existing strategic road network

d. to determine an appropriate level of expenditure on investments for construction
and maintenance given local resources and absorptive capacity constraints
(financial, technical and human resource related) and the probable level of
foreign assistance in the sub-sector during the period of ten years starting from
the year 2007.

e. to forecast the optimum maintenance costs of the strategic road networks required for the period from 2007 - 2016. f. to review the present Priority Investment Plan (PIP) prepared under the policy objectives set by the Eighth Five Year Plan (EFYP) and asses the achievements set forth in that PIP regarding the construction and improvement, rehabilitation and maintenance of the existing strategic road network only. g. to compare different budget scenarios from 2007 to 2016 for the strategic road network and present the consequences of budget constraints to the society (network net Annex 1 - 2 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framew present value), road users (network road users) and road agency (short term and long term agency investment and maintenance expenditures). h. to characterize the current network average condition and forecast the average network condition over time for the different evaluated budget scenarios. i. to determine the optimal investment plan with allocation of resources between geographic regions, surface types, road work types and functional classification of roads. j. to present a list of strategic road network links, for the defined proper level of road agency expenditures, containing for each link the corresponding basic characteristics (length, width, roughness, traffic etc.), recommend road work, road work cost, road work timing, net present value, rate of return and net present value per road cost ratio. k. to present the result of the network evaluation on a map produced preferably with a l. to train about six DOR engineers and assist DOR to establish HDM-4 system within Department of Roads to improve the technical capacity of DOR in network planning using HDM-4 model. 3. Scope of the Services

The Consultants shall carry out all engineering, economic and socio-environmental studies, including topographical surveys and pavement strength tests, needed to prepare the Priority Investment Plan of strategic road network. Sectoral investment studies on development, upgrading and improvement of the strategic road network, will be conducted and overall maintenance strategies would be developed based on the World Bank's Highway Development and Management Model (HDM-4), which the consultants will calibrate to suit the Nepalese conditions. While preparing the PIP regional balance shall be taken into consideration. The followings are the detailed description of the main tasks to be undertaken by the Consultants: Review of Technical Studies and Detailed Work Program
The Consultant will review all relevant studies carried out in the past and
extract any information that may be used in the present study. The present
existing PIP along with the twenty-year road master plan, district roads
transport plan and north-south road corridor study would be the guiding
reference for the future PIP. Based on such information and their initial
findings, the consultants will update and revise the original work plan
submitted with their proposal and provide a detailed schedule of work
including the timing of key events and present it as part of Inception

Traffic Forecasts and Network Analysis
(a) Traffic Studies: The Consultants will review the existing traffic data from the
Highway Management and Information System (HMIS) publications, Traffic Engineering and Safety Unit (TESU), Road Network Development Project (RNDP) and other consultants working for Road Maintenance and Development Project (RMDP). They shall prepare a program of additional data collection and assess present strategic road traffic demand. The program will include, to the extent required, additional classified traffic survey for both passenger and goods traffic showing the origin and destination along the roads of study. The consultant shall also carry out the axle load survey in all major roads along which instances of overloading persists. April 2007 Annex 1 - 3 Environmental and Social Management Framew (b) Traffic Forecasts: The Consultants will prepare traffic volume and mix forecasts
for strategic highways and feeder roads. The choice of appropriate forecasting model will be preceded and determined by an assessment and analysis of (i) overall economic development prospects and the resulting total transport demand, (ii) the likely future modal distribution of traffic between strategic road network and the other transport network in Nepal. Different scenarios could be developed and evaluated as appropriate. (c) Wherever predominantly stable growth conditions and only gradual changes in
socio-economic conditions are expected to prevail, the Consultants will extrapolate from past trends, making adjustment that may be necessary to account for changes that are likely to modify these trends. Where major rapid changes in socio-economic conditions are expected, the consultants will prepare traffic forecast in three stages: (i) estimation of volume and location of future tourism, agricultural, industrial and mining input and consumption, including imports and exports; analogous estimates of population and personal income growth and of the income elasticity of demand for transport will be necessary; (ii) translation of population and output/consumption forecast into traffic-both by volume and by origin and destination and (iii) distribution of traffic to the various transport modes, taking into account both perceived and total distribution costs and any major planned transport projects (such as under construction Banepa - Sindhuli - Bardibas Road, and under study Kathmandu-Terai Fast Track, and the Kathmandu Outer Ring Road). The resulting transport growth rates will be applied to be base year traffic estimates to produce road traffic forecasts for the strategic road network. (d) The Consultants should consider the almost uni-modal set-up to Nepal's
transport system. Use of a traffic assignment and forecasting model shall be supported by the rationale for the Consultant's choice and present it as part of their proposal. (e) On the basis of the traffic forecasts and taking into account the limited existing
network, the consultants will assess whether the segments additional to the existing grid of roads (including upgrading of existing roads) are necessary to meet future traffic demand and sustainable taking into account environmental considerations. The Consultants will prepare a simple model of traffic forecast based on the above analysis for the strategic road network. The demand for roads would be e.g. a function of productive potential, social service delivery needs, accessibility, aggregate transport costs and resource mobilization capacities. Technical Data Collection
Strategic Road Network: The consultants will review and update the following
technical data in the format required by the HDM-4 model. An important
component of the services will be to involve DOR personnel with activities related
to use of HDM-4 for preparing the investment plan including on the job and
specific training to introduce capability within DOR in operation of HDM-4
software for Highway Development and Management.
(a) Vehicle Operating Costs (VOC): The Consultant will review the VOC model
developed for the Road Maintenance Project in the past and update it for use in the future. Annex 1 - 4 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framew The consultant will define current vehicle operating costs and travel time costs for Nepal by performing a Level 1 and Level 2 calibration of the HDM-4 model, following the guidelines presented on the Volume 5 of the HDM-4 documentation. Priority should be given to establish economic vehicle fleet costs, fleet utilization and physical and power characteristics and calibrating the desired speed and fuel consumption. (b) Construction and Maintenance Costs: The Consultants will review and update
estimates of unit costs for construction and maintenance works to be used in the modeling phase (HDM and transport model), based on existing data from construction, upgrading and improvement works carried out in the recent past. Costs should be considered both in financial as well as economic terms.
(c) Road Data: The Consultant will review the present PIP and adopt the same
system for road data for both paved and unpaved roads. As adopted in the present existing PIP the Road data for unpaved roads will be limited to roughness, CBR of the natural sub-grade, thickness and characteristics of the pavement materials, road geometry and the carriageway and formation widths. It shall be collected on sample basis for typical sections and estimated elsewhere. The sampling rate will depend on the economic importance of the roads considered. (d) Bridges: The Consultants will review and if necessary update the existing
inventory of bridges recently prepared by the local consultant for the Road Maintenance and Development Project. The inventory includes a summary description, classification based on types and sizes and conditions of all bridges and ferries on the strategic road network. A review of unit maintenance costs for bridges will also be included in the study. (e) Air Transport Network: The Consultants will review and update the basic data
of air transport network in order to estimate basic unit costs to compare with other modes of transport affecting rural accessibility. Road Inventory and Database
The consultants will produce the road data described above primarily for the network modeling. The Consultant will review the existing formats, in which information has been gathered and presented, and suggest changes in the formats if necessary. As of this effort, the consultants will review inventory procedures established by DOR/MRCU. In addition to reviewing the DOR/MRCU inventory procedures, they will also develop nodes and links for the new roads added to the strategic road networks. Analysis and Evaluation
Strategic Road Network: The analysis would consist of a prioritization of
construction, upgrading and maintenance investments based on the network
modeling, ranked according to economic criteria considering most likely sectoral
budget ceiling limitations.
For analysis of the maintenance options of the existing roads of the Strategic road network, consultants will group the referenced roads into categories or groups of homogenous sections with similar characteristic such as traffic range, pavement type and condition (roughness level), structural strength and so on. April 2007 Annex 1 - 5 Environmental and Social Management Framew Sections requiring special attention should be analyzed separately. For all groups of sections defined above, the consultants will define the investments and the corresponding maintenance needs that will be technically justified to match the capacity of the segment to future road transportation demand. The consultants will use HDM-4 to compare the options and select the economically viable option for the full network. The options to be considered shall include construction of new sections and realignments including by pass to the major settlements; widening of existing pavements reconstruction on existing alignment improved road standards (upgrading); provision of full strength pavement overlays (including widely leveling course where needed); periodic maintenance operations such as thin premix overlays, single or double surface dressing courses; improvement of sub-grade strength through better compaction methods and/or stabilization; improvement of embankments and addition of drainage structures to prevent damages from flooding; and so on. The consultant shall study the roads and road sections under the performance based maintenance system and critically examine its suitability in the Nepalese conditions. Priority Investment Plan
The consultants will prepare a national grid of road network consisting both
strategic and rural roads to provide road accessibility at a distance of not more
than 4 hours walk. Based on the national grid and the above data and analysis
the consultant will prepare a priority investment plan for about 5000 km of
existing strategic road networks and about 2200 km of additional new roads.
The consultant should prepare the plan based on the optimum phasing of investments and maintenance over a 10-year period, indicating the optimum balance among: (i) construction and upgrading of the strategic road network; (ii) rehabilitation and maintenance of existing roads and bridges of the strategic network. It is expected that the consultants during the course of their work will compare several strategies for the development of the strategic transport networks and its maintenance taking into account the specific physical and economic conditions, likely environmental impacts and necessary mitigation measures and natural constraints of Nepal relevant for road development such as inter alia, the country's difficult topography, limited absorptive capacity, scarcity of human resources in the road sector, land use predominantly for agriculture, ecologically/environmentally sensitive areas, and relatively uneven distribution of population centers. The consultant will compare different budget scenarios and present the consequences of budget constraints to the economy (society net present value), to road users (network road users costs), road network (network average road roughness and percent of the network in good and fair condition) and to road agency. The budget scenario to be evaluated could be for example: a) optimal expenditures, b) 75% of optimal expenditures, c) 50% of optimal expenditures, d) expected level of expenditures. The consultant will present a table with the results of the network evaluation by road link, for the expected level of expenditures and other budget scenarios. The table will present at least for each road link the basic characteristics (length, width, surface type traffic, roughness, etc.), the proposed road work, the year of the proposed road work, the road work cost, the road work cost per kilometer, the net present value, the rate of return, and the net present value per road work cost ratio. The structure of the table should be suited to present the main results in a map preferably with GIS system. The consultants will review the availability of local (HMGN and Road Board Funds) and foreign financing for the road sub-sector in Nepal, make reasonable assumptions of future levels consistent with the lending programs of the major Annex 1 - 6 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framew donors in the sub-sector (ADB, IDA, Japan, SDC, DFID etc) and match these against the optimized programs in the 10 year plan to be reviewed periodically. Part II Detailed Technical and Economic Feasibility Study of Selected 600
km of Roads
2. Objectives
The primary objectives of the consulting services are: a. to conduct detailed technical and economical feasibility study of selected 600
km roads which does not have detailed study carried out earlier, for upgrading,
improvement and new construction. The roads for the study shall be chosen
during the preparation of Interim Report of the Priority Investment Plan in
month 6-7 of the services in close consultations with DOR. Out of the total 600
km of roads for the feasibility study, about 400 km of the roads shall be studied
for upgrading and improvement including bridges and the rest 200 km for new

b. to review and update the existing detailed feasibility studies of roads carried

earlier under the Road Maintenance and Development Project, for the present
economic and socio-environmental parameters provided these roads rank high
in the PIP list.

3. Scope of the Services

The following sections outline the anticipated tasks required to bring the proposed extensions and improvements to the Strategic Road Network for possible appraisal by the Bank in 2006. The services include: a. Technical Economical Feasibility Studies of the prioritized roads:
The consultant will carry out the technical and economical feasibility study of the
prioritized roads for new construction of approximately 200 km of roads and for
upgrading (rehabilitation and improvement) of approximately 400 km of the strategic
road network including bridges.
The consultant will evaluate, using an economic evaluation model (HDM-4 or Road Economic Decision Model, RED) for each road, a series of project-alternatives considering different investment levels, which will be compared with a without project alternative that will represent a do-minimum scenario and not do-nothing scenario. b. Initial
and Environmental Impact Assessments:
The study also includes Environmental Impact Assessments for New
Construction and Initial Environmental Examinations for roads proposed for
Upgrading as specified in the DoR Reference Manual for Environmental and
Social Aspects of Integrated Road Development and Public Works Directives,
Part II Procedural Directives Ch 2 and 3, HMG/N acts and regulations and
applicable Bank Guidelines.

Detailed Scope of Works
The consultants will carry out the following tasks: Review studies and documents pertaining to the proposed feasibility study,
including DOR planning documents; previous feasibility studies and

April 2007 Annex 1 - 7 Environmental and Social Management Framew analysis; road traffic data and available forecasts (vehicle, cargo, and
passenger); relevant environmental and social impact studies; and
available survey data (including maps, aerial photographs, etc.).

Carry out desk study of the investment plan to refine and select the roads
for detailed feasibility for new construction and upgrading. The desk study
will include preliminary cost estimates and a preliminary economic
assessment based on available traffic data and also possible environmental
and social impacts.

Conduct a meeting with DOR to consider the results of above tasks to
reach a decision on the roads to be studied in more detail. It is expected
that about 200 kilometers of roads linking the district headquarters and
about 400 kilometers of roads for upgrading, (rehabilitation), will be
included for further study.

Undertake a field survey of the selected routes for both upgrading and new
construction. This field review will include only those routes identified
following the initial desk analysis and review of overall feasibility.

The fieldwork will include reconnaissance (drive along at existing dirt roads
and walk over along the suggested alignment for proposed construction)
surveys, socio-economic data collection, data on passenger and freight
movements, an initial review of the environmental factors pertinent in the
selected road corridor and mapping of affected socio-environmental
assets. The Consultants should attempt to identify at this stage any
particularly vulnerable groups whose social, economic or environmental
capability could be threatened by the proposed road construction or land

For project components proposed for upgrading (rehabilitation) work,
conduct a field survey to ascertain existing condition of road (including
drainage, bridges, and other physical structures); prepare an inventory of
required works (including bridges), carry out geological/geo-
technical/material survey; and assess pavement design. Based on typical
contracting arrangements and unit-based pricing, prepare a cost estimate
of each project component including projected cost of bridges.

For project components of new construction providing access to district
headquarters, conduct a field survey and establish alternative alignments,
identify features affecting design (man-made and geographical), and
conduct a geological/geo-technical/material survey. Establish typical cross
sections in sufficient number and detail to develop cost estimates for the
construction. Identify issues pertaining to land acquisition and recommend
approaches to be taken.

Prepare a preliminary design of proposed project components. For upgrading (improvement/rehabilitation) works this will include adjustments to alignments, improvements or new construction of drainage, bridges, etc. For new roads provide alignment, profile, and cross section on an appropriate scale and details for the terrain and conditions. The scale for the drawings will be not less than 1:25000. It is intended that the construction and upgrading activities would be undertaken using Labor-based methods to the extend possible, with contracts let to local contractors supervised by HMG/N appointed construction management consultants Accordingly, the Consultants are required to specify simple work specifications, flexible road geometric, simple and community managed bioengineering measures, cost effective road structures in their design. Develop methodology to forecast passenger and freight traffic movements on the proposed roads to be used in the economic analysis. These should be based on Annex 1 - 8 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framew the populations served and anticipated trip production and freight generation rates. Forecasts of traffic levels on the sections of road to be upgraded will be based on surveys of existing demands and future growth estimates. In consultation with the DoR, develop a comprehensive list of unit item rates to form the basis of the project cost estimates. In order to develop the Rates and Cost Estimates Consultants are required to apply appropriate HMG/N Norms and Specifications with proper and timely interactions with concerned Branches/Sections of DoR. The consultants will prepare detailed economic feasibility and sensitivity analyses for each new proposed hill road to fair weather standard (as per DoR guidelines) road based on estimates of transport benefits and costs (construction and maintenance) for each project. The economic analyses will include Internal Rates of Return, Net Present Value calculations, first year Benefit-Cost ratio, and sensitivity analyses to one-year delays in construction, increases in construction costs, decreases in benefits, and staged approach possibilities. The benefit calculation will estimate transport cost savings resulting form the replacement of foot paths, tracks and air transport with truck and bust transport, and agricultural producer surplus (using methodologies acceptable to the World Bank) resulting from road construction and improved level of access. The above work will entail basic surveys of traffic on footpaths, tracks and roads by mode (including estimation of local seasonality factors), and basic surveys of agriculture data (areas, products and average yields from District Development Committee data). The Consultants will also prepare the detailed economic feasibility analysis for the upgrading to sealed gravel or bituminous standards (as per DoR Guidelines) of the existing sections of earthen or gravel roads. These analyses will be based on vehicle operating cost savings attributable to existing traffic movements. The work will entail traffic surveys and traffic forecast based on seasonality factors and calculation of the current number of closure days per year. As in the case of new roads, the Consultants should prepare detailed feasibility and sensitivity analyses. To evaluate the economic evaluation of improving unpaved roads, the consultant could use the Roads Economic Decision Model (RED) developed by the World Bank to evaluate the investments in unpaved roads. Prepare a social impact analysis in accordance with Bank guidelines and
requirements of the Government. Include consultation with local
communities affected by the project, possibly through community
meetings, local leaders, and non-government and other community
organizations. Mitigate adverse social impacts to the extent possible
through the project design with costs incorporate in the economic
evaluation. Identify positive benefits to, for example, human resource
development. If resettlement is required, advise the Government on the
requirements for a resettlement plan and assist with defining the basis for
the plan.

Throughout the study, involve the local communities and residents within
the areas of influence of the proposed roads in a program of consultations
and community involvement. This will require liaison with local community
leaders, local NGOs and local officials, as well as interviews and dialogue
with the local populations particularly disadvantaged and vulnerable
groups in the effected areas.

The objectives of the community involvement activities should be to
maximize the potential benefits, minimize the adverse impacts, and to gain
the acceptance, commitment and participation of the individuals and
groups affected by the road. The voluntary participation of local
communities is also desirable as a means to increase their commitment
with future maintenance requirements.

April 2007 Annex 1 - 9 Environmental and Social Management Framew (xv) Prepare an environmental impact assessment (EIA) and Initial
Environmental Examination (IEE) in accordance with Bank guidelines and
requirements of the Government, and report results of the social analysis
(SA) appropriate for project appraisal. Mitigate adverse impacts to the
extent possible through the project design (inclusive of such measures as
supporting DOR's Geo Environmental Unit), with costs incorporated in the
economic evaluation. In addition to negative impacts (such as blasting
construction techniques) assessments, explore the opportunities to
support environmental enhancement measures, such as forest and other
natural resource conversation along the road corridor.

(xvi) Following the completion of the feasibility study, cost estimates, and
environmental studies and revised economic appraisals, the Consultants
will develop and present their recommendations in regard to the timing,
phasing and implementation of the proposed project components.
Specifically, this will include recommendations in regard to the most
appropriate contracting procedures and packaging of the project
components. The Consultants will also develop, in conjunction with
Department, the necessary organizational requirements both within the
Department and also in regard to the contractors and supervision

(xvii) Prepare a Project Appraisal Document at the end of study period, which will
bring together all the main findings in respect of the various components in
such a form as to assist with possible project appraisal by the World Bank.
The document would include details of each project sub-component,
economic and financial costing, Initial Environmental Examination and EIA
statements (including land acquisition and resettlement issues), social
assessment, estimated benefits, and overall economic and technical
justification as well as project implementation schedule and
implementation arrangements.

4. Training
The consultants will be required to conduct on the job and training to about six DOR Engineers in HDM-4, GIS Applications and Project Planning and prioritisation during execution of their services including: a) collecting road network data; b) storing, managing, and evaluating road network data; c) calibrating HDM-4 for road user costs and unit road agency costs; d) using HDM-4 for project evaluation, programming, and planning of road works; and e) presenting the results of their work efficiently to decision makers with proper tables, graphs and maps to be created in GIS system. 5. Report and Time Schedule
Feasibility Study
Inception Reports Progress Reports 15 (month 4 onwards) (month 8 onwards) Reports Interim Reports Draft Final Reports Annex 1 - 10 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framew Appraisal Document (a) Sector Wide Road Program & Priority Investment Plan
The Inception Report shall summarize the consultant's initial findings and mobilization
of staff, a first assessment of available data and of site conditions, and a detailed revised
work program and schedule of activities. Progress Reports shall contain a brief
summary of the work accomplished in the preceding months, an outline of work expected
to be completed during the next progress reporting period, and consultants' comments or
recommendations on any unforeseen conditions that may affect the progress or quality of
their work. The Interim Report shall contain a summary of the findings and
recommendations of the consultants on review of studies, calibration of network models,
GIS application, network data traffic studies and forecasts, capacity of existing strategic
network models, HDM-4 and GIS application, network data traffic studies and forecasts
and capacity of existing strategic network. The Draft Final Report shall include the result
of analysis of the scope of works outlined above for PIP including review process. The
Final Report
shall be reflecting all revisions required after receipt of comments from
HMG and IDA on the Draft Final Report.
(b) Feasibility Study

The Inception Report
will include the initial mobilization activities and will specifically
present the suggested route alignments in previous studies and changes made in that
alignment if any, recommended by the Consultant. The report will contain, among others,
the proposed economic analyses methodology for the new road construction and road
upgrading components for approval. The report will also contain the results of the initial
screening exercise, which will select the final 600 km (approximately 200 km new
construction and approximately 400 km for rehabilitation and upgrading) from the
investment plan as agreed during the inception. Interim Report will include the results
and findings from the walk over and/or drive along survey and on the changes
recommended on route alignments for further study. The findings in terms of the Initial
Environmental Examination on local people by the road construction and analyses for
each project sub-component will also be presented together with recommendations for
further study, as required. This report will also present the initial results of the project
costing, including unit rates, draft quantities and draft of the study including IEE and EIA
as applicable. Project Appraisal Report will incorporate all Components of the
proposed Project in accordance with the requirements set down in 3 (xvi) of Detailed
Scope of Works
. Final Report will document all aspects of the study and provide details
of the program and strategy for implementation incorporating the revisions required after
receipt of comments from HMG and IDA on the Draft Final Report. Progress Reports
will include a brief summary of work completed, work proposed, staffing arrangements
and any other contractual matters.
All data collected during the course of the study will be documented, collated, and presented as annexes. All data, reports and relevant documents will be provided on electronic disk in a readily usable format. 6. Data and Facilities to be provided by the Client
Data on Pavement Condition, Road Roughness, and Traffic Studies available in the Department of Roads will be made available to the Consultants. In addition the client will make available previous documents and reports, which are in its possession. 7. Obligation of the Consultants
April 2007 Annex 1 - 11 Environmental and Social Management Framew The consultant shall provide all the technical and support staff required to carry out their services. The Consultant shall also be responsible for providing all other necessary facilities and logistic support for its staff, including accommodation, transportation, office and survey equipment, material testing, communication, utilities, office etc. The consultants will carry out confirmatory surveys on information available with DOR and collect additional necessary data for the execution of their services from field surveys. Some of the necessary data for the execution of the services are: (i) Pavement:
Width: The consultants will measure pavement and shoulder widths as needed
but at least once in every kilometer.
Curvature and Gradient: Using suitable instruments, the consultants will
determine the average curvature in degrees per km and the average gradient in
m/km for each road section referenced in the network.
Structures and CBRs: The Consultants will open test pits in the existing
pavements and shoulders every 25 km or less, if required in order to determine
the existing pavement structure, measure thickness of each individual layers,
determine bearing capacity and measure CBR and moisture content of the
natural sub-grades and shoulders. Between two test pits, the dynamic cone
penetration (DCP) test will be carried out on the shoulders to assess the
variability of CBRs of the sub-grades and on the pavement layers (if driving the
DCP through the macadam layers is not found possible, then the consultants will
bore a pre-hole through it) to assess the pavement thickness and bearing
capacity profile and to determine the structural strength of the pavements. DCP
on pavements should be at 2 km intervals for national paved highways and roads
with more than 500 vehicles per day and at 5 km intervals on other paved roads.
The consultant will ensure that deflection data (Section (iii) below) is available for
some of the sites selected for the DCP.
(ii) Roughness:
The consultants will review the existing roughness data from the reports of the consultants who have carried out similar tests for DOR in different projects in the recent past and if required use a vehicle mounted response-type road roughness measuring system to collect additional data. The system will be calibrated and periodically checked in accordance with the International Roughness Index (IRI) standard. Consultants may limit the number of runs per section to one in each direction unless the existing conditions warrant otherwise. (iii) Deflection:
The consultants will review the data collected by different consultants who have carried out such tests for different DOR projects in the recent past, and if required, measure additional existing pavement deflections under a standard 8 Ton axle. All measurements will be carried out when the pavements are soaked, preferably about the end of the monsoon, or else the values should be adjusted suitably to represent soaked conditions. The deflection values will be correlated to the structural numbers determined from the Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) measurements. Annex 1 - 12 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framew Pavement Condition:
The consultants will review the Pavement Condition survey of strategic road networks carried out by consultants employed by DoR in the recent past, and if required carry out additional surveys using the same methodology, at a sampling rate of 5 percent (50 meters in every one kilometer), to determine the surface distress (measured by the Surface Distress Index) and the dominant mode(s) of distress (e.g., cracking, potholing, raveling and rutting) in each of the referenced road section. April 2007 Annex 1 - 13 Environmental and Social Management Framew
Addendum to Social Aspects of the ToRs
Part I Priority Investment Plan for the Strategic Road Network
Part I: Objectives
To prepare a sector wide social impact management framework, including
recommendations for strengthening institutional capacity and arrangements.

Part I Section 3. Scope of Services
The consultant's service will include but not limited to the following:
A detailed review of DOR's past or recent relevant experience on similar works in
Nepal and assess lessons learned. Field discussions with people impacted by RMDP
would serve as a good source for identifying what worked, what did not, and what
key lessons can be identified from this experience used to strengthen future
operations in the sector.

An assessment of the capacity of DOR (or lower level agencies) to identify and
ensure implementation of effective social mitigation measures, preferably
incorporated as part of standard project preparation practice.

An assessment of HMGN and Bank policies on involuntary resettlement settlement,
identification of any gaps, and recommendations to bridge these gaps.
On the basis of the analysis defined above, prepare a sector wide social impact
management framework, including recommendations for strengthening institutional
capacity and arrangements. Prepare the appropriate mitigation instruments - as a
minimum a Resettlement Policy Framework, Vulnerable Communities Development
Framework and sub-project RAPs and VCDPs prepared as necessary.

Addendum to Environmental Aspects of the TORs
Priority Investment Plan for the Strategic Road Network
Part I: Objective
Assess the current standards of environment and social assessments being
carried out in DOR;
Assess the policies and operational procedures to address, mitigate and
manage the environment and social issues in DOR; test for compliance
in practice on a sample basis and identify areas that need
modification/strengthening; and

Recommend how the preparation (planning and design), implementation
and supervision arrangements might be enhanced, and how any
identified environmental issues might be mitigated.

Part I: Scope of Work
Environmental regulations
Review of existing Nepali regulations, policies, guidelines, frameworks
pertaining to EA, EIA and road construction and compare with World
Bank safeguard policies and identify any gaps; and

Annex 1 - 14 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framew Review of Nepali regulations concerning forestry, natural habitat,
national parks a, conservation areas, pest management, cultural and
archaeological property, and disclosure policies and compare with the
World Bank policies and identify gaps. Determine which aspect of each
regulation/policy is pertinent to DOR.

Assessment of DOR capacity to implement environment regulations and
management and an analysis of the quality of implementation

Analysis of the current practices and institutional mechanism for
application of the above mentioned policies and guidelines. Identify the
gaps between the practice and the regulations;

Assess the current standards and quality of environmental assessments
being carried out in DOR;

Assess the capacity of the DOR to carry out environmental management
implementation in projects. Namely, capacity to: (i) develop TOR for
IEE, EIA and environmental assessments; (ii) review EIA; (iii) develop
environmental management plans; (iv) undertake all the clearance
requirements for IEE, EIA etc. through the concerned Ministry and
Ministry of Population and Environment; (v) conduct public
consultations; (vi) incorporate all the recommendations of the IEE, EIA,
and EMP in the contractual documents; (vii) supervise/monitor the
environmental requirements; and (viii) ensure quality control of all
environmental management activities.

Assess the existing policies and operational procedures and
implementation mechanism to address, mitigate and manage the
environmental issues in DOR. Test for compliance in practice on a
sample basis and identify areas that need modification/strengthening.
The sampling will analyze the following:

Procedures: The Consultant will review the processes undertaken to
analyse, predict and manage the identified environment and social issues
in design of these selected projects. The Consultant will establish whether
the proposed remedial (prevention, mitigation and compensation)
measures are commensurate with the nature and scale of the environment
and social impacts of the projects. This will include, but not be limited to,
reviewing (i) the engineering codes of practice followed for project design,
with particular relevance to environment management; (ii) the
construction management practices and environment management
specifications being followed at site; (iii) implementation of tree
plantation and roadside vegetation strategies; (iv) implementation of
environmental enhancement measures, such as enhancement of roadside
water bodies or public property resources; and (v) overall compliance
with adequate environmental, social and health safeguards, during

Supervision and monitoring: The Consultant will review the mechanisms
for supervision and monitoring environmental and social issues in both
the implementation and operation periods of the sample projects.

Policies: The Consultant will establish whether all the applicable
environment, forestry and social policies and legal requirements have
been met by the projects. The Consultant will also review the existing

April 2007 Annex 1 - 15 Environmental and Social Management Framew DOR policies with respect to the management of the environment and
social issues at all levels and all stages of project preparation and

Discussion of alternatives: The Consultant will verify whether all
reasonable alternatives were considered during preparation of the
current projects; and will critically review the final choice of road
(alignment, pavement, road cross-section and construction material) with
respect to the environmental and social setting of the projects, and
program objectives such as connectivity and accessibility to physical,
economic and social services and infrastructure.

Consultation process: The Consultant shall establish whether concerns
from all stakeholders including the local governments and the vulnerable
groups (such as women, agriculture laborers etc.) were addressed in
planning and designing the sample projects. This will include verifying
the consultation process at DDC, VDC and Ward levels and how the
public concerns have been addressed or not addressed by the project.

Based on the analysis conducted in (a) to (e) recommend concrete
measures to be included in Study for Sector wide Road Program and
Priority Investment Plan to bridge the gaps identified.

Institutional strengthening of the DOR for environmental management
Based on the analysis above, summarize the potential environmental
requirement under the Study for Sector wide road program and Priority
Investment Plan.

Prepare or revise if already existing, a compendium of mitigation
measures differentiated by ecosystem types and environmental impacts
and an environmental code of practice (suggested outline in Annex 1);

Determine the institutional mechanism for environmental management;
Prepare training plan;
Prepare legal framework necessary to ensure environmental management
within DOR; and

Determine consultation and disclosure mechanism (See Annex 2 for
suggested framework).

The Consultant will develop sampling criteria and select an adequate
sample of districts for this study, so as to be representative of the entire
programme in the identified districts. The selection criteria will be such
that a variety of geographical terrain such as undulating, hilly regions,
and Terai regions are covered in the study. The Consultant will select the
districts in close consultation with the DOR.

The Consultant will carry out a desk review of the relevant documented
guidelines to address environment and social issues, standards,
procedures and processes that are being applied in the program.

The Consultant will carry out detailed field surveys for physical
verification of actual contracts on a large and credible number of ongoing
projects (in various stages of completion) representing the diverse social

Annex 1 - 16 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framew and environmental variations. The field surveys are expected to (i)
determine the extent to which these guidelines, standards, procedures and
processes are actually being applied in practice; (ii) identify and assess
environmental and social impacts arising from the planning/design,
construction and operation of the projects in their particular setting; and
(iii) identify all other relevant issues including those described in the
scope of work.

2. Technical and Economic Feasibility of selected 600 km of roads
The current TOR is for specific roads identified under the priority investment plan.
Since these are highways under category A, individual EIA and EMPs are required for
each road under the Environmental Assessment safeguard policy. The following is
suggested to be included in addition to the existing scope of services.

Environmental overview: The consultant will appraise the environment
of the proposed roads and issues arising from the planning/design,
construction and operation of the projects in their specific setting.
Typically this will include aspects such as: climate, topography, geology,
soil characteristics; ambient air quality, ambient noise levels; quality and
availability of water; flood drainage, alteration of the natural drainage
patterns (surface and ground water flows); flora & fauna - their
ecological value; agricultural practices, grazing and land utilization;
availability of construction material, handling of earthwork, conservation
of topsoil and reuse; use of quarries and borrow areas and their
rehabilitation; public and workers' safety, etc.

Impacts on land use: The Consultant will carry out an assessment of the
land use/utilization pattern within the influence area, and direct,
cumulative and induced impacts thereon from the projects. This will
typically include potential impacts such as exploitation of natural
resources; land use transformation - particularly the loss of
grazing/pasture land and common property resources; urban-industrial
development and ribbon development, etc.

The consultants will review and update environment management plans
(EMPs) Frame Work to be adopted by DOR in line with HMGN and
Bank policies. The IEE of the sub-projects for the first year program shall
include EMP to mitigate the environmental impacts. These plans will be
developed based on actual field investigations for the respective projects
(separate from the surveys undertaken for the current/ongoing projects).
The EMP will also assign to appropriate agencies the recommended
actions necessary to mitigate identified risks and enhance the overall
preparation, design and supervision arrangements for the project.

Environmental Codes of Practice
The environmental codes of practice shall include typical designs of
mitigation/enhancement measures, complete with technical specifications for material
and workmanship.

Environmental Impact Screening Process
How to Apply the Environmental Codes and Specifications
April 2007 Annex 1 - 17 Environmental and Social Management Framew General Principles of Environmentally Sustainable Planning, Design and

Construction Camps and Site Operations (includes Haul Roads, Material
Stockpiling, Facilities for Workers, etc.)

Tree Plantation and Roadside Vegetation (includes Planting Operations,
Maintenance, Selection of Species, Community Participation, Aesthetic
Effects, etc.)

Erosion Control
Slope Stability
Temporary Sediment and Pollution Control Devices
Quarry Development, Operation and Reinstatements (includes Blasting, Pre-
splitting, and other Safety Concerns)

Gravel Extraction and Borrow Areas – Development, Operation and

Drainage and Flood Prevention
Bridge Works (includes Scour and bank Protection)
Traffic Control During Construction
Protection of Chance Found Cultural Property; Removal of Burial Sites or

Public and Workers' Safety during Construction (includes Transport and
Storage of Explosives)

Waste Management and Site Redevelopment (including Spoil Disposal,
Balancing Cut and Fill, etc.)

Additional Measures for Roads through Forest Areas, Wildlife and Natural
Habitats (includes Swamps, Temporary Wetland such as Paddy Fields, other
Habitats and Breeding Grounds)

Additional Measures for Roads in Hills and Undulated Terrain
Other Site Specific Mitigation/Management measures (such as for Rivers,
Lakes, etc.)

Supervision, Monitoring and Compliance.
Screening and Consultation Framework
Key Environment Management, Social Development and Participation Issues
Analysis of Institutional and Organizational Issues
Overall Screening and Consultation Framework
An information strategy (objectives of road programme/project for local
communities, relevance to the felt need of the communities).

Annex 1 - 18 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framew Collaborative and participatory mechanisms between communities and
local/project authorities (enabling communities to participate in identifying
and selecting road improvements, as well as in monitoring the
implementation and operation).

Mechanism for ensuring continued consultation (communities to be consulted
about their needs, constraints and priorities, and discuss access/mobility
needs as well as the levels and kinds of services needed).

Local employment opportunities (from road improvement/maintenance

Gender Strategy for the project (includes women's equitable access to
employment opportunities).

Empowerment and local control (includes decision-making by community

(10) Mechanisms for monitoring and evaluation.
April 2007 Annex 1 - 19 Environmental Code of
Environmental and Social Management Framework Environmental Code of Practice for Road Construction
General Principles Guiding Environmentally Sustainable Planning,
Design and Construction of Roads
1.1 General
This Guideline aims to assist road planners, site engineers and supervisors with a set of technically specified solutions, tailored to Nepalese conditions, to illustrate the general principles of environmentally sound and sustainable planning, design and construction of road structures. It also refers to drainage and flood prevention, roadside planting, work safety and health concerns, and protection of wildlife and cultural assets. This Annex makes references to a number of documents in use by the former GEU. Major reference documents are the ‘Environmental Codes of Practice, Study on Environmental and Social Aspects of Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana, New Delhi, India, Feb, 2004', and the ‘Roadside Bio-Engineering Manual of ODA, ORN #16, 1999'. The Guidelines for the Code of Practice in road construction activities relates particularly to the project preparation stage to avoid/address environmental concerns through modifications in project design and the due incorporation of mitigation measures. It needs to be observed, however, that in addition to these guidelines and project planner needs also to consult and follow the construction guidelines as outlined by the DoR. Finalization of the Road Alignment
All requirements of latest publication of Nepal The alignment should be… Roads Standard (NRS), and Design Standards for Feeder Roads of DoR, GON in selection of alignment should be met with. In addition, • Easy and safe to construct and adequate public consultations with the communities for information disclosure and to identify the concerns and preferences need to be Laid on firm ground taken up during selection of the alignment (see ‘Chapter 8 - Public Consultation Framework' of Having least adverse environmental this document). Finalization of alignment shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions Ensure good drainage presented below. Adequate view of possible hazards ahead April 2007 Annex 2 - 1

Environmental and Social Management Framework A good road alignment shall conform to the natural topography as far as possible to avoid excessive cut and fill: High Impact Road
Low Impact Road
High standard roads
Low standard roads
• Conforms to the natural topography • Moves large volume of traffic rapidly and • Suitable for low volume rural roads and low travel speeds • Huge cuts and fills, stability of slopes • Damage to vegetation, and o Reduces the cut and fill, • Disruption to natural drainage patterns o Reduces damage to vegetation o Minimize changes to natural drainage An inventory of all environmental features along the proposed road is to be prepared and
marked on topographic / thematic map (of scale 1:10,000). This would be conducted by the
Project (may be assisted by consultant), and also in co-ordination with the local community
through site walk-through survey. Consultations with the local communities are to be
conducted during walk-through to obtain their suggestions and incorporate their concerns
to address the potential environmental impacts. Suggestions of the community during the
walk-through are to be incorporated, to the extent possible, while finalizing the alignment. A
simple checklist to be filled up while carrying out the walk- through survey is given in Table
Annex 2 - 2 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework Table A2-1 : Environmental Assessment and Screening Matrix
Operation &
Project Activity
ter Sourc
Site Cleara
Spoil Dispos
Bridge Culv
Water Quality/Water Source Conservation Area Biological
Population/Ethnicity Agriculture/Farming April 2007 Annex 2 - 3

Environmental and Social Management Framework
Elements to investigate and, to qualify and quantify to the degree possible are:
Inventorize the following …
Unstable slopes, landslides and erosion prone area. Land use (productive agricultural land, forest, grazing areas etc.) Scale of resettlement Forests, if any (Dense forest area with more than 40% grown cover and and thin or open forest area with less than 40% grown cover); conservation areas, national parks Drainage lines, rivers and water crossings Major settlements, and Seasonal markets or cultural congregations Route Alignment to avoid felling trees

In hill and mountain areas. non-irrigated dry bari lands are generally suitable for locating a
road alignment without major technical
problems. Forest areas on the other Recommended Practices for Alignment
Finalization …
hand, particularly in the vicinity of • Follow existing main trails, as far as possible streams are generally steep, difficult and • Follow natural topography unstable, and should be avoided where • Conform alignment to within property possible. Irrigated khet lands are • Adopt geometrics that do not compromise on unsuitable on account of fertility and safety requirements associated high agricultural production • Avoid crossing power transmission lines, water and technology because of drainage related maintenance problems during Avoid alignments affecting vegetation and felling of trees • Avoid alignments passing through very In case of flood-prone areas and/or unstable slopes. areas with very flat slopes, particularly in • Avoid alignments close to streams • the Terai, hydrological surveys have to Avoid encroachment of water bodies, and • Avoid passing through natural designated be conducted before alignment forests, sanctuaries, national parks and finalization. Inputs derived from these surveys such as the need for provision of • The road should cross the ridges at their lowest culverts/bridges or other cross/roadside elevation. Relative economics are to be worked out before deciding upon the alignment. drainage structures should be • Hairpin bends are to be kept to a minimum. If considered in the alignment finalization. unavoidable the alignment should be such that Routes involving higher costs on a flat hill slope is obtained for its location. drainage compared to alternative routes Provide adequate cross-drainage structures to ensure that natural drainage patterns are not should be avoided. In case of hill areas, geological studies have to be conducted to determine locations of loose rock, soil or potential sites for land slides, which may need to be avoided. Annex 2 - 4 April 2007

Environmental and Social Management Framework Design considerations
All the road designs should conform to the specifications prescribed by Nepal Road Standard and design standard for feeder roads, as appropriate
Drainage: For large catchment areas
with low ground slopes, the Reduce roadway width when…
accumulation of water may cause • Land is not available
flooding on the up-stream of the road. Through built up areas The increased velocity of water passing Through irrigated lands through the culverts causes scour on • Voluntary land donation is resisted the down-stream and alters natural • Land holdings are small and land take affects ground levels and scouring of land. Hydrological studies are to be The project road is "link route" conducted in large catchment areas to Low embankment height reduces…
limit the afflux and provide adequate waterway for cross-drainage structures. Quantity of earth work Redevelopment costs of borrow areas Dune sand accumulation in desert areas and Cattle crossings to be provided at Requirement of land for construction of road normal crossing routes for safety of both cattle and road user. Ramps for access to and from agriculture lands for cross traffic are to be provided to avoid damage to embankment and roadside drains. iii. Shoulders should be paved at destination/roadside villages and provide bus bays to avoid traffic obstruction. iv. Where possible, the embankment should be widened to provide a platform for stacking materials for maintenance and to ensure that the shoulders are kept free for movement of traffic. Align Road Away from Drainage Channels Provide Adequate Openings Ramp for Lateral Traffic Widening of Shoulders for Storing Maintenance April 2007 Annex 2 - 5 Environmental and Social Management Framework Community Concerns: Community concerns, expressed during consultations are to be
addressed to the extent possible in the design of the road. The concerns need to be
and checked for addressal. In case any of the measures are not incorporated, the same needs to be intimated to the community with adequate explanation after design finalization. Road Signages: Adequate informatory, cautionary and warning road signs should be
provided to ensure traffic safety, especially in the event of adoption of lower standards. The
signboards should be placed such that they do not block the line of sight.
Environmental Considerations
Environmental considerations for various activities and sub-activities in road construction
projects are presented in Table A2-2 and A2-3. Measures for the same are to be
incorporated in the project preparation stage to offset environmental impacts in the
subsequent stages.
Corridors prioritized as per the core Some of the key environmental concerns to be
network shall be subjected to screening • Land, including loss of productive topsoil – whilst utilizing the screening checklist described in sub-section 4 of this • Land use and livelihood the issue/s Annex. • Vegetation, cutting of trees The Feasibility Study then has the task Forests, wild life, fisheries and aquatic habitat • Water bodies and water quality to identify the magnitude of the issues / impacts for finding adequate technical • Wetlands mitigation solutions and safeguard • Structures, and measures. Common property resources Integrating Environmental and Social Provisions in Bid Documents
The environmental and social considerations
Construction scheduling –factors to
discussed above have to be incorporated suitably consider…
in the Detailed Design and the bid document to • Overall scheduling to incorporate ensure implementation. Towards this end, the climatic factors, snow fall, harsh following steps should be taken by the Project weather conditions • Agricultural practices and harvesting • Detailed Drawings for the environmental • Timing of specific activities to avoid provisions as per the environmental codes of special weather conditions practice are to be included in the Design. The • Events of importance in the project area as festive seasons etc. drawings are to include specifications of the • Availability of local labour during materials used and also the detailed bill of project area as quantities in the bid document. • Cost implications of environmental measures suggested by the environmental codes of practice have to be included in the estimates for the project. • Monitoring arrangements towards the implementation of the environmental provisions are to be specified. Annex 2 - 6 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework • As per the directives of the MoPPW/DoR, the contractor is expected to submit for approval of the engineer, the general methods, arrangements, orders and timing for all
the activities in the works along with monthly cash flow. In scheduling the construction
works, it is expected that the contractor Timing of activities-factors to consider…
considers all the risks and schedule the • If there is a time lag (more than a activities, which are likely to be impacted by fortnight) between WBM and black- weather phenomenon in a period in which topping, the surface needs to be suitably blinded and may have to be re-rolled as these phenomenon are unlikely to occur. This per the instructions of the ‘Engineer ‘. would also need review and final approval of • The time lag between the prime coat and the final black-topping shall be minimum and in any event be not more than 3 days. • Sealed coat shall immediately follow the 20 mm carpet on the same day.
Table A2-2: Environmental concerns in Detailed Design Preparation

Detailed in
Items to consider
Measures to address
Drainage lines/rivers/water Inventories of environmental features avoidance, design modification to minimize adverse environmental implants Irrigation water courses Incorporating community concerns in to finalizing alignment. Water bodies Grazing lands Cultural properties Utilities Community facilities Major functions Geological, geotechnical Stability analysis and measures to address slope instability in studies in hill areas hill slopes and high banks Topographical surveys Work out requirement of cut and fill Hydrological surveys in flood Identification of flood prone areas and measures to avoid prone areas (particularly in Identification of agricultural use of land Material extraction from existing quarries Location Criteria Material extraction from existing quarries minimized Identification of Identification of perennial/community/private sources Material Sources Water availability Utilizing community water sources without conflict of uses Scheduling construction considering the special weather phenomena Provision of silt fencing Rehabilitation of water bodies Stability of slopes Measures for slope stabilization Erosion control measures Land use control measures adjacent to the road Land use changes Empowering a VDCs/DDC/Municipalities to regulate development Avoidance from setting up construction camps, borrow areas Agriculture lands Conservation of top soil and reuse Site restoration after construction Avoidance through design modifications Cultural properties Planning for relocation & rehabilitation Avoidance through design modification Common Property Resources Planning for relocation in consultation with community Provision of adequate number of CD structures Trees Compensatory plantation & roadside plantation Avoidance through design modifications Environment Management measures during construction Avoidance through design modification or formulating Natural Habitats additional measures for avoiding impacts Stockpile top soil and preservation Construction sites Provision of pollution control measures April 2007 Annex 2 - 7 Environmental and Social Management Framework Detailed in
Items to consider
Measures to address
All measures to ensure public and worker's health/safely, avoid environmental standby emergency facilities Waste management Arrangement with land owners to include redevelopment Rehabilitation of quarry areas if new quarries are opened Personal Protective Equipment to be provided Public workers health & safety Public safety at construction site to be under taken Measure for workers health & hygiene at construction camp Land for borrowing Agreement to include borrow area rehabilitation Water for construction Agreements with owners/community foe utilizing water Site for construction camps Rehabilitation of the land after construction Removal of trees Compensation for the trees cut Avoidance through modification of alignment Consultations with Cultural properties Relocation costs to be covered in the project, if needs relocation Avoidance through modification of alignments Common property resources Relocation costs to be covered in the project, if needs Traffic during construction Provision of alternate routes or prior notice to the users Community concerns to be incorporated Concerns of community Impacts identified are to be mitigated by incorporation of Environmental impacts identified provisions as per these Codes Impacts that can be mitigated through design modifications should be incorporated Designs for enhancements and mitigation measures All concerns/impacts identified detailed drawings including cost provisions Table A2-3: Environmental Concerns during Project Implementation - to be identified in the EMP

Activity and Sub

Detailed in
Pre-Construction Activities
Alignment Marking i) Co-ordination with DoR Relocation of Utilities Impact on current usage i) identification of relocation site in advance ii) Scheduling the activity in consonance with the community usage pattern Compliance with Forest i) Prior clearance from Department of Forest; Act in case trees are on coordinate with district forest officer ii) Compensatory plantations & landscape designs i) As per project provisions for compensation and Clearance of Land Affect on livelihood Affects on standing crops ii) Scheduling of activity and coordination; compensation Affects on cultural iii) Modification of alignments for avoidance or relocation of the cultural properties Affect on natural habitats iv) No clearance of vegetation beyond existing RoW. Diversion of Forest Compliance with Forest i) Activity scheduling to avoid delays, confirmation to legal requirement ii) Precautionary measures during construction in forests Pollution from construction iii) Precautions while operating equipment Transfer of Land i) Addressal through Grievance Redressal Mechanism & Consultations ii) Provision to entitlement as per resettlement Affect on livelihood Location of Storage Pollution from construction Yards, Labor Camps, camps, storage yards and i) Location criteria to be adopted & Construction Sites labor camps Pressure on location ii) Infrastructure arrangements to be as per Machinery likely to cause i) Machinery to be procured shall be in pollution at settlement and conformance with approved specifications natural habitats Safety concerns in ii) Safety equipment for workers; safety awareness and machinery operation Identification and Conflict of users in case of i) Consultations and arrangements at Annex 2 - 8 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework
Activity and Sub
Detailed in
Selection of Material contractor-individual levels, documentation of agreement ii) Consultations and arrangements at Borrowing causes contractor-individual levels, documentation Pollution due to material extraction from borrow and iii) Precautionary measures during siting of borrow areas and quarry areas surrounding environment Disturbance to Natural iv) Avoidance to location of material source in Natural Habitats Pollution due to location Identification of close to settlements, water i) Site selection in conformance to criteria designated locations bodies & other sensitive of waste disposal Construction Activities
Effects on road side Clearing and grubbing i) Restricted movement of machinery/equipment Debris generation creating ii) Disposal/storage of grubbing waste and possible unsightly conditions Generation of debris existing culverts and creating unsightly i) Disposal of waste and likely reuse structures, if any conditions Flooding due to ii) Provision of diversion channels and/or interception to drainage scheduling construction of culverts in dry months Planning Traffic Trampling of vegetation i) Activity scheduling, identification of along traffic diversions alternative track Detours Material Procurement i) Stripping and storing topsoil Formation of stagnant ii) Rehabilitation plan for borrow areas and water pools due to borrowing/quarrying iii) Conformance of quarries selected to the Illegal quarring/sand EMP requirements including quarry rehabilitation plans Uncontrolled blasting at iv) Controlled blasting to the extent required. v) Conformance to blasting rules as per the Explosive Act of GoN Transport of materials Fugitive emission from i) Covering of material with tarpaulin or use of covered transport trucks box trucks during transport Dust emission from haul ii) Haul road management roads Contamination of water i) Provision of impervious base to storage Storage of materials sources, leaching into ground water Dust rising and increase in Handling of earth particulate concentration in ii) Use of dust suppressants like water sprinkling ambient air Increase of particulate Handling of Soil and concentration and iii) Use of dust suppressants like water sprinkling contamination of nearby areas Handling of granular Risk of injury to workers iv) Use of Personal Protective Equipment material Handling of Leaching of materials,con- v) Provision of impervious base at bitumen bituminous materials tamination of water sources vi) Control of emission from mixing Contamination of vii) Prevention of accidental spills, affecting Handling of oil/diesel accidental spills cleaning immediately after spill Pollution due to incomplete viii) Ensure complete combustion of fuel through regular maintenance of equipment Littering of debris at Waste management ix) Waste to be disposed at disposal locations only construction site Contamination of x) Preventing of runoff from entering water surroundings due to runoff from construction site Operation of construc- Air and Noise pollution xi) Conformance to Emission Standards and Norms tion equipments and April 2007 Annex 2 - 9 Environmental and Social Management Framework
Activity and Sub
Detailed in
xii) Conformance to Safety concerns of the road users and Operational safety of workers in operation, first aid provision and mandatory provision of Personal Protective Equipment Trampling of vegetation xiii) Restriction of movement within ROW Damage of Flora and xiv) Minimizing impact on vegetation natural habitats Damage to roadside xv) Minimizing impacts on private and common properties, including religious structures Earthworks
Uncontrolled blasting in i) Controlled blasting to be made mandatory case of rock cutting ii) Preservation of topsoil for reuse Waste generation iii) Safe disposal of waste and possible reuses i) Drainage channels to be provided with Interruption of drainage culverts in advance to embankment ii) Dust suppression with water Excess water/material iii) Minimizing height of embankment iv) Scheduling embankment construction in wet months, if v) Compaction with vibratory rollers is suggested Erosion causing impact on vi) Slope stabilization measures as seeding, mulching and embankment/slope stability bio-engineering techniques vii) Construction of temporary erosion control structure as per requirements viii) Control measures as silt fencing, vegetative barriers Contamination of water ix) Avoiding disposal of liquid waste into natural water courses Collection of rainwater in x) Temporary drains during construction construction camp construction camps Waste water from labor xi) Disposal of waste water into soak pits xii) Removal of oil/other chemical spills & Contamination of soil Cutting embankments Impact on the drainage of surface water flows in and out of the xiii) Restoration of drainage channels Embankment stability xiv) Design of slopes of the water bodies, slope protection Sub-Base and Base courses Extensive extraction of Granular sub-base i) Use of locally available materials quarry materials Extensive water ii) Scheduling the activity in wet months iii) Avoiding conflict to use due to water extraction from construction Movement of machinery for Shoulders treatment iv) Restricting movement on adjacent land Culverts and Minor Interruption of water flow i) Provision of diversion channels Pollution of water channels ii) Control of sediment runoff during construction Safety of workers iii) Mandatory use of personal protective equipment Workers safety during Bituminous surface i) Mandatory use of personal protective equipment handling of hot mix Damage to vegetation ii) Avoiding use of wood as fuel for heating bitumen (burning/cutting) iii) Hot mix plan location on waste lands Contamination due to iv) Reuse of land filling of bituminous wastes bituminous wastes v) Ensuring compliance of hot mix plants with the Impacts on air quality standard emission standards Concrete surfacing for Contamination of vi) Mixing concrete at designated locations away from roads crossing built surroundings due to habitation and agricultural land To be provided as per design furniture/Signage Annex 2 - 10 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework
Activity and Sub
Detailed in
Requires material Shoulder protection i) Use locally available material extraction from quarries ii) Ensure that all shoulders are clear of debris or construction materials i) To be included in Detailed Design Report Post construction
Clearing of construction camps Change of land use due to i) Camp site to be restored to its original Camp site restoration setting up of construction condition as per the rehabilitation plan ii) Restoration of top soil Waste generation at the iii) Disposal at waste at designated locations construction site Clearing of water Generation of debris and Channels, side drains i) Removal of debris and disposal and culverts Rehabilitation of i) Top soil restoration, re-vegetation Preparation
The preparation of site for construction involves: (i) Marking and clearance of the required RoW of all encroachments by the Project Management prior to mobilization of Contractor; and,(ii) Site preparation by the Contractor prior to commencement of construction. The land acquisition and resettlement issues involved are to be addressed as per the provisions of the Resettlement Framework for the project. Site Preparation Activities by the Project Management
After finalization of the alignment, the Project Management (PM) shall be responsible to stake out the alignment by establishing working PM's responsibilities before handing
benchmarks on ground. It shall be the over site .
responsibility of the PM to take over the •
Clearance of encroachments within possession of the proposed RoW and hand over the land width required clear of all • Initiation of process for legal transfer of land title encumbrances to the Contractor. • Alignment modification or The addressal of social and resettlement issues relocation/removal of utilities in shall be carried out by the PM as per the consultation with the various provisions of the Resettlement Framework (See government departments, and • Obtain clearances required from Chapter 6 of ESMF) and the Screening and government agencies for Consultation Framework (See Chapter 3 of ESMF). Activities pertaining to the clearance of Diversion of stretches of land and relocation of utilities need to be forestlands etc. initiated by the PM well in advance to avoid any delays in handing over of site to the Contractor. Site Preparation Activities by the Contractor
The Contractor shall verify the benchmarks soon after taking possession of the site. The Contractor, prior to initiation of site preparation activities, shall highlight any April 2007 Annex 2 - 11 Environmental and Social Management Framework deviations/discrepancies in these benchmarks to the PM/Engineer1 in writing. The contractor shall submit the schedules and methods of operations for various items during the construction operations to the PM/Engineer for approval. The Contractor shall commence operations at site only after the approval of the schedules by the PM/Engineer. The activities to be undertaken by the contractor during the clearing and grubbing of the site are as follows: • The clearance of site shall involve the removal of all materials such as trees, bushes, shrubs, stumps, roots, grass, weeds, part of topsoil and rubbish. Towards this end, the Contractor shall adopt the following measures: (i) Limiting the surface area of erodible earth material exposed by clearing and grubbing; (ii) Conservation of top soil and stockpiling as per the provisions stated in the contract clauses and (iii) Carry out necessary backfilling of pits resulting from uprooting of trees and stumps with excavated or approved materials to the required compaction conforming to the surrounding area. To minimize the adverse impact on flora and vegetation, only ground cover/shrubs that impinge directly on the permanent works shall be removed. Cutting of trees and vegetation outside the working area including RoW shall be avoided under all circumstances. In case the alignment passes through forest areas, official from District Forest Office shall be consulted for identification of presence of any rare/endangered species with in the proposed road way. Protection of such species, if found, shall be as per the directions of the Forest Department of forest and as suggested by the Environmental Management Plan in the IEE/EIA study Report. The locations for disposal of grubbing waste shall be finalized prior to the start of the works on any particular section of the road. The selection of the site shall be approved by the PM/ The ‘Engineer'. The criteria for disposal of wastes shall be in accordance with the provisions given in Chapter 12 of this Annex, i.e., "Waste Management" and Site Redevelopment. In locations where erosion or sedimentation is likely to be a problem, clearing and grubbing operations should be so scheduled and performed that grading operations and permanent erosion and sedimentation control features can follow immediately, if the project conditions permit. • Dismantling of (Cross Drainage) structures and culverts shall be carried out in a manner not to damage the remaining required portion of structures and other surrounding properties. The disposal of wastes shall be in accordance with the provisions in Ch.12, "Waste Management" and Site Redevelopment. The following precautions shall be adopted: (i) The waste generated shall not be disposed off in watercourses, to avoid hindrance to the flow; and (ii) All necessary measures shall be taken while working close to cross drainage channels to prevent earthwork, stonework as well as the method of operation from impeding cross drainage at rivers, streams, water canals and existing irrigation and drainage systems. The designated sites duly approved by PM or The Engineers shall be cleared of its existing cover for setting up of the construction sites, camps and related infrastructure facilities, borrow areas and other locations identified for temporary use during construction. The contractor shall comply with all safety requirements in consideration 1 The Engineer – the engineer according to FIDIC Annex 2 - 12 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework as specified in Ch.14 – "Occupational Health and Safety". Before initiation of site preparation activities along these lands to be used temporarily during construction, it shall be the responsibility of the Contractor to submit and obtain approval of the site redevelopment plan from the PM/ The Engineers. The letter/contract agreement between the owner(s) of the land parcel for temporary usage shall include site redevelopment to its original status. The guidelines for the same are furnished in Ch. 13 - Construction Plants & Equipment Management; Ch.3 - Construction Camps and Site Operation; and Ch. 4 - Borrow Areas. • Site preparation shall involve formation of the road base wherein it is ready for construction of protective/drainage works, carriageway, shoulders, parapets and other road furniture. In hilly terrain, trace cut are already undertaken by the PM during surveys for alignment marking and design preparation. The PM shall transfer the land for civil works to the Contractor after peg marking of the alignment. 3. Construction Camps and Site Operation
The terms and conditions of this Code of Practice pertain to the silting, development,
management and restoration of construction camps to avoid or mitigate impacts on the
environment. The area requirement for the construction camp shall depend upon the size
of contract, number of laborers employed and the extent of machinery deployed. The key
activities requiring addressal during the project stages are presented in Table A2-4.
Table A2-4: Key Activities of Different Stages
Proper Site Selection Pre-construction Maintenance and Management Post-construction Closure and Restoration to original condition Pre-Construction Stage
The Contractor shall identify the site for construction camp in consultation with the individual owners in case of private lands and the VDC/Municipality in case of public lands. The suitable sites shall be selected and finalized in consultation with the Project Management (PM) or the Engineer2 . Take site photos for settling later disputes. The contractor will work out arrangements for setting up his facilities during the duration of construction with the land owner/local bodies. The arrangements will include the restoration of the site after completion of construction. The arrangements will be verified by the PM/local bodies to enable redressal of grievances at a later stage of the project. After finalization of the site, the contractor shall submit to the PM/Engineer a detailed layout plan for development of the construction camp, indicating the various structures to be constructed including the temporary structures to be put up, site roads, drainage, lighting, waste management and other facilities. The plan will include the redevelopment of sites to 2 ‘Engineer' as per FIDIC/Consultant April 2007 Annex 2 - 13 Environmental and Social Management Framework pre-construction stage. As a reference, the campsite should cover a minimum area of 3,000 m² for 60 workers (=Thumbs Rule). Selection of construction camp/site locations …
Avoid the following … Prefer the following … • Lands within 500m of habitations, markets, schools, health posts etc. • Lands belonging to owners who • Irrigated agricultural lands, productive land look upon the temporary use as a • Lands belonging to small farmers, vulnerable groups source of income Lands under village forests/community forest Community lands or government land not in use for beneficial Lands within 100m of community water bodies and water sources as rivers • Private non-irrigated lands where • Lands within 100m of watercourses the owner is willing, and • Low lying lands • Lands with an existing access road • Lands supporting dense vegetation • Grazing lands and lands with tenure rights • Lands where there is no willingness of the landowner to Towards the provision and storage of drinking water at the construction camp, the contractor shall ensure the following provisions: • The contractor shall provide for a sufficient supply of cool potable water in the construction camps. The contractor shall identify suitable community water and agreement sources as hand pumps, spring and ponds for procuring drinking water, in consultation with the VDC/Municipality or local beneficiary communities. • Only in the event of non-availability of other sources of potable water, the Contractor shall obtain water from an existing open
well, the well shall be properly Arrangement with landowners…
chlorinated before water is drawn from The contractor shall submit to PM/ The
it for drinking. All such wells shall be ‘Engineer' the following:
entirely closed in and be provided with - Written No-objection certificate of the
dust and waterproof trap door.
owner/cultivator • Every water supply or storage shall be - Extent of land required and duration of the at a distance of not less than 15m from any wastewater / sewage drain or other - Photograph of the site in original condition source of pollution. Water sources - Details of site redevelopment after completion within 15m proximity of toilet, drain or any source of pollution will not be used as a source of drinking water in the project. • A pump shall be fitted to each covered well, the trap door shall be kept locked and opened only for cleaning or inspection, which shall be done at least once a month. • When possible, contractor can procure drinking water in their water tankers or from private/government water supply tankers after ensuring drinkable quality of water. In every site, adequate and suitable facilities for washing clothes and utensils shall be provided and maintained for the use of contract labor employed therein. Separate and adequate bathing facilities shall be provided for the use of male and female workers. Annex 2 - 14 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework Such facilities shall be conveniently accessible and shall be kept in clean and hygienic conditions. Sanitary arrangements, latrines and urinals shall be provided in every work place on the following scale: • Where female workers are employed, there shall be at least one latrine for every 25 females or part thereof. • Where males are employed, there shall be at least one latrine for every 25 males or • Every latrine shall be under cover and so partitioned off as to secure privacy, and shall have a proper door and fastenings. • Where workers of both sexes are employed, there shall be displayed outside each block of latrine and urinal, a notice in the language understood by the majority of the workers "For Men Only" or "For Women Only" as the case may be. • The latrines and urinals shall be adequately lighted and shall be maintained in a clean sanitary condition at all times, and • Water shall be provided in/near latrines and urinals by storage in drums or piped Arrangements for Waste Disposal
• Disposal of sanitary wastes and excreta shall be into septic tanks.
• Kitchen wastes shall be disposed into soak pits. Wastewater from campsites will be
discharged and disposed in a kitchen sump located at least 15 meters from any body of water. Sump capacity should be at least 1.3 times the maximum volume of wastewater discharged. The bottom of the pit should be filled with coarse gravel and the sides shored up with board, etc. to prevent erosion and collapse of the pit. • Solid wastes generated in the construction site shall be reused if recyclable, inert materials shall be disposed off in landfill sites and combustible materials shall be buried if it is not hazardous. First Aid Facilities
• First Aid Box will be provided at every construction campsite and under the charge of a
responsible person who shall always be readily available during working hours of the work places. He shall be adequately trained in administering first aid-treatment. Formal arrangement shall be prescribed to make motor transport or ambulance available to carry injured person or person suddenly taken ill to the nearest hospital. If hospital is far away, proper medical clinic facility should be made available at camp where emergency treatment is available. Thereafter, the injured shall be taken to hospital. Fire fighting arrangement
• The construction camps shall be equipped with fire fighting equipment and facilities.
The staff residing there shall be regularly trained to use such facility during fire outbreak. Proper pictorial posters should be used to indicate to everyone the location of fire fighting equipment. Interactions with host communities
• To ensure that there is no conflict of the migrant labor with the host communities, the
contractor shall issue identity cards to laborers and residents of construction camps. April 2007 Annex 2 - 15 Environmental and Social Management Framework • He equally should conduct regular awareness campaigns to maintain good social relationship with local communities. • Of paramount importance are regular awareness/training programmes for all laborers to address and avoid prostitution and spread of sexually transmissive diseases (HIV/AIDS) Construction Stage
Construction camps shall be maintained free from litter and in hygienic condition. It should
be kept free from spillage of oil, grease or bitumen. Any spillage should be cleaned
immediately to avoid pollution of soil, water stored or adjacent water bodies. Following
precautions need to be taken in construction camps.
• Measures to ensure that no leaching of oil and grease into water bodies or
underground water takes place; • Wastewater should not be disposed into water bodies; • Regular collection of solid wastes should be undertaken and should be disposed off • All consumables as the first aid equipment, cleaning equipment for maintaining hygiene and sanitation should be recouped immediately; • PM/ The Engineer will monitor the cleanliness and appropriate management of construction campsites and ensure that the sites are properly maintained throughout the period of the contract to the satisfaction of the PM and as envisaged by contract agreement.
Site Restoration: At the completion of construction, all construction camp facilities shall
be dismantled and removed from the site. The site shall be restored to a condition in no
way inferior to the condition prior to commencement of the works. Therefore, photographic
documentation is recommended to verify and settle possible disputes. Various activities to
be carried out for site restoration are:
• Oil and fuel contaminated soil shall be removed and transported and buried in waste
• Construction campsite shall be grassed and trees cut replaced with saplings of similar • Saplings planted shall be handed over to the community or the land owner with due arrangements meeting the cost for further maintenance and watering for at least five years; and • Soak pits and septic tanks shall be covered and effectively sealed off. Storage Site
• Storage of general materials: brick on edge flooring or sand flooring will be provided at the storage places of construction materials to avoid soil and water contamination due to oil spillage; • Storage of cement: damp-proof flooring, as per standard codes; • Storage of blasting materials: shall be as per the specific provisions of law (Explosive Annex 2 - 16 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework
4. Borrow
Embankment fill material is to be procured from borrow areas designated and approved for the purpose. The properties of the borrow material shall be tested and recorded on standard format. Precautionary measures need to be incorporated during borrow area location, material extraction and rehabilitation. Table A2-5 presents key activities involved in borrowing material acquisition: Table A2-5: Key Activities during Different Stages
Pre-construction Post-construction Project Planning and Design Stage
Design measures for reduction in quantity of earth work will have to be undertaken to reduce the quantity of material extracted and consequently decrease the borrow area requirement. Borrow area siting should be in compliance with standard EMP recommendations provided in the IEE/EIA. The Detailed Design shall contain (i) Guidelines for locating /excluding sites of borrow material; (ii) The arrangements to be worked out with the land owner/community for the site; and (iii) Sample designs for re-development and/or rehabilitation of borrow areas to remain in environmentally friendly condition (e.g. avoidance of establishing mosquito breeding grounds or garbage dump sites) Pre-construction Stage
The contractor shall identify the borrow area locations in consultation with the individual
owners in case of private lands and the local bodies in case of public lands, after assessing
the suitability of the material. The suitable sites shall be selected and finalized in
consultation with the PM/ The Engineer.
Borrowing to be avoided on…
• Lands close to toe line, but in no case less
• Irrigation agricultural lands • Lands within 0.8 km of settlements • Environmentally sensitive areas Designated protected areas/forests o Water-bodies o Wetlands o Caves and karstic landforms Streams and seepage areas Areas supporting rare plant/animal species Planners and designers shall duly investigate if roadside borrow pits would be allowable, April 2007 Annex 2 - 17 Environmental and Social Management Framework as such structures pose additional accident risks, may weaken or soak the embankment, and serve as public garbage dumpsites. The Contractor will work out arrangements for borrowing with the land owner/local bodies. The arrangements will include the redevelopment after completion of borrowing. The arrangements will be verified by the PM/local bodies to enable redressal of grievances at a later stage of the project. ‘The Engineer' of PM shall approve the borrow area after inspection of the site to verify the reclamation plan and its suitability with the contractor and landowner. The contractor shall commence borrowing soil only after the approval by the PM. Arrangements with landowners…
Redevelopment plan to address…
• Contractor shall submit to PM • Land use objectives and agreed post- • Written No-objection certificate of the • owner/cultivator • Extent of land required and duration of the • Physical aspects (landform stability, erosion, • re-establishment of drainage) Photograph of the site in original condition Biological aspects (species richness, plant density,) for areas of native re-vegetation Details of site redevelopment after Water quality and soil standards Public safety issues Construction Stage
No borrow area shall be operated without permission of the Engineer. The procurement of borrow material should be in conformity to the guidelines laid down in standard code of practice adopted for the project. In addition, the contractor should adopt the following precautionary measures to minimize any adverse impacts on the environment: The unpaved surfaces used for haulage of borrow materials will be maintained dust free by the Contractor through sprinkling of water twice a day during the period of use. ii). To avoid any embankment slippage, the borrow areas will not be dug continuously, and the size and shape of borrow pits will be decided by the Engineer. iii). Borrow pits situated less than 0.8 km (if unavoidable) from villages and settlements should not be dug for more than 30 cm after removing 15 cm of topsoil and should be drained. iv). The Contractor shall maintain erosion and drainage control in the vicinity of all borrow pits and make sure that surface drains do not affect the adjacent land or future reclamation. This needs to be rechecked by the engineer responsible. v). In case the borrow pit is on agricultural land, the depth of borrow pits shall not exceed 45 cm and may be dug out to a depth of not more than 30 cm after stripping the 15 cm top soil aside. Incase of stripping and stockpiling of topsoil, provisions of Ch. 7, "Topsoil Salvage, Storage and Replacement" need to be followed. vi). To prevent damages to adjacent properties, the Contractor shall ensure that an undisturbed buffer zone exists between the distributed borrow areas and adjacent land. Buffer zone shall be 3 m wide or equal to the depth of excavation, whichever is greater. vii). Incase of riverside, borrow pit should be located not less than 15 m from the toe of the bank, distance depending on the magnitude and duration of flood to be withstood. Annex 2 - 18 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework viii). In no case shall the borrow pit be within 1.5 m from the toe line of the proposed Post Construction Stage
All reclamation shall begin within one month of abandonment of borrow area, in activities and land accordance with the redevelopment plan. The site shall be inspected by the PM/The Engineer after density achieved in implementation of the reclamation plan. A viable option to explore is the re-shaping of borrow pits for aquaculture purposes, as long as soil and water supply conditions would be conducive to develop fishponds out of the borrow pits. In such cases, the Contractor shall be obliged (as per clauses) to use his machinery in re-shaping/inserting dividing bunds in the pit so the entire site will be readily usable as fish culture enterprise. Certificate of Completion of Reclamation is inflow and outflows in to be obtained by the Contractor from the landowner stating that "the land is restored to his/her satisfaction". The same is to be submitted to the PM/The Engineer. Checklist of items for inspection by PM/The Engineer
• Compliance of post-borrowing activities and land use with the reclamation plan • Vegetation density targeted, density achieved in case of re-vegetation, species planted as per reclamation plan • Drainage measures taken for inflow and outflows in case borrow pit is developed as a • Decrease of risk to public due to reclamation • Condition of the reclaimed area in comparison with the pre-borrowing conditions 5. Quarry Management
The general practice adopted is to procure materials from existing quarries operating with
the requisite permits. Notwithstanding, specific environmental safeguard to be included in
the Works Contracts need to be observed with respect to exploiting new quarries. Table
presents the activities to be carried out whilst engaging in quarry operations.
Table A2-6: Key Activities during Various Stages
Key Activities
Pre-construction Plan, Design and Establish new quarry Precautions during quarry operations Post-construction Implementation of quarry site closure and landscape Redevelopment Plan April 2007 Annex 2 - 19 Environmental and Social Management Framework Project Planning and Design Stage
The PM shall provide in the Detailed Design Report and the bid document, a list of licensed quarries operating within the district and adjoining districts. In addition, these shall contain the following: (i) Sustainable quantity of materials available in quarries; (ii) Alternative /existing quarries and distances; and (iii) Adequacy of materials for the project in these quarries. Only in the event of non-availability of existing quarries, shall the Contractor open a new quarry. The bid document shall include the exhaust quarry redevelopment as per needs of the landowner / community. Pre-construction Stage
The Contractor shall select an existing licensed quarry identified in Detailed Design Report
for procuring materials. The Contractor shall establish a new quarry with the prior consent
of the PM The Engineer only in cases when: (i) Distance from existing quarries is un-
economical; and (ii) Alternative material sources are not available. The Contractor shall
prepare a Redevelopment Plan for the quarry site and get it approved by the PM The
Operations & redevelopment plan for new quarries to contain….
Photograph of the quarry site prior to commencement. The quarry boundaries as well as location of the materials deposits, working equipments, stockpiling, access roads and final shape of the pit. Drainage and erosion control measures at site. Safety Measures during quarry operation. Design for redevelopment of exhaust site. Option A: Re-vegetating the quarry to merge with surrounding landscape: This is done by conserving and reapplying the topsoil for the vegetative growth Option B: Developing exhausted quarries as water bodies: The pit shall be reshaped and developed into pond, for harvesting rainwater. This option shall only be considered where the location of quarry is at the lowest point, i.e. surrounding areas / natural drainage slopes towards it. The construction schedule and operation plans should be submitted to the PM The Engineer prior to commencement of work. The plan shall contain a detailed work plan for procuring materials that includes procurement, transportation and storage of quarry materials. Construction Stage
Development of site: To minimize the adverse impact during excavation of material
following measures needs to be undertaken:
Adequate drainage system shall be provided to prevent the flooding of the excavated area At the stockpiling locations, the Contractor shall construct sediment barriers to prevent the erosion of excavated material due to runoff. Construction of offices, laboratory, workshop and rest places shall be done in the up-wind of the plant to minimize the adverse impact due to dust and noise. The access road to the plant shall be constructed taking into consideration location of units and also slope of the ground to regulate the vehicle movement within the Annex 2 - 20 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework Incase of storage of blasting material, all precautions shall be taken as per The Explosive Act of GoN. Quarry operations including safety: Overburden shall be removed and disposed as per Ch. 13 "Waste Management and Site Redevelopment". During excavation slopes shall be flatter than 20 degrees to prevent their sliding Incase of blasting, the procedure and safety measures shall be taken as per The Explosive Act of GoN. The Contractor shall ensure that all workers related safety measures shall be done as per Ch. 15, "Occupational Health & Safety". The Contractor shall ensure maintenance of crushers regularly as per manufacturer's recommendation. Stockpiling of the excavated material shall be done as per stockpiling of topsoil explained in Ch 7, "Topsoil Salvage, Storage & Replacement." During transportation of the material, measures shall be taken as per Ch. 14, "Construction Plants and Equipment Management" to minimize the generation of dust and to prevent accidents The PM The Engineer shall review the quarry site for the management measures during quarry operation, including the compliance to pollution norms. Post Construction Stage
The Contractor shall restore all haul roads constructed for transporting the material from the quarries to construction site to their original state. The PM The Engineer shall be entrusted the responsibility of reviewing the quarry site for the progress of implementation of Redevelopment Plan. The Contractor shall be responsible for the Redevelopment Plan prior to completion, during the defect liability period. The PM The Engineer shall be responsible for reviewing this case of redevelopment prior to issuing the defect liability certificate.
6. Water for Construction
This Code of Practice pertains to the procurement of water required for construction, except for bituminous works. Water is required during all stages of road construction such as embankment, sub-grade, granular sub-base (GSB) and water-bound macadam (WBM) as well as construction of structures. Relevant activities as per stage are: Table A2-7: Key Activities at Various Stages
Key Activities
Scheduling construction to suit water availability Project Planning & Design Stage Identification of alternate water sources Pre-construction Stage Arrangements for procuring water Extraction of water April 2007 Annex 2 - 21 Environmental and Social Management Framework Project Planning & Design Stage
The Detailed Project Report shall contain the following information: • Estimate of water requirement during different seasons based on construction schedule of various stages of the project, • Identification of potential sources of water for construction, • Arrangements to be worked out by the contractor with individual owners, when water is obtained from private sources, • Permits required for tapping new sources, as per the requirements of the local bodies, • Whether scarcity of water would have any impact on schedule of construction. In water-scarce regions, provide additional information in the Detailed Design
Report and IEE/EIA

• Exploring possibilities for use of existing perennial sources, through interactions with water user groups as the villagers, relevant local bodies and the Government Department, keeping in view that the water extraction does not infringe upon the usufruct rights of the existing water users. • Identification of potable water source for domestic use of workers and for use in cement - based construction such as cement concrete roads, culverts and other cross drainage works. • Identification of alternate water sources, water-harvesting techniques may be explored for use in hilly areas to avoid water extraction from the existing community sources. In water scarce regions, if water-harvesting structures are to be constructed, suitable locations and mechanism for sitting these structures shall be identified. These are envisaged to be permanent water tanks for collection of stream water. Detailed drawings of water harvesting structures based on site conditions will need to be worked out and presented in the Detailed Design Report. Scheduling Construction in Water Scarce Areas: As part of the project preparation, the
PM shall conduct an assessment of water requirement and availability in water scarce
regions as: arid regions. As possible, the schedule for construction in these water scarce
areas shall be prepared such that earthwork for embankment is carried out just before
monsoon, so that water requirement for subsequent construction works like granular sub-
base and water-bound macadam are met in monsoon and post monsoon season. Carrying
out these activities even during the monsoon is possible as the rainfall may not be high
enough to disrupt construction.
Pre-construction stage
Prior to commencement of extraction of water for construction, the Contractor shall work out arrangements as specified in the Detailed Design Report. Arrangements for procuring water by contractor…
• In case of community water sources, the Contractor shall carry out consultations and obtain written consent of VDC/Wards for extraction of water through written arrangements • In case of private water sources, the Contractor shall not commence procurement of water from a source unless and until the written consent of all current registered owners of the parcel or parcels on which the source is located has been obtained. • In case of new tube-wells, the Contractor shall obtain clearances required from the local bodies, as required. The sitting of such tube-wells shall be at a distance of not less than 20m from any septic tank/soak pit or other source of pollution. Annex 2 - 22 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework • In case of water harvesting structures (if required), the Contractor shall in consultation with the residents, identify suitable locations for sitting the structure and construct the same. • In case of perennial sources, the Contractor shall adhere to all administrative procedures pertaining to procurement of water from such sources. Construction Stage
During construction, the Contractor shall be responsible to monitor the following: • The arrangements worked out with the local bodies/individual land owners for water extraction is adhered to; • Extraction of water is restricted to construction requirement and domestic use of construction workers only; • Water requirement for curing of concrete shall be minimized by pooling of water over the concrete or by covering with wet gunny bags; • Water used for mixing of mortar/concrete and subsequent curing is free from injurious amount of oil, acids, alkalis, salts, sugar, organic materials or other substances that may be deleterious to concrete or steel; and • The potable water used for drinking purposes of construction workers shall be of approved standard. Prior to issuing project completion certificate to the contractor, the PM shall verify the following: • Payment of all dues to the local bodies or the individual owners of the wells against the water extracted, and • Restoration of the premises of water extraction points to their original status after 7. Topsoil Salvage, Spoil Management, Storage and Replacement
Loss of topsoil creates commonly long-term impacts along roads due to (i) site clearance
and widening for road formation; (ii) development of borrow areas; (iii) temporary
construction activities as construction camps, material storage locations, diversion routes
etc. This subsection of the Environmental Code of Practice includes environmentally sound
removal, conservation and replacement of topsoil. Table A2-8 lists the key activities that
need to be addressed during the different project stages.
Table A2-8: Key Activities during Various Stages
Key Activities
Pre-construction Siting up construction activities Stripping & Stockpiling Erosion Control measures Post-construction April 2007 Annex 2 - 23 Environmental and Social Management Framework Project Planning & Design Stage
The alignment finalization shall be done to minimize uptake of productive land, as laid down in Section 1 of this Annex (General Principles of Environmentally Sustainable Planning, Designs and Construction). At the project preparation stage, the following shall be investigated: (i) Extent of loss of top soil due to widening and siting of construction activities; (ii) Estimates of borrow area requirements; and (iii) Area requirement for topsoil conservation. The bid document and the Works Contracts shall include all due provisions that necessitate the removal and conservation of topsoil at all locations opened up for construction by the Contractor. Pre-construction Stage
The arrangements for temporary usage of land, borrowing of earth and materials by the Contractor with the land owner/local bodies shall include all necessary precautionary measures for conservation / preservation of topsoil. The key principle of good planning practice is to minimize the use and the disturbance of topsoil. Construction Stage
It shall be the responsibility of the Contractor to strip the topsoil at all locations opened up
for construction. The stripped topsoil
should be carefully stockpiled at Locate stockpiles in…
suitable accessible locations approved • A secure area away from
by the PM/The Engineer. At least 10%
Grade, Subsoil & Overburden materials; of the temporarily acquired area shall Pit activities; and be earmarked for storing topsoil. In • Areas that do not interfere with future pit case of hilly areas, topsoil with humus, wherever encountered while opening up • Areas away from drainage paths and uphill of the site for construction shall be sediment barriers. stripped and stockpiled. • Areas away from settlement, school, health The stockpiles for storing the topsoil
• Areas safe from flooding shall be designed such that the slope Vegetative material for stockpile stabilization:
does not exceed 1:2 (vertical to • Use local grasses (e.g. Vetiver), legumes,
horizontal), and the height of the pile is herbaceous, or woody plants or a mixture restricted to 2 m. A minimum distance of 1 m is required between stockpiles • Selection & use of vegetative cover to take into containing different materials. account soil and site characteristics such as drainage, pH, nutrient availability, and climate In cases where the topsoil has to be to ensure permanent growth preserved for more than a month, the stockpile is to be stabilized within 7 days of forming. The stabilization shall be carried out through temporary seeding. It consists of planting rapid-growing annual grasses or small grains, to provide initial, temporary cover for erosion control. Annex 2 - 24 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework After spreading the topsoil on disturbed Preserving stockpiles – Precautions:
areas, it must be ensured that topsoil is • Stockpiles will not be surcharged or otherwise seeded, and mulched within 30 days of • Multiple handling will be kept to a minimum to ensure that no compaction will occur. During construction, if erosion occurs • Divert runoff around stockpiles unavoidably from stockpiles due to their location in located in drainage paths using a perimeter small drainage paths, the sediment- laden runoff should be prevented from • The stockpiles shall be covered with gunny bags entering nearby watercourses. The or tarpaulin immediately in case they are not Contractor shall preserve the stockpiled stored for periods longer than 1 month material for later use on slopes or shoulders as instructed by the Engineer and specified in the Environmental Management Plan. Post Construction Stage
The topsoil shall be re-laid on the former extraction area, using the borrow earth to maintain/ameliorate the fertility of crop lands. The finishing of re-layering the topsoil shall be done in ways being satisfactory to the respective farmer. The area to be covered with vegetation shall be prepared to the required levels and slope as detailed in the Detail Design Report and/or in the EMP. The stockpiled material shall be spread evenly to a depth of 5-15 cm to the designed slopes and watering the same as required. The growth of the vegetation shall be monitored at frequent intervals and, as necessary, compensatory or corrective plantation/seeding be carried out up to the required level of vegetation re-growth. All temporary arrangements made for stockpile preservation and erosion control are to be removed after reusing the stockpile material. 8. Slope Stability and Erosion Control
Stability of slopes is a major concern in hill areas, in locations with high rainfall and elevated seismicity. In cases of high embankment, water retention at the embankment base initially causes toe failure and subsequently failure of the whole embankment. Soil erosion is consequent to high runoff on hill slopes. High wind velocities cause erosion of embankments made up of cohesion-less sandy soils. Embankments made up of silty and sandy soils get eroded in the absence of vegetative cover, particularly when the slopes are steeper than 20. The scope of good practices to minimize adverse effects due to slope instability and soil
erosion needs to address the following potential negative environmental impacts: (i)
damage to adjacent land and land-uses; (ii) erosion of fertile topsoil layers; (iii) silting of
ponds and lakes disturbing aquatic habitats and fisheries; (iv) contamination of surface
water bodies, and; (v) reduction in road formation width due to erosion of shoulders/berms.
Table A2-9 highlights the key activities that need to be addressed during the project stage.
April 2007 Annex 2 - 25 Environmental and Social Management Framework Table A2-9: Key Activities during Various Project Stages
Key Activities
Project Planning & Design Slope Consideration Erosion Consideration During Construction Erosion Control Measures Post Construction Slope Stabilization Project Planning and Design Stage
During the detailed project preparation phase, the following investigations shall be carried out prior to finalization of alignment. (b) Hydrological; (c) Geo-technical; and (d) Geological Investigation (in case of hill roads). The alignment selection should be such that (i) steep as well as heavy cuts are avoided; (ii) flora and fauna of the area are not disturbed, and; (iii) the natural drainage pattern is not obstructed. For high embankments, geo-technical investigations (determination of C, density etc.) of the available material need to be done to check its suitability as fill material. In case of cross drainage structures, measures for preventing siltation and scouring shall be undertaken as outlined in Ch. 11 of this Annex, "Drainage and Flood Prevention" The following guidelines shall be followed while using cohesion-less soils for embankment construction. • The alignment should follow the natural ground level to the extent possible and the embankment shall be restricted to minimum to achieve ruling grades. • Slope of the embankment should be 3 (H : 1(V) or flatter. • The corners of the embankment should be rounded for the better aerodynamic Annex 2 - 26 April 2007

Environmental and Social Management Framework Pre-construction stage
Interceptor ditches are construc-
ted in hilly areas to protect the
road bench and hillside slope
from erosion due to heavy rainfall
and runoff. Interceptor ditches
are very effective in the areas of
high intensity rainfall and where
the slopes are exposed. These
are the structures designed to
intercept and carry surface run-
off away from potential areas of
surface erosion. Figure A2-8
shows typical installation of
interceptor ditch structure as well
as ditch lining types.
8.3 Construction
Slope stabilization techniques and erosion control measures as Fig. A2-8: Typical Interceptor Ditch/Catch-water
mentioned below are to be drain construction & application
undertaken in hill areas. Re-vegetation: On side slopes in hills, immediately after cutting is completed and debris is
removed, vegetative growth has to be initiated by planting fast growing species of grass.
This would prevent high velocities of runoff and resultant gully formation as well as
pounding of water on the road bench. Box 8-1 gives detailed specifications for provision of
vegetation cover.
Box 8-1: Detailed Specifications for Vegetative Cover for Slope-Soil Protection
The vegetative cover should be planted in the region where the soil has the capacity to support the plantation and at locations where meteorological conditions favors vegetative growth. Site Preparation:
• To prevent the seeds from being washed away subsequent to sowing, the area should be protected
with surface roughening and diversions. Soil samples should be taken from the site and analyzed for fertilizer and lime requirements. Seed Application:

The seed should be sown uniformly as soon as preparation of the seedbed has been completed. • No seed should be sown during windy weather, or when the ground surface is wet, or when not During first six weeks, the planting should be inspected, to check if the growth is uniform and dense. Appropriate moisture levels shall be maintained. There may be requirement of watering the plantings regularly during the dry seasons. Fertilizers and pest control applications may also be needed from time to (For more details, refer to ‘Roadside Bio-Engineering Reference Manual, 2056, MPPW/DoR; and ‘Roadside Bio-Engineering Site Handbook, 2056, MPPW/DoR, 1999 and other Bio-Engineering related documents publ. by DoR. April 2007 Annex 2 - 27 Environmental and Social Management Framework Bally Benching: To control the erosion on slopes as well as for arresting the shallow
movement of top mantle slide mass at the construction location, the Contractor should
provide Bally Benching. This method is also very effective in preventing gully erosion.
Typical arrangements with detailed specifications are shown in Figure A2-9.
Fig. A2-9: Layout and Design Specification for Bally Benching

Check dams: Sheet and channel erosion on hill slopes gentler than 1(V):12(H) can be
prevented effectively through construction of check dams. Details are provided in Box 8-2.
Box 8-2: Check Dams
A check dam is a small dam constructed in a drainage way to mitigate sheet and channel erosion by restricting the flow velocity. On steeper slopes > 1: 12 (H:V), check dams are ineffective. Basic design criteria for check dams are: • Check dams are usually constructed of riprap, logs, sandbags, and/or straw bales. The maximum check dam height should be 0.6 m. The centre of the check dam should be a minimum of 25 cm lower than the ends to act as a spillway for runoff, as illustrated in Figure 8.3 Overflow areas should be stabilized to resist erosion. Stone check dams should use 7.5 cm or larger stone with side slopes of 2:1 (H:V) or flatter and should be keyed into the sides and bottom of the channel for a minimum depth of 0.6 m. The drainage area for a stone check dam should not exceed 0.2 km². Multiple check dams should be spaced so that the bottom elevation of the upper dam is the same as the top elevation of the next dam downstream, as illustrated below. Fig. A2-10: Check Dam Specification
Annex 2 - 28 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework Soil erosion shall be controlled on high embankments by the following techniques:
Brush Barrier (for details refer Ch. 7, "Topsoil Salvage, storage and replacement" and
Section 3 of Road Side Bio-engineering Site Handbook, DoR, 1999)Silt Fencing (detailed specifications and drawings are provided in Box 8-3)
Box 8-3: Detailed Specifications For Silt Fencing
Silt fencing is as temporary sediment barrier made of woven, synthetic filtration
fabric supported by steel or wood post. The purpose of the silt fence is to prevent
sediment carried by sheet flow from leaving the site and entering to natural
drainage or any other water body located near the construction site. Silt fencing
encourages the sheet flow and reduces the potential for development of rills and
gullies. Care should be taken that silt fences are not installed across streams,
ditches, waterways or other concentrated flow areas. All silt fencing should be
installed along the contour, never up or down a slope. Where all the sheet flow run
off is to be stored behind the silt fence, maximum slope length should not exceed
as shown in Table A2-10
Table A2-10: Criteria For Silt Fence Placement
Maximum Slope Length (Above the fence in m) * In areas where slope is greater than 20%, a flat area length of 3.0 m between the toe of the slope and the fence should be provided. Construction Specification:
Silt fencing (Refer Figure A2-11 for Cross-section) consists of 1.0 m wide filter fabric and should be placed on the
contour. Incase runoff flow or velocities are very high or where slope exceed vertical height of 3.0 m, silt fencing
should be wire reinforced. The contractor should purchase silt fencing in a continuous roll to the length of the
barrier to avoid the use of joint. Incase of joints, filter cloth should be spliced together only at supporting post, with
minimum 15 cm overlap and securely sealed. The pile is driven to the depth of 300 mm into the ground by pressing
from the top. The frame will be installed at the edge of stockpiles and at the water bodies along which construction
is in progress.
The Project Management/The Engineer will inspect location as well as efficiency of silt fencing. The inspection
should be done after every 15 days and incase of storm water, within 24 hours after the end of rain.
The contractor should remove sediments, once they have accumulated to about half the original height of the fence. Filter fabric should be replaced whenever it has deteriorated to such an extent that the efficacy of the fabric is reduced. The silt fence should remain in place until disturbed areas have been permanently stabilized. All the sediments accumulated should be properly disposed of before the fence is removed. The operation of removing and disposing have to be monitored by the Project Management or Engineer. April 2007 Annex 2 - 29 Environmental and Social Management Framework Figure A2-11: Cross-section of Silt Fencing
(For. detail, refer to ‘Roadside Bio-Engineering Reference Manual, 2056, MPPW/DoR; and ‘Roadside Bio-Engineering Site Handbook, 2056, MPPW/DoR, 1999 and other Bio-Engineering related documents published by DoR • In regions of intensive rainfall, locations of steep slopes, regions of high soil erosion potential and regions of short growing seasons, erosion control matting should be
provided. Detailed specifications and drawings are provided in Box 8-4.
BOX 8-4: Erosion Control Matting
The design specifications as well as location should be finalized during the Project Preparation Phase. During the execution period in post-construction stage, Project management must ensure that all the guidelines are to be followed as per specification during the site preparation and installation of erosion control matting. Following are the steps need to be followed for placing erosion control matting: Site Preparation:

The areas should be fertilized and seeded. A smooth surface free of depression that allows water to collect or flow under matting is required. The soil should be left with loose surface after seeding. The material should be steel wire formed into "U" shape and should be 15 cm to 25 cm long. Installation:

Filter fabric made of biodegradable material (e.g. Jute) should be placed approximately horizontally on the slope less than 2:1 • Prior to netting, a 10 cm anchor trench should be dug at the top and toe of the slope with the top trench placed 30 cm back from the crown, or a berm over which the fabric can be carried. For horizontal application, work must proceed from the bottom towards the top of the slope with a 10 cm overlap. After cutting material should be folded less than 7.5 cm to 10 cm at the end, stapled and covered. Staples should be placed at a spacing of 22.5 cm to 30 cm apart in the trenches along the horizontal lap joints. (For detail, refer ‘Roadside Bio-Engineering Reference Manual, 2056, MPPW/DoR; and ‘Roadside Bio-Engineering Site Handbook, 2056, MPPW/DoR, 1999 and other Bio-Engineering related documents published by DoR.) Annex 2 - 30 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework Post Construction Stage
All the exposed slopes shall preferably be covered with vegetation using suitable and endemic grasses, brushes etc. Meticulous care needs to be employed to select exclusively locally available species possessing the properties of (i) good growth; (ii) dense ground cover; and (iii) deep rooting system to facilitate slope stabilization (e.g. Vetiver grasses). In case of steep and barren slope, in order to retain the seedling to the ground, asphalt mulch treatment, shall be given. Seedling are covered with asphalt emulsion and spread into a thin layer. The asphalt film gradually disintegrates and a carpet of green vegetation and deep-rooted species of grass and clovers, takes its place.3 Anchoring shall be carried out (as per IRC: SP: 48-1998, Chapter 11) in case of rocks. Regular inspection of check dams and repositioning/replacement of dislodged or stolen stones need to be carried out. Repair and maintenance of eroded side drain inverts is to be done in order to arrest retrogression of levels in side drains. Slopes of high embankment can give a fertile base for growth of vegetative cover / sodding. In arid areas, in order to avoid the deposition of sand over or near the road surface, shrubs are to be planted at an appropriate distance from the formation. The shrubs should not be abutting the road and the distance for carrying out plantation shall be determined based on prevalent wind speeds as well as quantity of sand being carried amongst various other factors. There should be a clear gap between the roadway and shrubs to allow the wind to pickup its velocity and carry along with it any sand that is deposited. 9. Roadside
Apart from improving aesthetics and the ecological properties of the area, additional roadside trees potentially provide fuel wood, act as noise barriers, provide visual screen for sensitive areas and also generate revenue by sale of its produce. However certain precaution must be taken in design of avenue or cluster plantation so that the trees do not have an adverse impact on road maintenance and/or on safety of the road users. This code of practice elaborates on the approach towards planting trees along roads. Emphasis has been laid on a greater involvement of communities in planting and maintenance of roadside trees. The activities requiring addressal during the project stages are: Table A2-11: Key Roadside Planting Activities during different Project Stages
Minimizing tree felling Project Planning & Design Plantation Strategies Post Construction Stage Maintenance of trees

3 For details, reference should be made to ‘Roadside Bio-Engineering Reference Manual, 2056,
MPPW/DoR; and ‘Roadside Bio-Engineering Site Handbook, 2056, MPPW/DoR, 1999 and other Bio-
Engineering related documents published by DoR.
April 2007 Annex 2 - 31 Environmental and Social Management Framework Project Planning and Design Stage
During alignment finalization, due Pant trees along roads where there is …
consideration shall be given to • Availability of land for planting minimize the loss of existing tree • Availability of water cover, encroachment of forest areas • Willingness of local beneficiaries to nurture the and protected areas (see Ch. 1, "Project Preparation"). Tree felling, if unavoidable, shall be done only after compensatory plantation of at least twenty five saplings of determined size for every tree cut is done as per policy and site-specific prescriptions of the Department of Forest. This shall be carried out by the Project Management. A roadside landscape plan shall be prepared by the Project Management as part of the Detailed Design Report in its environmental management plan, and finalized in consultation with the Department of Forest, if needed. It should be ensured that plantation is carried out only in areas where water can be made available during dry seasons and the plant can be protected during the initial stages of their growth. The species shall be identified in consultation with officials of forest department, giving due importance to local flora, It is recommended to plant mixed species in case of both avenue or cluster plantation. The saplings for plantation can be supplied by the Forest Department or managed by Project Management from local nurseries or nurseries of the District Road Office. Costs for providing saplings shall be borne by the road construction funds. It is highly recommended to carry out public consultations that will identify opportunities and roles of local communities (particularly disadvantaged persons, low castes, women) or local bodies in maintaining and managing the trees to be planted in the project. A MoU can be signed between the VDCs, affected communities and Forest Department with respect to maintenance schedules and replacement of withered or damaged trees, and empowering the affected communities to be entitled to any revenue generated out of these trees. It shall be the responsibility of the VDC through the affected communities or, as applicable, through Community Forest User Groups (CFUGs) to work out institutional mechanisms for managing and maintenance of the roadside plantation schemes. Normally, the EMP of the EIA or IEE Do not plant trees…
suggests a plantation strategy relating to •
Within the line of sight around junctions species selection, planting time, tending and On the inside of curves • Within 5 m of the proposed centre line monitoring survival. Development of cluster plantations might be encouraged in the public barren lands, at locations desired by the community. The location for plantation can be in RoW, which will also act as noise and dust barrier. If desired by local communities, arrangements shall be made in which local people can use fruit and fodder from the trees. The choice of species will be based on the preferences of the community and the technical advice of the forestry extension service. Fruit bearing or fodder indigenous species requiring less maintenance shall be chosen to ensure a higher survival rate. Exotic species bearing the risk of becoming invasive shall not be considered. The species of trees to be planted should be decided in consultation with the Forest Department for the particular region. Reference should also be made to the "Road Side Bio-engineering Site Manual" and Reference Manuals published by DoR. Should a Contractor utilize non-approved plant Annex 2 - 32 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework species he shall made responsible for immediate and complete destroying of such species, under supervision of a local forestry representative. The Project Management shall identify suitable nursery locations in consultation with the District Forest Office. Post-Construction Stage
Planting of saplings from the nurseries as per landscape plan and the subsequent maintenance of the trees planted shall be carried out by the contractor or committee of local communities formed and funded by the project for the first five years. Planting shall be undertaken immediately after rainy season or initial weeks of spring. The activities to be taken up as part of maintenance shall include (i) cutting/lopping branches up to a height of 2.5 m above ground level to ensure visibility (ii) Removal of dead wood from the roadway and storing away from roads, and (iii) Weed cutting from shoulders and keeping the shoulders free from any growth of vegetation. In addition, the committee is to ensure a healthy survival rate by planting replacement saplings in cases where the survival rate is less than 80%. Watering of trees during the initial period of two to three years shall be the responsibility of the committee or the agency designated by it. Final payment, if any, shall be on the basis of the number of trees surviving at the end of five years of initial plantation. The shoulders of the road shall be kept clear of weeds or any undesirable undergrowth, which may hinder free flow of traffic. It needs to be ensured that the branches of the trees do not obstruct clear view of the informatory and caution signs. Deciduous trees shed leaves every season. It is necessary to keep the roadway clear of such debris. Some gaps should be left even in avenue plantation to ensure that the carriageway dries up early after an occasional shower. 10. Drainage and Flood Prevention
Good drainage is of paramount importance for a functional road. Inadequate and faulty drainage arrangements result in obstruction to natural drainage pattern. The problem is further aggravated in the low-lying areas and flood plains receiving high intensity rainfall, which can lead to the instability of embankment, damage to pavement, sinking of foundation, soil erosion, safety hazards and disruption in traffic. Provision of cross-drainage and longitudinal drainage increases the life of the road and consequently reduces water logging and related environmental impacts. On the other side construction or upgrading of CD structures and longitudinal drains is likely to increase sediments, scour the banks, change water level and flow, and also affect the ecology of the surrounding area in many ways. This code shall address the environmental concerns related to drainage aspects during different stages of the project execution: April 2007 Annex 2 - 33 Environmental and Social Management Framework Table A2-12: Key Activities regarding Drainage during different Project Stages
Hydrological Investigation Project Planning & Design Geometric Design Consultations with downstream and upstream users Construction Stage Sediment control measures Post Construction Stage Inspection and Maintenance Project Planning and Design
Drainage shall be broadly taken up as (i) Cross-Drainage, and (ii) Longitudinal Drainage both surface & sub-surface drainage. The alignment shall be routed such that minimum drainage crossings are encountered. Also the geometric design criteria as per Nepal Road Standard 2027 BS (first revision 2045 BS), and Design Standards for Feeder Road, 1997 published by DoR, for effective surface drainage should be ensured. All drains crossing along the alignment shall be identified on site and marked on map while undertaking transect walk. Basic information on the width of channel, frequency of traffic holdup and flow would provide inputs into screening of alternate alignments as well as fixing the alignment. Consultations with the community shall provide information on the Highest Flood Level (HFL) in the area. In areas of high and medium intensity rainfall (>400 mm/year), flood prone areas and hilly areas detailed hydrological studies will need to be conducted. Some reference materials for this could be Guideline Manual for Design of Bridges, DoR 2006. Similarly, other reference material may include; IRC: SP-13: 1973 "Guidelines for the Design of Small Bridges & Culverts" and IRC: SP33:1989 "Guidelines on Supplemental Measures for Design, Detailing & Durability of Important Bridge Structures". The design of cross-drainage structures shall be based on the inputs from the hydrological studies. Design of Cross Drainage (CD) structure shall observe, among others: • Normal alignment of the road is followed even if it results in a skew construction of culverts and stream bank protection are incorporated; • Afflux generated is limited to 30 cm in plains with flat land slopes; • Designs to ensure that fish passage is not interrupted either in upstream or downstream • Adequate scour protection measures for stream bank, roadway fill as head walls, wing walls and aprons are in most circumstances indispensable; • Reinforced road bed (of concrete or rock) for protection against overflow in case of low water crossing (fords/causeways); • The design of CD structure should have stairs leading to the bed of the drainage channel, for regular inspection of the sub-structure. • Longitudinal drains are to be designed to drain runoff from highest anticipated rainfall as per rainfall data for the past 20 years or 50 years as per hydrological analysis in high rainfall areas (annual rainfall > 1000 mm) and hill areas. Annex 2 - 34 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework • Outfall of the roadside drains shall be into the nearby stream or culvert. The outfall should be at such a level that there would be no backflow into the roadside drain. Wherein pond/low lying areas exist in the vicinity, the flow may be diverted into them after removal of sediment for possible ground water recharge. • In case no natural stream is found appropriate for roadside drain outfall, water-harvesting structures shall be constructed to collect the runoff. The location shall be determined based on the size of the structure (which in turn depends on the discharge anticipated) and willingness of the landowner who would be utilizing the collected water. These shall be determined by the Project Management in consultation with the landowner during project preparation stage. • Roadside ditches in high rainfall areas (annual rainfall > 1000mm) and hill areas, shall be lined to protect from runoff of high velocities. The schedule of construction of CD structures should be confined to dry months to avoid contamination of water bodies and disturbance of aquatic life. In case of high embankment (>1.0m) or bridge approaches, lined channels shall be provided to drain the surface runoff, prevent erosion from the slopes and avoid damage to shoulders and berms. Detailed specifications can be referred to Guideline Manual for Design of Bridges, DoR, 2006. Additional reference material can also include IRC:SP-20:2002. Pre-Construction Stage
Following measures are to be undertaken by the contractor prior to the commencement of CD/Bridge construction: • The contractor should inform the concerned departments about the scheduling of work. This shall form part of the overall scheduling of the civil works to be approved by Project Management. • The downstream as well as upstream users (e.g. irrigation farmers, fisher folk) shall be informed one month in advance, and alerted for potential impacts; • The contractor shall schedule the activities based on the nature of flow in the stream; • Erosion and sediment control devises are to be installed prior to the start of the civil • Interceptor drains to be dug prior to slope cutting to avoid high runoff from slopes entering construction sites in case of hill roads • Runoff from temporary drains and interceptor drains need to be carefully directed into natural drains in hill roads • In case of upgrading existing CD Structures, temporary route / traffic control shall be made for the safe passage of the traffic, depending upon the nature of the stream • All the safety/warning signs are to be installed by the contractor before start of In case of utilization of water from the stream, for the construction of the CD structures, the contractor has to take the consent from the concerned department (refer also to the previous Chapter "Water for Construction") April 2007 Annex 2 - 35 Environmental and Social Management Framework Construction Phase
Drainage structures at construction site shall be provided at the earliest to ensure proper compaction at the bridge approach and at the junction of bridge span and bridge approach. In hill areas sub-surface drains, if required, shall be provided immediately after cutting the slopes. Velocity of runoff to be controlled to avoid formation of rills/gullies as per the code guidelines provided in Ch. 8 "Slope Stability & Erosion Control." While working on drainage channels, sediment control measures shall be provided. Silt fencing (as per the detailed specifications given in Ch. 8, "Slope Stability & Erosion Control") shall be provided across the stream that carries sediment. The sediments collected behind the bunds shall be removed and after drying, can either be reused or disposed off as per Ch. 12, "Waste Management and Site Redevelopment." Safety devices and flood warning signs to be erected while working over streams and canals. The HFL should be marked as per hydrological data on all drainage structures. Post Construction
Inspection and cleaning of drain shall be done regularly to remove any debris or vegetative growth that may interrupt the flow. The HFL should be, as necessary, re-marked as per hydrological data on all drainage structures. Temporary structure constructed during construction shall be removed before handing over to ensure free flow through the channels. The piers and abutments should be examined for excessive scour and make good the same if required. In case of causeways, the following aspects shall be taken into consideration: • Dislocation of stones in stone set pavements, scouring of filler material due to eddy currents. • Floating debris block the vents. Incase of large amount of floating material, debris arrestor shall be provided in upstream side. • Damage to guide stones, information board shall be inspected and replaced accordingly. The schedule of Inspection shall be drawn up for checking cracks, settlements and unusual backpressures. It must be ensured that all the rectification shall be undertaken as and when required. Following are broadly the items to be checked: • Settlement of piers/abutments & settlement of approach slabs have to be checked • Cracks in CD structures or RCC slabs; • Drainage from shoulders to be ensured; • Ditches & drains to be kept clean of debris or vegetation growth; • Repairs to parapet of culverts whenever required are to be undertaken. Annex 2 - 36 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework Protection of Aquatic Resources
Impacts on water bodies impairs …
Water bodies may be impacted when the road • Catchment area of the water body construction is adjacent to it or the water body is • Drainage system affected by change of drainage pattern due to • Flood level and water logging construction of embankment. The following • Flora and fauna dependant on the activities are likely to have an adverse impact on • Ground water recharging the aquatic ecology of the area: • Animal husbandry as water bodies • Earth moving are used by animals • Water quality & • Removal of vegetation • Runoff (increase/decrease) • Vehicle/Machine operation and maintenance • Handling and laying of asphalt and • Waste disposal from construction camps To give adequate protection for aquatic resources, including safeguarding the interests of
stakeholders using these resources, there are a number of measures that need top be
explored during different stages of a road construction project (Tab. A2-13).
Table A2-13: Key Aspects for Protecting Water Bodies in Road Construction Activities
Proper Road Alignment Project Planning Design Mitigation design in consultation with communities Erosion control and embankment Construction Stage protection measures Project Planning and Design Stage
All efforts are to be taken to avoid the alignments passing adjacent or close to water bodies. Where possible, it should be realigned away from the water-body without cutting its embankment, decreasing the storage area or impairing the catchment area. Adequate drainage arrangements should be provided. Stream bank characteristics and hydrology of the area are to be studied before finalizing the alignment, the profile and cross drainage structures. Complete filling of water body with soil should not be contemplated in the project. The Detail Design Report and its cost estimates have to accommodate costs of rehabilitation (to be estimated as lump sum at Detail Design Report stage) of water-bodies impacted by the project. Water-body rehabilitation shall be as per the Rehabilitation Plan prepared by the Contractor which should have approval of the Project Management/The Engineer∗. Details of the tasks to be performed as per the sequence of activities during the project planning and design are as follows: i) Transect walk should indicate the location of ponds in relation to the existing alignment if it is not already marked on the topographic map. The details to be captured during transect walk are: ∗ per definition: Engineer according to FIDIC April 2007 Annex 2 - 37 Environmental and Social Management Framework • Approximate size and depth of the water body in meters ‘m' • Designated use of the water body (domestic, drinking, irrigation, fisheries, industry) • Visual inspection of the quality of the pond water, occurrence of natural impacts (e.g. algae blooms, seaweed proliferation, fish mortalities, foul smell, mosquitoes, garbage). ii) Consultations with the people regarding alternate routes that were devised to avoid the fishponds. If alternate routes are not available, consent of the villagers is to be sought for properly compensating for the pond losses. iii) Final design is to be prepared indicating the pond location in the alignment drawings iv) If impacting the pond, the extent of impact is to be clearly indicated on a separate detailed drawing of the pond. The drawing should aid the contractor in setting up exact lines for cutting the pond. v) All necessary measures for mitigation of impacts and precautionary measures while working close to the water body are to be incorporated into the Detail Design Report and cost estimates. The measures to be incorporated shall be as per this code guideline. Pre-Construction Stage
Working near Water Bodies -
The IEE/EIA must assess the likely impacts on Precautions
the water body and make mitigation provisions • Avoid locating roads on pond
that need to be followed meticulously by the • Collect road runoff before entering Contractor. These measures must also clearly be the water bodies explained and illustrated in the detailed work • Runoff to be filtered of sediments before letting into water bodies plan. In accord to these provisions, the Contractor • Avoid debris disposal into water shall prepare a Rehabilitation Plan for rectifying the likely impact to be caused and approval of • Avoid disposal of oil/grease/other contaminants into water bodies Project Management shall be sought prior to commencement of work. The Rehabilitation Plan should include: • Locations of erosion protection works and silt fencing (as per Ch. 8,-"Slope Stability & Erosion Control", Box 8.3) to prevent sediment laden runoff entering the water body: • Location of side drains (temporary or otherwise) to collect runoff from the embankment before entering the water body; • Work program in relation to the anticipated season of flooding/overflowing of the water body, Obstructions likely to cause temporary flooding and information to seek clearance to remove the obstruction: • Drawings in Rehabilitation Plan should indicate the landscape details along with species to be planted in the surrounding environs of the water body. The rehabilitation of water body should be with the objective of restoring it to its original state or to a better state with necessary enhancement of its environs. Rehabilitation Plan shall include: • Reconstruction and stabilization of embankment in case it is impacted • If storage area is lost, then the water body is to be deepened to regain an equivalent Annex 2 - 38 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework • As applicable and desired by the community, provide for landscape enhancement of the water body (e.g. resting /picnic places along shores of ponds/lakes). • Cost of rehabilitation Concurrence of the community has to be sought on the Rehabilitation Plan prepared by the Contractor. Concerns of the community have to be incorporated into the plan before submitting it for approval of the Project Management. The Project Management shall scrutinize the Rehabilitation Plan, verify the implementation on site and finally approve the plan. The Rehabilitation Plan should be implemented by the Contractor immediately after completion of construction at the stretch near the water body. When there is interruption to regular activities of villagers near water body due to construction or rehabilitation work, following are the Contractor's responsibilities: • Restriction on use of water, if any, should be intimated to the community in advance • Alternate access to the water body is to be provided in case there is interruption to use of existing access. The access provided should be convenient for use of all the existing users whether community or cattle: • If the water body affected is a drinking water source for a habitation, alternate sources of water are to be provided to the users during the period for which its use is affected. Construction Stage
• It should be ensured by the contractor that the runoff entering the water body is free • Silt fencing and/or brush barrier shall be installed in the drainage channels for collecting the sediments before letting them into the water body (see Ch. 8,"Slope Stability and Erosion Control", Box 8.3). • Silt/sediment should be collected and stockpiled for possible reuse as surfacing of slopes where they have to be re-vegetated. Cutting of embankment reduces the water retention capacity and also weakens it, hence: ƒ The contractor should ensure that the decrease in water retention should not lead to flooding of the construction site and surroundings causing submergence and interruption to construction activities. ƒ Any perceived risks of embankment failure and consequent loss/damage to the property shall be assessed and the contractor should undertake necessary precautions as provision of toe protection, erosion protection, sealing of cracks in embankments. Failure to do so and consequences arising out of embankment failure shall be the responsibility of the contractor. The Project Management shall monitor regularly whether safe construction practices near water bodies are being followed. • Alternate drain inlets and outlets shall be provided in the event of closure of existing drainage channels of the water body. • Movement of machinery and workforce shall be restricted around the water body, and no waste from construction camps or sites shall be disposed in or adjacent (as rule of thumbs, <200 m) to the aquatic system. April 2007 Annex 2 - 39 Environmental and Social Management Framework Post - Construction Stage
With the completion of construction, the Project Management has to ensure implementation of rehabilitation plan for the water body, as indicated by the Contractor. The boundaries of the water body – particularly wetland habitats - have to be left undisturbed and tidy with the completion of construction. If unavoidable, drainage channels of adequate capacity shall be provided for the water body being impacted by storm waters. Waste Management and Rehabilitation of Construction Sites
This Code of Practice describes procedures for handling, reuse and disposal of waste
materials during road construction activities. The waste materials generated can be
classified into construction Waste; and domestic waste. The key activities during project
stages where management of wastes is required are presented in Table A2-14:
Table A2-14: Key Aspects for Proper Waste Management in Road Construction Activities
Project Planning & Design Identification of type/source of waste Pre-construction Identification of disposal sites Construction Stage Re-use of wastes, as applicable Post-Construction Stage Project Planning and Design Stage
As part of Detailed Design Report preparation, Project Management shall carry out the following actions: • Finalize the road design and alignment to Practices to avoid - waste disposal …
minimize waste generation through • Tipping of waste into stream channels, balancing of cut and fill operations and water bodies, forests and vegetated minimizing excess cuts requiring disposal. • Non-cleaning of wastes after day's • Identify the type of wastes as well as sources of waste during construction and • Leaching of wastes suggest options for possible re-use. • Littering in construction camps / sites • Provide guidelines to the contractor for • Storing wastes on private land locating waste disposal sites for non-toxic wastes. Incorporate supervision and approval mechanisms to ensure that no illicit dumping of hazardous materials will occur, with potential deleterious environmental consequences. • Identify existing and environmentally safe landfill sites for approved disposal of toxic • In case no existing landfill sites are available, identify landfill sites as well as decommissioning of these sites should be undertaken. Towards this, identify the clearance requirements. • Include in the bid document, a clause stating that all provisions of Environmental Codes Annex 2 - 40 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework of Practice shall be applicable to the locations of disposal of wastes. These shall include all provisions outlined in Ch. 7 "Topsoil Salvage, Storage and Replacement", Ch. 8, "Slope Stability and Erosion Control" and Ch. 11, "Drainage and Flood Prevention". Pre-construction Stage
During construction, the contractor shall identify all activities that have the potential to
generate waste (type, quantities and environmental harmfulness) and work out measures
for the same in the construction schedule to be submitted to the Project Management. A
sequential listing of the activities during road construction and the nature of wastes together
with the possible options for re-use are specified in Table A2-15.
For the disposal of excess cut and unsuitable (non-toxic) materials, the contractor shall
identify the location for disposal in consultation with the community / VDC/ Municipality as
appropriate. Any toxic material shall be disposed in existing landfill sites that comply with
legislative requirements. Prior to disposal of wastes onto private/community land, it shall be
the responsibility of the Contractor to obtain a No-objection Certificate (NOC) from the
land owner/community. The format for NOC shall be included in the bid documents and in
the works contracts. The NOC shall be submitted to the Project Management prior to
commencement of disposal.
Construction Stage
The contractor shall either reuse or dispose the waste generated during construction
depending upon the nature of waste, as specified in Table A2-15. The reuse of waste shall
be carried out by the contractor only after carrying out the specific tests and ascertaining
the quality of the waste materials used, and getting the same approved by the Project
Management/The Engineer. Wastes that were not reused shall be disposed off safely by
the contractor. The contractor shall adopt the following precautions while reusing wastes for
• In case of bituminous wastes, dumping will be carried out over a 60 mm thick layer of rammed clay so as to eliminate any chances of leaching. • In case of filling of low-lying areas with wastes, it needs to be ensured that the level matches with the surrounding areas. In this case, care should be taken that these low lying areas are not used for rainwater storage • In case oil and grease are trapped for reuse in a lined pit, care shall be taken to ensure that the pit should be located at the lowest end of the site. • The Contractor shall regularly educate his workforce location of disposal site as well as the specific requirement for the management of these sites. The waste management practices adopted by the Contractor, including the management of wastes at construction camps etc shall be controlled on a regular schedule by the Project Management /The Engineer during the progress of construction. Mechanisms must be in place to ensure due and immediate corrective measures once the existing waste management practices are not up to the satisfaction of the supervising engineer. April 2007 Annex 2 - 41 Environmental and Social Management Framework Post-Construction Stage
After decommissioning of construction sites, the Contractor shall hand over the site after clearing the site of all debris/wastes to the Project Management who is obliged to verify. In case of disposal of wastes on private land, certificate of Completion of Reclamation is to be obtained by the Contractor from the landowner that "the land is restored to his satisfaction". The same is to be submitted to the Project Management before final payment is claimed. Construction Plants and Equipment Management
During execution of the project, construction equipments, machinery and plants potentially
have various adverse impacts on the environment. The impact can be due to emissions,
dust, noise and oil spills that concern the safety and health of the workers, surrounding
settlements and environment as a whole. This code of practice describes the activities
during the project stages where pollution control measures are required. Table A2-16
highlights the key activities that need to be addressed during the project and also the
significance of impacts in the project region.
Table A2-16: Key Aspects for Plants and Machinery Management
Project Planning & Design Equipment Selection Development of Work Safety and Health Regulations Awareness of Safety-Health among Construction Stage Workers, emphasis on risk perception and accident prevention, and First Aid Safety Device & Cautionary Signs Waste Disposal Management Restoration of Plant Site/Haul Roads Post-Construction Stage Project Planning and Design Stage
Selection criteria for setting up a plant area and parking lot for equipment and vehicles shall be done as per siting criteria for construction camp specified in Ch.3, "Construction Camps and Site Operation". Apart from these guidelines, the ‘Public Workers Directives' and forth coming ‘Procurement Act' of Government of Nepal shall be adhered to during the preparation of bidding document. Pre-construction Stage
The Contractor must educate the workers to undertake safety precaution while working at
the plant / site as well as in the around heavy equipments as per the Ch.14,
"Occupational Health & Safety". Before setting up the crusher, hot-mix plant and generator, the Contractor shall acquire "No
Objection Certificate (NOC)" from the Project Management/The Engineer. The EMP shall
give sufficient indications as where the siting of such equipment is allowable or not
permissive, depending on parameters like settlement vicinity, ecological sensitive areas,
Annex 2 - 42 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework water bodies, cultural assets and others identified during the public consultation process. The Contractor shall ensure all vehicles must possess a Pollution Under Control (PUC)
, from designated authority by the DoR, which and shall be renewed regularly.
The Contractor must also ensure that all machinery, equipments, and vehicles shall comply
with the existing HMGN noise and emission norms of Government of Nepal.
The Project Management must ensure that the Contractor shall submit a copy of the NOC and PUC Certificates before the start of work. Construction Stage
The Contractor shall undertake measures as per Table A2-17 to minimize the dust
generation, emissions, noise, oil spills, residual waste and accidents at the plant site as
well as during transportation of material to construction site.
Table A2-17: Precautionary Measures at Plant Sites
• Fine Materials shall be Transported in Bags or Covered by Vehicle Movement Tarpaulin during Transportation • Tail board shall be properly closed and sealed Concrete-Mix Plant • Educate the workers for following good practices while material handling • Site selection as pre-identified in the IEE/EIA • Site selection as per Clause 6.5.2, Section 6.5, IRC's Manual for Construction & Supervision of Bitumen Work • Regular maintenance of dust Collector as per manufacture's recommendation • Regular maintenance as per manufacturer's • Exhaust vent of long length Heavy Load Vehicles • Exhaust silencer, Regular maintenance as per manufacture schedule • Site selection as pre-identified in the IEE/EIA • Siting as per guideline Ch. 12, "Construction Camps and Site Redevelopment" • Shall be kept in closed room and regular maintenance as per manufacture's recommendation Storage and Handling • Good practice and fire fighting equipment/training • Prepare a contingency Plan for emergency situations • In accord with guideline Ch. 12,, "Waste Management and Site Redevelopment" Residual waste Dust Collector / Pits • In accord with guideline Ch. 12, "Waste Management and Site Redevelopment" • Safe / locked storage rooms to prevent accidents and Concrete waste Concrete-Mix Plant • In accord with guideline Ch. 12,, "Waste Management and Site Redevelopment" April 2007 Annex 2 - 43 Environmental and Social Management Framework Range of Equipment • No worker shall be present in the vicinity of the equipments Movable Parts of • Caution Signs, • Regular awareness training among workers • Caution Sign, Safety Equipments, Regulations Accidents/Health • First Aid Box, Periodic Medical Check up, Insurances Break down of vehicles • Arrangement for towing equipment to the workshop During site clearance, all cut and grubbed materials shall be kept at a secured location so that it does not raise any safety concerns. During excavation, water sprinkling shall be done to minimize dust generation. Frequent water sprinkling shall be done on the haul roads to minimize dust generation. Incase of loose soils, compaction shall be done prior to water sprinkling. Safety Measures during Bitumen Works…
• The Contractor shall ensure that bitumen storing, handling as well as mixing shall be done at hot-mix plant or designated areas3 to prevent contamination of soil and ground water. • Use of fuel wood for heating bitumen shall be discouraged. When heating is required, bitumen heaters shall be used, fueled by either kerosene, diesel or gas. • No bituminous materials shall be discharged into side drains. • Nearby tree, vegetation and private property shall be protected during bitumen spraying • Skilled labor shall be used while hand placing the pre-mixed bitumen material. The hand placing of pre-mixed bituminous material shall be done only in following circumstances: For laying profile corrective courses of irregular shape and varying thickness In confined spaces where it is impracticable for a paver to operate, and For filling potholes • The Contractor shall provide safety equipments i.e. gumboots and gloves to the workers while handling bitumen. • While applying Tack Coat, spraying of bitumen shall be done in the wind direction. The labor shall wear jacket while spraying the bitumen. • Bitumen shall not be applied during strong winds and rainy periods, or if rain is likely. • All the bituminous work shall be done as per IRC's Manual for Construction and Supervision of Bituminous Works. Cautionary and informatory sign shall be provided at all locations and times, specifying the type of operation in progress. The contractor must ensure that there is minimum generation of dust and waste while unloading the materials from trucks. Batteries and battery acids need to be stored in locked compounds and storerooms to prevent theft and misuse. Bitumen drums shall be stored in designated locations and not scattered along the road. The construction waste generated shall be disposed as per guideline Ch.12, "Waste Management and Site Redevelopment". Annex 2 - 44 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework Table A2-15: Types of Construction-Generated Wastes and Scope of Re-uses
Disposal of
Types of waste
Scope for possible reuse
Construction Wastes
Vegetative cover and top soil Vegetating Embankment Slopes Site Clearance and Unsuitable material in embankment foundation Earthworks
Overburden of borrow Vegetative cover and soil Vegetating Embankment Slopes Vegetative cover and soil Vegetating Embankment Slopes Overburden of Quarries Granular material Embankment Fill, Pitching Embankment construction Soil and Granular material Construction of earthen Concrete Structures
Constructing temporary structures, Dust, cement, sand, Storage of materials Manure, Re-vegetation Constructing temporary structure, Diversion sign, Guard rail Oil and Hazardous Fluids
Construction machinery- Incineration, Cooking, Illumination maintenance and refueling Bituminous works Low Grade Bitumen Mix Low Grade Bitumen Mix Mixing and handling Sub-base, Paving access ,cross roads Rejected bituminous mix Sub-base, Paving access, cross roads Domestic Wastes
Bio-decomposition, Manure Construction camps Plastic and metal scrap Re-sale, as applicable Domestic effluent Irrigation, fertilizing fields Reconstruction works
Bitumen mix, granular material Road sub-base, reuse in concrete, fill Dismantling of existing material and as rip rap on roads Guard rail sign post, Constructing temporary structure, Granular material and bricks Dismantling of cross drainage structure Diversion sign, Guard Rail Decommissioning of sites
Dismantling of temporary Constructing temporary structure, Granular material and bricks Hill Roads
Vegetative cover Vegetating embankment slopes Soil and granular material Vegetative cover Vegetating embankment slopes Clearance of slides Soil and granular material Maintenance Operations
De-silting of side drains Organic matter and soil April 2007 Annex 2 - 45 Environmental and Social Management Framework All equipments, which are required to move forward and backward, shall be equipped with alarm for backward movement. It shall be ensured that the workers shall remain away from such working areas at active times. The Project Management shall carry out periodic inspections to ensure that all the pollution control systems are appropriately installed and comply with existing emission and noise 13.4 Post-construction
The Project Management shall ensure that all haul roads are restored to their original state. In case any inner village road is damaged while transporting the procured material the contractor must restore the road(s) to the original condition. The Project Management must ensure that the decommissioning of plant shall be done in environmentally sound fashion and the workshop area closed and brought to its original state. Occupational Health and Work Safety
The health and safety of both the general public and the workers must be of prime concern for all parties involved in with road construction activities as there are major hazards associated with this type of health concerns include
(a) for the General Public:
• Improper scheduling of construction activities especially near settlements and cultural
areas, where local customs would cause temporary gatherings of the public • Undesired interactions between workers and host community has the potential to spread and increase communicable diseases, if no stringent public awareness and health campaigns are carried out (at both ends, i.e. among the labor forces and the local communities). This problem has particularly to be addressed by all project- responsible staff when there are vulnerable groups (women, children, low casts) at stake, and where outside/migrant laborers constitute a tangible portion of the work forces. Community awareness programs, such as HIV/AIDS prevention, are best undertaken by (contracted) NGOs and health organizations with proven experience in the subject and familiar with the local conditions. • Unhygienic conditions due to water logging, either by improper decommissioning of Construction Camps and parking lots, or improper disposal of construction wastes, leading to the breeding of vectors that are likely to impact the health of the general public • Creation of stagnant water ponds / waterlogged areas near construction sites and labor camps have the potential to increase public health risks, as such locations will serve as breeding ground for water-borne disease vectors (e.g. malaria, dengue, intestinal worms). • Unauthorized use of local natural resources by work forces on items like medicinal plants, non-timber forest products, fire wood, hunting species, fish etc. may lead to Annex 2 - 46 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework resource depletion, inducing secondary side-effects like malnutrition that may harm public health. • Over-use of drinking water resources by work forces may equally have negative implications on the public health. • Migrant workers, especially when under drug and alcohol influence, may cause social conflicts which can result in physical clashes with the general public and the workers, putting local health facilities under constraints. for the Work Staff:
• Absence of proper sanitary facility likely to act as a breeding ground for vectors raising health concerns among workers. • Low quality drinking water as well as inappropriate storage of drinking water likely to cause water borne diseases among workers. • Migrant workers may act as vectors for sexually transmitted diseases such as • Migrant workers may become vectors for other endemic diseases. safety concerns include
for the General Public:
• Improper scheduling of construction activities especially near the settlements and • Parking of equipments and vehicles at the end of the day likely to cause accidents to the general public especially during night hours. • Transportation of uncovered loose material or spillage of material increases the chances of accidents to road users and surrounding settlements. • Notice prior to blasting • Children hanging on trucks and vehicles being at particular risks for fatal accidents. for the Work Staff:
• Improper handling of materials like bitumen, oil and other flammable/hazardous material at construction sites, likely to cause safety concerns to the workers. • Lack of safety measures such as fences, adequate lockers, alarm, awareness and safety equipment may result in accidents, • Lack of specific precautionary measures, especially at work sites with or around heavy machinery / equipments near rivers, steep slopes, equally bears many accident risks, partly with fatal consequences. This code of practice describes how to address the above mentioned risks into account and
offers practicable and proven measures to mitigate the potential impacts. Table A2-18
highlights the key health & safety activities that need to be addressed during the different
project stages.
April 2007 Annex 2 - 47 Environmental and Social Management Framework Table A2-18: Key aspects for health and safety measures to be observed during
different project stages
Collection / elaboration of Health & Safety Project Planning & Design Safety & traffic control measures in construction Pre-construction Stage schedule to be included in the Works Contracts Regular training of work forces in Work Safety and Health Regulations Awareness of safety & health aspects among Construction Stage workers, with emphasis on control of HIV/AIDS and related issues Safety Device & Cautionary Signs Training of workers on public safety issues Post-Construction Stage Provision of proper signeages Project Planning and Design Stage
To address health and safety concerns, the Detailed Design Report shall contain selection criteria for setting up: • Construction Camps (see Ch.3, "Construction Camps and Site Operation") • Borrow Areas (see Ch.4, "Gravel Extraction and Borrow Area") and • In case of opening new quarry areas (see Ch. 5, "Quarry Development, Operation and Rehabilitation") To address the safety concerns to road user during operational phase, the Detailed Design Report shall contain the following: • Selection and location of regulatory as well as informatory signs, depending upon the geometry of the road • Incase of hill roads, provision of passing places and parapet wall shall be included in The planning exercise and identification of potential impacts (screening process during IEE/EIA) shall also identify potential risks for vulnerable groups and/or occurrence of social conflicts and incidence/risks of HIV/AIDS. In such cases, it is mandatory to make at this early stage all provisions to put an environmental and health awareness campaign in place before the influx of labor camps may bring about an aggravation of the already existing social and public health problems. An essential step to address such risks is the identification of adequate NGOs who can then conduct awareness programs for conscientization of the affected communities and groups. Pre-construction Stage
In order to incorporate public health and safety concerns, the Project Management and the Contractor shall disseminate the following information to the community: • Location of construction camps, borrow areas and new quarry areas. • Extent of work • Time of construction • Diversions, if any Annex 2 - 48 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework • Precaution measures in sensitive areas • Involvement of local and foreign labors in the road construction • Health issues - water stagnation, exposure to dust, communicable disease, drugs, alcohol, potential sources of social and public health conflicts • Mechanism for grievance resolution. The Contractor must educate the workers to undertake the health and safety precautions. The contractor shall educate the workers regarding: • Personal safety measures and location of safety devices. • Friendly and cooperative interaction with the host community • Protection of environment with respect to: o Trampling of vegetation and cutting of trees for cooking o Restriction of activities in forest areas and also on hunting o Water bodies and catch fisheries/aquaculture protection o Storage and handling of materials o Disposal of construction waste 14.3 Construction
Minimum Requirements for First Aid (example)

During the progress of work, following First Aid Kit, distinctly marked with Red Cross on white back ground and shall contain minimum of are the safety requirements that need the following or similar items: to be undertaken by the contractor at 6 small-sterilized dressings the construction site: 3 medium and large sterilized dressings o 1 (30 ml.) bottles containing 2% alcoholic • Personal safety equipments (such solution of iodine as footwear and gloves) 1(30 ml) bottle containing salvolatile 1 snakebite lancet All measures as per bidding 1 pair sterilized scissors document shall be strictly followed 1 copy of first-aid leaflet 100 tablets of aspirin Additional provisions need to be undertaken for safety at site: A suitable surgical antiseptic solution o Adequate lighting arrangement • Adequate arrangement shall be made for immediate recoupment of the equipments, o Adequate drainage system to whenever necessary. avoid any stagnation of water • A trained personnel in charge of first aid treatment o Lined surface with slope 1:40 to be readily available during working hours at (V:H) and provision of lined pit construction site Suitable transport to the nearest approachable at the bottom, at the storage hospital should be made available. and handling area of bitumen and oil, incl. the location of generator (grease trap). o Facilities for administering first aid, including training rooms The following measures need to be adopted by the contractor to address public safety concerns: • The contractor shall schedule the construction activities taking into consideration factors o Sowing of crops o Local constraints such as festivals etc. April 2007 Annex 2 - 49 Environmental and Social Management Framework o Availability of local labor (should be preference, as per specifications) during particular periods • All precautionary signs as per DoR standard and traffic control devices (such as barricades, etc) shall be placed as soon as construction activity get started and shall remain in place till the activities get completed. • As necessary, traffic deviations and accident-prone spots need to be manned by all times during construction activities with control personnel that take particular care to prevent children from accessing dangerous construction sites. • Following case specific measures need to be followed during the progress of the o In case of blasting, the Contractor must follow The Explosives Act of GoN. Incase of construction activity adjoining the water bodies, measures shall be taken as per guidelines in Ch. 11, "Water Bodies". If construction of road is within a settlement, the contractor must ensure there shall not be any unauthorized parking as well as storage of material, adjacent to road. Approved chemicals should be sprayed to prevent breeding of mosquitoes and other disease-causing organisms, at all existing or likely water logging areas. The Project management shall carry out periodic inspections in order to ensure that all the measures are being undertaken as per this specific set of Code of Practice. The contractor must give utmost precautionary care to exclude and control the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, by imposing strict rules and providing regular awareness training among all work staff. Post-construction Stage
During this stage a major concern is on road user safety. Following are the measures that need to be undertaken by the DoR divisional Office/District Office to ensure safer roads: • Inspection and maintenance of installed regulatory and informatory signs. • Ensure that the location of signage does not obstruct the visibility • Incase of hill roads, maintenance of parapet wall as well as of overtaking zones. The DoR Divisional office/District Office must ensure that during the maintenance operation of road, road materials are stored at a location such that they shall not create any risk to road users. The construction site shall be cleaned of all debris, scrap materials and machinery on completion of construction for the safety of public and road users, as per Ch.3, "Construction Camps and Site Operation" and Ch.13, "Waste Management and Site Rehabilitation". The environmental and social audit needs also to determine whether the preventive campaigns to control sexually transmitted diseases, alcohol / drug abuse and trafficking are under proper control, or if further corrective measures are needed covering a given road section. Annex 2 - 50 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework Roads Crossing Forests and Sensitive Wildlife Habitats
This code of practice envisages measures to be undertaken during planning, design, Natural Habitats refers to…
construction and operation and maintenance • National Park stages of the Road passing through natural • Reserve Forest habitats. These measures shall be undertaken • Sanctuaries in addition to the measures laid down in the • Notified Wetlands other guideline sections of this Annex. • Fisheries and Aquatic Habitats As per the World Bank OP 4.04 and similar • Karst landforms, including caves directives provided by other donor agencies like ADB, DFID and JICA, the conservation and enhancement of natural habitats is essential for long-term sustainable development. 15.1 Project Planning and Design
To minimize the adverse impact on the ecology of the natural habitats, selection of alignment should be as per the principal guideline outlined in Ch. 1, "Project Planning & Design". An officer of at least the rank of a forest ranger shall be deputed for detailed inventory of ecological features along the Road. The inventory shall be carried out after the ranger travels along the proposed alignment during the transect walk while the nature and type of impacts on natural habitats due to road construction are identified. Ecological Features…
Adverse Impacts…
• Area and integer function of natural • Fragmentation of forest land and habitats • Cutting of trees vital for certain species and • Habitat requirements for territorial • Disturbance, withering, trampling of vegetation • Type and number of endangered • Contamination of water due to various forms of species of flora and fauna water uses and/or influx of pollutants from • Water bodies and aquatic life adjacent surface and groundwater sources • Breeding ground and seasons • Loss or disturbance of breeding grounds • Seasonal and spatial requirements of • Interruption of animal crossings due to migratory bird species construction and operation of a road • Terrestrial animal crossing pathways Impacts on natural habitats shall be minimized to the extent required. Minimization shall be through precautionary measures or through appropriate mitigation measures. Recommended measures and good practices for constructing roads passing through forests and other sensitive natural habitats include: • Constricting the road width to minimize the extent of diversion of forest land and cutting • Drainage Structures shall be designed in accordance with guidelines given in Ch.10. • Rumble strips shall be provided at every kilometer along the length of the natural habitat and invariably at the start and end of the natural habitat. April 2007 Annex 2 - 51 Environmental and Social Management Framework • Signage (viz. speed limit, animal crossing, switch of headlight etc) shall be provided as per DoR Standard for road sign. • If signage proofs to be insufficient, physical speed breakers have to be included in the road design in sections with high incidents of traffic accidents with wildlife (e.g. in dense forest sections). • In case of sensitive ecological road sections the EMP of the IEE/EIA Study shall identify specific measures for the stretch passing through such habitats. In addition to the above measures, specific impacts identified on site shall be mitigated as per the recommendation of the forest department / officer in charge of the identified natural habitat. In case the proposed alignment falls within a certain surface water flow, a flush causeway shall be constructed without impacting the natural drainage system. The length of the causeway shall be as per the existing water spread. In no circumstances a water body within the natural habitat shall be cut across or filled for the purpose of laying the road. Pre-construction Stage
No Construction Camps, Stockyards, Concrete Batching or Hot Mix Plants shall be located within the natural habitat or within 500m from its boundary. Contractor in consultation with forest ranger or any other concerned authority shall prepare a schedule of construction within the natural habitat. Due consideration shall be given to the time of migration, time of crossing, breeding habits and any other special phenomena taking place in the area for the concerned flora or fauna. 15.3 Construction
Procurement of any kind of construction material (as quarry or borrow material) from within the natural habitat shall be strictly prohibited No water resources within the natural habitat shall be tapped for road construction. Use of mechanized equipment shall be kept at minimum while working in forests and/or ecological sensitive habitats. The Contractor must ensure that there will be no parking of vehicles machine and equipment within such ecological zones. The disposal of construction waste and spoil within the natural habitat shall be strictly
prohibited and as far as possible re-use shall be undertaken as per Table A2-15 presented
in Ch. 12, "Waste Management and Site Redevelopment".
Post Construction Stage
The road passing through the natural habitat shall be declared as a silence zone. Compensatory tree plantation in the ratio of 1:25 within the available Right of Way shall be done in accordance with Ch.9"Tree Plantation". The Project Management must ensure maintenance of drainage structure undertaken as per Ch. 10, -"Drainage and Flood Prevention." Annex 2 - 52 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework Protection of Cultural Properties
Cultural properties located close to the road are likely to be impacted by road construction, therefore these assets should be duly avoided while determining and
finalizing a road alignment. Table A2-19 highlights the key activities that need to be
addressed in this regard during different stages of the project and also the significance of
the impacts in the project regions.
Table A2-19: Key Activities to protect cultural properties
Identification of cultural properties and their significance while Project Planning & consulting local stakeholders and, as applicable, the Dept. of Archaeology Avoidance/mitigation measures Precautionary measures Post-construction Restoration of impacted cultural properties Project Planning and Design Stage
Measures for mitigation of impacts on cultural properties during project preparation should observe the following steps: • Identification of locally significant cultural properties, in close consultation with local communities and religious leaders; • Assessment of likely impacts on each cultural property due to project implementation, taking into due account the perception of the consulted stakeholders; • Develop, together with the local representatives, possible measures for avoidance or mitigation of the anticipated impacts. In case the impact is not avoidable, Information to be collected on cultural properties…
identification of alternative routes or • Location
possibility of relocation of the culture • Direction (North/ South/East/West) with respect to property shall be assessed in the planned road consultation with the local public, Distance of the structure from existing centerline of the road based on the economic feasibility. • Type of property: temple/mosque/shrine/palace, In case of world heritage sites or place religious pond, stone water spout etc of high socio-cultural importance, no • Plan of the structure relocation would be taken up and • Importance of the structure - alignment shall be shifted away from the cultural property to avoid any • Ownership of the property impacts. Re-alignment for avoiding • Probable loss to the property impacts on such site is mandatory. • Specific periods/durations in which large In case of (agreed/feasible) relocation, congregations as festivals/mela take place relocated site should be suggested by causing hindrance to vehicular movement the local people and the size of • Choice of community, issue of relocation April 2007 Annex 2 - 53 Environmental and Social Management Framework relocated structure should at least be equal to the original structure. The original architecture and structure setting should be maintained to the extent possible. A detailed design of the relocated structure and its site plan along with the necessary BoQ are to be presented in the Detail Design Report. The relocation and other avoidance measures should be carried out before the start of the road work. It must be ensured by the Project Management that the BoQ and rates for the relocation works are incorporated into the contract document. Construction Stage
Major impacts on the properties during this stage are mainly due to movement of construction machinery as well as due to construction activity in the vicinity of the cultural property. The following precautionary measures are recommendable: • Provision of temporary barricades to isolate the boundaries of the cultural property from the construction site as approved by the Engineer to avoid impacts; • Restrict movement of heavy machinery near the structure; • Avoid disposal or tipping of earth near the structure; • Access to these properties shall be kept clear from dirt and grit. During earth excavation, if any property is unearthed and seems to be culturally significant or likely to have archeological significance, the same shall immediately be intimated to the Engineer. Work shall be suspended until further orders from Project Management. The Department of Archeology shall then be informed without delay of the chance find and the Engineer shall carry out a joint inspection with officials from the Department who shall suggest appropriate actions the Contractor has to comply with. This will also include information on the probable date for resuming works. The Project Management must ensure that the contractor implements all precautionary measures as suggested in the Contract Specifications relating to preservation of cultural assets. Post Construction Stage
Immediately after completion of construction, the Contractor will affect clearance of the precincts of cultural properties. In case access to any of the cultural properties is severed during construction it needs to be restored at the Contractor's cost. Restoring is subject to approval of either the VDC or the Department of Archaeology. The Project Management shall certify the approved restoration actions before final payment is made. Annex 2 - 54 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework Remedial Measures against Rural Road Accidents
In 1997, the DoR prepared a series of guidelines that address practical recommendations for identifying and treating road accident sites. It is suggested that road engineers, planners and contractors will explore the following technical solutions and good practices to diminish the toll of road accidents in the country's rural roads. None of the remedial measures suggested below from Table A2-20 should be implemented
without in-depth analysis. When considering remedial measures it must be emphasized that it is
important to study the accident data, identifying the dominant accident types, identifying the
causal factors, and selecting remedial measures which are likely to be effective in remedying the
deficiencies that have been found. While doing so, planners need also to assess beforehand the
following questions:
(i) Is the remedy likely to be long-lasting? – for example, some speed-reduction measures have an immediate effect but this wears off as drivers get used to them; (ii) Is the specific remedy cost-effective? - some measures may be effective without being (iii) Will the proposed measure result in an excessive increase in other types of accidents? - for example, in some circumstances the introduction of traffic signals can result in an increase in nose -to -tail accidents; (iv) Will it have unacceptable environmental or social effects? - -road humps for example can cause traffic noise nuisance as vehicles brake, and may result in traffic diverting onto other less suitable roads (v) Will the measure be unpopular with road users? - if so, the engineer might come under strong pressure to remove it, unless there is prove to the local community that it is effective in preventing accidents (vi) Will the corrective provision need to be heavily enforced by the Road Police or will it require considerable publicity and education? -if so, consider whether this is really achievable. April 2007 Annex 2 - 55 Environmental and Social Management Framework Table A2-20: Remedial Measures for Rural Accident Situations
Accident Type
Possible Remedy
Single vehicle loss of • improved delineation (centre and edge line markings, delineator posts, control (usually chevron signs, reflective studs if a night -time problem) recorded as overturn) • safety barrier ( especially if there is a big drop) –containment parapet on • bar markings on the road ( especially on the approach to a very sharp bend • warning signs (if they already exist, consider increasing their size, or making them reflective, or positioning them better) • seal the shoulder (if unsealed) • impose speed limit • improve skid resistance • re-align bend and/or improve super-elevation Head on collisions • Improved delineation ( as above) • if collisions happen while overtaking consider prohibiting this using a continuous centre line and possibly "No Overtaking" regulatory sign • if collisions happen at narrow sections (e.g. bridges, culverts) ensure that these are clearly signed (warning signs, hazard markers, bar markings, rumble strips, etc) • if collisions frequently happen while a parked vehicle is being overtaken consider banning parking and/or providing a parking area or lay- by Pedestrian Accidents • traffic calming measures within villages and at the entrances (place name signs, gateways, rumble strips, build-outs) (make it very clear to drivers that they are going through a village) • impose speed limits • warning signs ("Children", or "Pedestrians in Road") • provide footways (on bridges and elsewhere) • provide pedestrian crossings (but only if they will be well-used) • Remove object if possible • Install hazard marker in front of object • use safety barrier to protect vehicle from object (e.g. in front of the end of a Collision with stopped • consider banning parking in this accident-prone zone or parked vehicle • provide bus lay-by or off-road parking area Accidents at junctions • better signing and marking (make the priorities clear) and access points • channelization (splitter islands in minor road approach and protected lanes for vehicles turning right out of the major road) using paint ("ghost islands") or physical islands • remove any obstructions to visibility (e.g. trees, bushes, poles, walls etc) • provide service roads for frontage development thereby making it possible to greatly reduce the number of access points. • Safety barrier (if vehicles frequently run out of control) • Provide crawler (overtaking) lanes or shorter passing places Annex 2 - 56 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework Accident Type
Possible Remedy
There is a great variety of junction situations and not all the remedies listed below will apply to every one -moreover all remedial measures will need to be Junction Accidents
carefully designed to suit the specific circumstances -it is advisable to consult design manuals before making major alterations to junction layout Conflicts between • if traffic is very heavy -such as at many junctions in larger towns - consider traffic streams -at installing a roundabout (if there is space} or traffic signals traffic signal priority (T or cross- installation needs to be done as part of a project covering a number of roads) junctions • improve the signing and marking (make the priorities clear) • channeling -show drivers the correct path to take by means of road markings (e.g. "ghost islands", lane markings, right-turn bays, lane arrows, etc} and physical islands • control and channel pedestrian crossing movements • modify the layout to encourage slower approach speeds (e.g. by reducing comer radii and providing splitter islands) • prohibit and discourage parking and stopping near the junction (e.g. by signs and pedestrian guardrail} -move bus stops away from the junction • improve traffic lighting • remove any obstructions to visibility on traffic lights • ban difficult turning movements (but only if the ban can be easily enforced and the alternative route is not too long or awkward) • consider reducing the number of conflicts by converting one or more roads to one-way traffic (but consider the area-wide implications } • improve skid resistance Conflicts between • improve the signing and marking (make the priorities clear) traffic streams at • install splitter islands on the approaches • increase deflection {e.g. by increasing the diameter of the centre island or changing the approach geometry) • control and channel pedestrian crossing movements • prohibit and discourage parking and stopping near the junction (e.g. by signs and pedestrian guardrail) • move bus stops away • improve lighting • remove any obstructions to visibility • improve skid resistance Pedestrian accidents • control and channel pedestrian crossing movements • provide pedestrian crossings • provide pedestrian refuges • prohibit and discourage parking and stopping near the junction (e.g. by signs and pedestrian guardrail) -move bus stops away • improve lighting • at signalized junctions consider introducing a pedestrian stage April 2007 Annex 2 - 57 Environmental and Social Management Framework Accident Type
Possible Remedy
Conflicts between • upgrade the signal equipment (brighter lights, stronger colors) traffic streams -at • improve signal visibility (extra signals, better positioning, backing boards, etc) signalized junctions • improve the signing and marking (STOP lines, lanes and lane markings, turn arrows, advance warning signs) • check the timing (additional inter-green time may be need for clearance ) • consider changes to the staging' (if there is a right-turning problem consider giving this traffic a separate stage or a priority overlap) • control and channel pedestrian crossing movements • prohibit and discourage parking and stopping near the junction (e.g. by signs and pedestrian guardrail) -move bus stops away improve lighting • remove any obstructions to visibility • improve skid resistance Accidents not at Junctions Pedestrian accidents • Provide pedestrian footways • provide pedestrian crossings (busy crossings may need to be signal- • provide pedestrian refuges • control and channel pedestrian crossing movements • install speed reducing road humps (residential areas) • install other traffic calming measures (gateways, build-outs. , chicanes, rumble areas, etc. , designed to encourage low speeds, and careful disciplined driving Single vehicle – loss • largely as for rural accident situations Head-on collisions • largely as for rural accident situations Accidents involving • consider increasing width of nearside lane or providing a special lane two-wheelers and Annex 2 - 58 April 2007 Glossary of Technical Terms used in
Environmental and Social Management Framework GLOSSARY - Common Terms used in the ESMF
Baseline Study is the work done to collect and interpret information on the status and
trends of the environment likely to be affected by the proposed development action.
.Biodiversity is the common description for biological diversity at different levels of life (e.g.
habitat, populations, species, individual biota, organisms and micro-biological/cellular
structures. In EIAs, biodiversity refers mainly to the wealth of ecosystems in the biosphere,
of species within ecosystems, and of genetic information within populations.
Biosphere describes that part of the earth-atmosphere system which supports and is
characterized by life, encompassing all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

is a collective term that denotes all the living organisms in a particular space.

Chain Impacts
are impacts which are themselves a result of other impacts, as opposed to
being caused directly by any particular event. Chain impacts are usually considered as part
of a series of related impacts having a cascade an/or accumulating effects on the
Compensation is the provision for enhancement, replacement, restoration, and restitution
to recipients of unavoidable negative residual impacts. Often there is payment in funds or
replacement. Funds may also be used to recreate lost habitat or other valued resources.
Compensation Plan is the portion of the Environmental Management plan that describes
the compensation measures that will be undertaken and committed to if a project proceeds.
It includes how much compensation will be paid to whom, by whom, and under what
Conservation is the preservation of natural resources so as to maintain supplies and
quality levels sufficient to meet all present and anticipated needs.
Critical habitat is an area of land and/or water required for the survival of a plant or animal
population. Critical habitats are also referred to as ecologically sensitive areas.
Cumulative Impact. refers to environmental impact(s) that result from actions being added
to others of the past, present, and foreseeable future, caused by construction or related
activities or natural events that are either repeated or occur in combination.
Direct or Indirect Impacts: Whereas most physical and hydrological impacts are direct;
ecological and social impacts are commonly indirect or secondary in nature.
Ecosystem is an aquatic or terrestrial system or combination of systems that include some
or all of the living and non-living components. Boundaries of an ecosystem are often
specified for a particular application.
Encroachment relating to road projects refers to the temporary or permanent occupation of
Government land (mostly RoW) by private individuals. It includes erection of buildings or
other structures and the intrusion with crops and livestock.
Endemism refers to a condition in which species occur only in a single spatially-limited and
distinct location, such as isolated islands, mountain valleys, caves, lakes and isolated forest
lands (e.g. Sundarban). Endemic species are often highly specialized to the limited
April 2007 Annex 3 - 1 Environmental and Social Management Framework environmental conditions in which they exist, and are thus vulnerable to changes introduced
from outside.
Environment is the totality of the natural and human environments on which the project will
exhibit influence, and includes
all biophysical components of the natural environment of land, water and air including all layers of the atmosphere, biological resources, and all inorganic and organic matter both living and dead: (ii) all socio-economic components of the human environment including, but not limited to, social, economic development, human resources, quality of life, administrative, cultural,
historical, archeological, architectural, structures, sites and things, land and resource usage,
and human health, nutrition and safety.
Environmental Assessment (EA) is the process for making environmentally sound
decisions in to ensure that the concept of sustainable development is achieved in respect to
projects and the plans leading to projects. It has four components:
early planning to avoid environmental impacts, identification of existing and expected environmental impacts Æ EIA or IEE
Environmental Management Plan to determine residual environmental impacts and their management, (iv) Public
Environmental Auditing is a systematic, documented and verifiable process designed to
ascertain whether the Æ EMS helps the organization to meet the required standards of
environmental performance, fulfill its legal obligations and achieve what has been planned
for. Compliance performance techniques are important audit tools.
Environmental Enhancement is an intentional change which amplifies the anticipated
positive impact of the project on one more environmental components.
Environmental Impact is, from the project's point of view, either
any change that the project may cause to an environmental component, or any change to the project that may be caused by the environment, which then may lead to altered environmental conditions
Environmental Impact caused by the actions of a project or interventions should be
distinguished from the impact to resources or components caused by natural events such
as floods, cyclones and earthquakes.
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is the systematic study, assessment and
reporting of the impacts of a proposed program, plan or project, including a plan for dealing
with and control of negative impacts. The EIA Report provides quantified and qualified
information on the expected impacts due to project interventions, and makes provision for
mitigating these effects.
Environmental Management Action Plan (EMAP) is a plan to undertaken an array of
follow-up activities which provide for the sound environmental management of a project so
that adverse environmental impacts are minimized and mitigated; beneficial environmental
effects are maximized and sustainable development is ensured. EMAPs are sometimes
called Environmental Protection Plan and describes specific mitigation actions that will be
undertaken during project pre-construction, construction, operation, rehabilitation and
abandonment to lessen the effects of the project on the environment usually with specific
instructions for personnel involved in project activities. The EMAP integrates existing
legislation, codes of good engineering measures and makes provision for respective
clauses to be incorporated in the contracts for executing the (road) project.
Environmental Management System (EMS) provides a structured and systematic
approach to overall environmental management. It covers policy, procedures, stakeholders,
responsibilities and audit mechanisms.
Annex 3 - 2 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework
Environmental Standards (ES). An environmental standard is defined here as an
environmental threshold establishing maximum or minimum limits for the criteria by which
key parameters are measured.
Follow-up Activities constitute the set of specific actions described in the Environmental
Management Plan for project implementation and compliance with contractual
GIS is the abbreviation for Geographic Information System, a computer-based tool for
mapping and analyzing conditions that occur on earth. This system offeres a query and
statistical analysis used for planning purposes and predicting outcomes from development
GPS is the Global Position System using satellite-transmitted signals for exact positioning
and reference of any location on a global coordinate grid.

is the descriptive division of the environment having a functional combination of
physical (drainage, soil type, slope) and biological factors necessary for sustained animal,
plant or human use and survival.

Impact Matrix
is a cross-referencing square or rectangular array of rows (project activities)
and columns (important environmental components) used for organizing and visualizing
positive and negative environmental impacts of a project.
Indicator is an organism or a quantifiable physical or bio-chemical feature that, by its
presence, absence or abundance, indicates a particular property of the surrounding
Indigenous People describes collectively the members of those cultures that have historic,
ancestral, spiritual and functional connection to the land on which and from which they live.
In popular usage, indigenous peoples are distinguished from members of those cultures
whose connection to the land on which they live is limited to the historical period. They often
are highly vulnerable against cultural influences from outside.
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) is the initial report for a proposed project
prepared at pre-feasibility level for identifying and addressing the nature and scope of
possible impacts.
Interested Parties (also called ‘Stakeholders') are all persons, groups and institutions
having a justifiable concern and interest in the project and its impacts. It includes local
people as well as elected representatives of the government, NGO's and project donors.
Intervention is the specific action caused by a project that creates an environmental
Landscape refers the spatial organization of an environment on a broad scale, and how
that organization shapes, and is shaped by, the activities which take place within it. In
Environmental Assessment Studies, the term ‘landscape' often refers to aesthetical values.
Magnitude is the degree of change in an important environmental component that results
from a project activity.
Mitigation is any action taken to reduce unacceptable negative impacts, e.g. the
elimination, reduction or control of the adverse environmental impacts resulting from the
proposed project. It includes both design changes to the project and operational strategies
(i.e. compensation). Mitigation measures are specified in the EMP.
April 2007 Annex 3 - 3 Environmental and Social Management Framework Project is defined as;
a physical work such as construction, operation and rehabilitation works, abandonment or other programs in relation to that physical work, and (ii) a pre-feasibility, feasibility, design or conceptual plan or study undertaken to ascertain the desirability of proceeding with physical works and associated activities such
as road network development, transport sector development, etc.
Project Phase refers to the main categories of project activities expressed sequentially
including: pre-construction, construction, operation and abandonment.
(Project) Proponent in respect to a project means the person, body, authority, government
or donor that proposes the project, or who is responsible for the environmental assessment
or implementation of the project.
Project Stage refers to the main stage of project planning including: pre-feasibility (regional
study) and feasibility.
Public Involvement refers to the dialogue, encompassing consultation and communication,
between a project proponent and the Æstakeholders, ideally at all Æstages of a project . It
includes dissemination, solicitation, and presentation of information.
Residual Impacts. Residual impacts are those impacts that remain after application of
mitigation measures and that cannot be overcome.
Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) is the action plan prepared as part of an EA to address
the issues of involuntary resettlement, compensation and rehabilitation of people and
communities affected by a road project.
Resilience describes how quickly a system or environmental variable returns to its natural
state following cessation of a disturbance, in relation to the proposed Æ mitigation measure.
Screening is to determine beforehand the nature and extent of the EIA, i.e. to match the
level of effort in the EIA to the expected magnitude of the anticipated impacts. In this
process, project are classified into impact categories (A, B, C) following certain criteria set
commonly by project funding institutions (e.g. Operational Directives of World Bank) and the
legal framework (e.g. Environmental Conservation Act, Environmental Guidelines)
Scoping is a process whereby the important environmental components, project
development issues, project alternatives and concerns of local communities are identified.
Significant Environmental Impact is an adverse residential environmental impact that is
not justified in the circumstances.
Socio-economic refers to the human environment which includes social and economic
components that are not termed biophysical.
Stakeholders includes all persons and groups having a justifiable concern and interest in
the project and its impacts. Stakeholders include local people of different professions,
representatives of the Government, overseas donor agencies, NGOs and local industries
and small enterprises.
Sustainable Development is development is development that ensures preservation and
enhancement of environmental quality, and sound sustainable use of natural resources
thereby providing for economic growth which meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (adapted from the
Brundtland Commission, 1987).
Annex 3 - 4 April 2007 Environmental and Social Management Framework Synergistic Effects describe those effects which result from the combination and
interaction of individual impacts. The effects are often greater than the sum of the individual
contributing impacts.

A detailed description or representation of the features, both natural and
artificial, of an area.
Trophic is an ecological term referring to the positioning of organisms in the food chains
of their respective biological communities. The lowest level is commonly associated with the
primary producers, which transform the sun' s energy into tissue that becomes food for
higher trophic levels, and the highest level with large carnivores which normally have no
Valuation is the assignment of monetary, importance, priority or other values to the
estimated impacts. Monetary or economic valuation in EAs is often termed evaluation.
April 2007 Annex 3 - 5 Reference List
Environmental and Social Management Framework ADB, 1994. Handbook for Incorporation of Social Dimensions in Road projects, ADB, 1994. Department of Wildlife and Conservation, 2005, Protected Fauna and Flora of Nepal DoR,/SMEC, 1999. Environmental Impact Assessment, New Road Development and Upgrading Component, Final Report, Volume 3 DoR,/SMEC, 1999. Environmental Management Action Plan, For Road Upgrading, New Road Development and Upgrading Component, Final Report, Vol. 4 DoR/GEU, 1997. Maintenance of Roadside Vegetation DoR/GEU, DFID, 1999. Roadside Bio-Engineering, Reference Manual, DoR/GEU, DFID, 1999. Roadside Bio-engineering (Site Handbook) DoR/GEU, DFID, 2000-2001. Support to Nepal Road Sector Bio-Engineering, Report 1-3 DoR/GEU, DFID, 2001. Facilitator's Manual for Regional Seminars by the Geo-Environment Unit ; Support to Nepal Road Sector Bio-Engineering DoR/ODA, 1995. Road-Based Extension Programme Evaluation, RMDP Nepal Engineering, US Agency for International Development (USAID), Washington, DC. GTZ, 1999. Green Road Concept: Green Roads in Nepal, Best Practices Report, German Technical Co-operation/Swiss Agency for Development and Co-operation (GTZ/SDC), Kathmandu, Nepal Handbook on Resettlement: A guide to Good Practice, Asian Development Bank, Philippines HMGN, 1996. Nepal Living Standards Survey Report , Volume 2, Main Findings, Central Bureau of Statistics, National Planning Commission Secretariat, HMG/N, Nepal HMGN, 1996. Nepal Living Standards Survey Report 1996, Volume 1, Main Findings, Central Bureau of Statistics, National Planning Commission Secretariat, Kathmandu, Nepal HMGN, 1998. Ninth Five-Year Plan, Kathmandu, Nepal HMGN, 2005. Statistical Year Book of Nepal, 2005 HMGN/CBS, 1996. Nepal Living Standards Survey IBRD, 1999. Nepal: Road Maintenance and Development Project – Resettlement Action Plan, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Kathmandu. IRC, 1979. Manual on Landscaping of Roads, IRC: SP: 21-1979, Indian Road Congress (IRC) IRC, 1998. Hill Road Manual, IRC: SP: 48-1998, Indian Road Congress (IRC) Publications Keller, G.; Sherar J., 2003. Best Management Practice Field Guide, Low-Volume Roads Mastaller M, 2000. Women and wood in the sheds; Tournely Publ. Leitershofen Min. of Local Development/Dept. of Local Infrastructure, 2004. Development of Agricultural Roads (DoLIDAR) – Environmental and Social Management Framework for Rural Access Improvement Project (RAIP). 1 Not quoted herein are all legislation and policy documents of both the GoN and International Donors quoted in Chapter 3 April 2007 Annex 4 - 1 Environmental and Social Management Framework Min. of Works & Transport, DoR, GEU. 1999, Environmental Management Guidelines MoPPW/DoR, 2002. Review Guidelines for ESIA and its associated reports of the Road Development Project; School of Environmental Management and Sustainable Development (SchEMS) Pokhara University. MoPPW/DoR, 2003. Reference Manual for Environmental and Social Aspects of Integrated Road Development MoPPW/DoR, 2004. Workbook – Training of Trainers, Environmental /Social Aspects of Integrated Road Development, DHV/CMS/ITECO NEP,1999. Project Appraisal Document, Road Maintenance and Development Project RMDP, Nepal South Asia Centre, 1998. Nepal Human Development Report, Kathmandu, Nepal Siddharth, P., Gainful Utilization of Marble Waste, An Effort towards protection of Ecology & Environment (Online), [Cited 25th September 2003] Available from SMEC, 2005. Project Completion Report on RMDP / New Road Development & Upgrading SMEC, 2005. RMDP/NURDC Final Report Vol. 2 Economic Aspects Tribhuvan University. 1998. Mountain Risk Engineering in Nepalese Perspective, Mountain Risk Engineering Unit, Kathmandu World Bank, 1997. Roads and the Environment, A Handbook, WB Technical Paper No. 376 World Bank; 2005. Environmental and Social Management Framework for World Bank Projects with Multiple Small-Scale Subprojects - A Toolkit Annex 4 - 2 April 2007



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