Hartford, a Home for the Jew An Analysis of the Jews of Hartford 1900-1923 Jeremy Rosenblatt The tale of American Jewish settling has always been a bittersweet one. Preceding Columbus's discovery of the Americas in the late fourteen hundreds, records of Jewish persecution and forced exile dominated folklore and scholarly texts. Yet, despite the fact that some Jews who suffered from this Diasporas fled to Hartford,
Fish stock and fishery enhancement in western australia a discussion paperFISH STOCK AND FISHERY ENHANCEMENT
IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA
A DISCUSSION PAPER FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PAPER No 175 Department of Fisheries 168 St Georges Terrace Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Fish stock and fishery enhancement in Western Australia A Discussion Paper Fisheries Management Paper No. 175
Please note the public comment period for Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Fish Stock and Fishery Enhancement in Western Australia and its companion document, Fisheries Management Paper 176 Fish Stock and Fishery Enhancement in Western Australia (Summary of Fisheries Management Paper No. 175), has been adjusted. The Department of Fisheries advises that the public comment period for both documents is open until 31 May 2004. Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 CONTENTS
OPPORTUNITY FOR PUBLIC COMMENT. 1
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . 3
WHAT IS STOCK ENHANCEMENT? . 8 ‘THE PUBLIC GOOD' . 8 WHY ENHANCE FISH STOCKS? . 10 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS . 11 SECTION 4
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 1: ENHANCEMENT OF EXISTING FISHERIES . 13
FISHERY MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES AND PERFORMANCE TARGETS. 14 Impact of Legislation . 14 Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) targets and framework . 15 Fisheries objectives and targets . 15 IS THE FISHERY PERFORMING?. 16 HOW MUCH DO WE TRY TO FIND OUT – RISK ASSESSMENT? . 17 TRADITIONAL FISHERIES MANAGEMENT TOOLS. 19 Fishing activity - input/output controls. 19 Protection of fish and fish habitat . 21 OPTIONS IF TRADITIONAL METHODS FAIL . 21 Habitat modification/restoration. 22 Marine and estuarine. 22 Stock enhancement . 25 Augmentation. 27 SECTION 5
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 2: NEW FISHERIES IN ‘NEW' AND ‘OLD' WATERS
REGIONAL MANAGEMENT. 30 IS THE WATER BODY APPROPRIATE FOR THE SPECIES?. 31 OPTIONS FOR MANAGEMENT . 32 Habitat modification . 32 Stock enhancement . 32 Do nothing. 32 SECTION 6
DEVELOPING AND ASSESSING STOCK ENHANCEMENT PROJECTS. 33
OBJECTIVES AND PERFORMANCE TARGETS. 34 Resource Sharing . 35 Who are the user groups? . 35 Property rights - beneficiaries and flow of liabilities . 35 Environment . 36 Ecological balance . 36 Genetic impact . 38 Environmental impact assessment. 39 Economics. 40 Economic feasibility/viability of projects – cost benefit analysis. 40 The economic impact of externalities . 42 Government agenda . 42 Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Social objectives . 43 Environmental policies . 43 Regional development/tourism. 43 Supporting developing industries (aquaculture). 44 ESTABLISHING A PILOT PROJECT. 44 FULL-SCALE STOCK ENHANCEMENT. 45 Monitoring success. 45 Compliance. 46 SECTION 7
APPLICATION PROCESS. 47
LEGISLATIVE BASIS FOR MANAGEMENT OF STOCK ENHANCEMENT ACTIVITIES . 47 SECTION 8
OPPORTUNITIES FOR COST RECOVERY . 49
CONSULTATION – WHERE TO FROM HERE? . 51
STOCK ENHANCEMENT WITHIN AUSTRALIA AND OVERSEAS. 62
PROPOSED GUIDELINES FOR STOCK ENHANCEMENT IN WESTERN
AUSTRALIAN WATERS. 72
THE EPA'S PROCESSES FOR ASSESSING DEVELOPMENT PROPOSALS. 74
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PAPERS. 80
Overview Assessment for Fish Stock Enhancement projects….…….…….…………………17 Conceptual Framework for Assessing Potential Fish Stock Enhancement Projects in ExistingFisheries……………………………………….….……………………………………………19 Conceptual Framework for Assessing Potential Stock Enhancement Projects in NewFisheries/New Waters and New Species in "OldWaters".……………………………….……………………………………………………….35 Commonwealth and State legislation with a possible impact on fisheries within WesternAustralia…………………………………………………………………………………….…20 Some potential adverse effects of introduced aquatic species…………………………………48 Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 SECTION 1
OPPORTUNITY FOR PUBLIC COMMENT
This discussion paper has been prepared to encourage public involvement in the developmentof a policy for stock enhancement within Western Australian waters. Stock enhancement caninvolve an existing fishery or creation of a new fishery through translocation of fish. It affectsboth public and private waters.
Comments about this discussion paper are sought from all stakeholders, including commercialand recreational industry members, existing and potential aquaculture farmers, relevantcommunity interest groups, government agencies and interested members of the public.
Following consideration of the public comments received on this discussion paper, a policypaper will be developed which will enunciate the application and assessment processes forstock enhancement in Western Australia.
To this end, there are some important issues you may wish to address in your submission,including: Should the government legislate for the management of all stock enhancement? In assessing the translocation of any aquatic species, the economic and social benefitsmust be balanced with biological and environmental risks, although the latter areparamount.
What level of risk would be considered acceptable? Adequate research and monitoring requires funding, which is not always availablewithin the timeframes required for decision-making.
With whom should final accountability for a particular stock enhancement project lie? Are the proposed guidelines appropriate? Although we have identified specific issues of interest, we seek your views on any or all ofthe matters in the document of significance to you and/or your group.
To ensure your submission is as effective as possible, please: Make it clear and concise; List your points according to the topic sections and page numbers in this paper; Describe briefly each topic or issue you wish to discuss; State whether you agree or disagree with any or all of the information within each topicor just those of specific interest to you. Clearly state your reasons, particularly if youdisagree, and give sources of information where possible; and Suggest alternatives to address any issues that you disagree with.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 This paper has been prepared by the Department of Fisheries and various drafts have beenscrutinized by a focus group comprising a representative of the Department of Fisheries, theWA Fishing Industry Council, the Pearl Producers Association, the Aquaculture Council ofWA, Recfishwest and the Conservation Council of WA. This focus group will remaininvolved in the development of policy arising from this consultation process.
The information provided in this paper should not be accepted to be conclusive andstakeholders are encouraged to consider additional information from other sources inproviding the basis for comment.
Your comments would be appreciated by 30 April 2004 and should be marked to the attention
of Senior Policy Officer, Fisheries Management Services, and addressed to:
Department of Fisheries
Locked Bag 39
Cloisters Square Post Office
PERTH WA 6850
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 SECTION 2
Stock enhancement as a fisheries management tool is not a new concept, neitherinternationally nor within Australia. However, its popularity as ‘the answer' to some fisheriesmanagement challenges and opportunities is on the rise in Western Australia.
Traditionally in Western Australia, fisheries have been managed by sectors – commercial andrecreational. Existing fisheries management arrangements recognise the State's primaryobjective of sustaining WA's fisheries. This said, many aspects of environmental managementare outside the control of the Department of Fisheries.
Commercial fisheries in Western Australia are subject to management plans, regulations ornotices, which cap fishing effort and regulate the conditions under which commercial fishingmay occur. For the most part, commercial fisheries are well managed and sustainable. Thereare, however, cases being put for fish stock enhancement in some fisheries - either tosupplement a fishery that may be under some pressure from fishing (such as finfish on theWest Coast) or the environment (such as the effect of the Leeuwin Current on scallops), or tofurther improve production from already sustainable fisheries (for example, the West CoastRock Lobster Managed Fishery).
Management of Western Australia's recreational fishing focuses on regulation of individualactivities, for example, where you may or may not fish, how much of each type of fish may betaken by an individual and the allowable size of the fish taken, and so forth. Theseregulations do not cap the total fishing effort on a species or in an area (unless it is closed),although there are some constraints on individual fishing effort in some fisheries.
The recreational abalone fishery would be an exception to this, in that the season has beenreduced so significantly that there is a real restriction in what can be caught. Similarly, inFreycinet Estuary in Shark Bay, tight controls have been introduced through the use of tags –each fish in possession must have a tag and the number of tags issued is limited.
In some waters, fisheries stock enhancement is being suggested to restore overfished stocks.
In other waters, it may offer a way to create new fisheries to meet an increasing demand forrecreational fishing opportunities, or to increase the quality of the existing recreational fishingexperience.
Stock enhancement also offers possible remediation for non-fishery related impacts onfisheries, such as ecological disruption, the pressures of development on existing fisheryhabitats and fishing locations, and the increasing water removal and river flow regulation.
However, the enhancement of fish stocks for the public benefit, and possibly for commercialgain in the process, has the potential to create controversy. The danger with stockenhancement is to believe that just because we can, we should. Although it has its place insound fisheries resource management, stock enhancement is not the answer to all fisheriesmanagement problems. In fact, it is likely to be appropriate and effective only in relativelyfew situations.
The technology to breed certain species in hatcheries exists. However, important questionsneed to be asked about the long-term benefits to the fishery, the ecosystem, society and theeconomy.
The most significant of these questions is "What is the biological risk?" – the real level ofrisk, not the perceived level. A key consideration has to be conservation of fish resources and Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 their environment, for without the resource and its environment, there is no fishery. Theremay be situations where there are strong, valid social or economic arguments for a stockenhancement to occur. Enhancement may be approved on these grounds alone, but not to thedetriment of the sustainability of the fish and fish habitat.
Furthermore, as management of WA's fisheries moves away from a sectoral model towards asystem of integrated fisheries management, decisions can no longer be driven by extractiveuse. Decisions made under an integrated system take into account ecological, social andeconomic impacts (see 4.1.2). This must also be the case for stock enhancement.
The objective of this paper is to propose a process that will allow the decision makers toobjectively assess the appropriateness, benefits and costs of any stock enhancement proposalunder Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) principles.
To this end, this paper sets out a conceptual framework for assessment of stock enhancementprojects, putting stock enhancement within the wider framework of fisheries and ecosystemmanagement strategies, and their assessment, in Western Australia.
This framework has been presented in four charts. The first chart asks some basic questionsabout the nature of the stock to be released and its place in the environment into which it is tobe placed. This defines the type of fishery in question. Charts two and three trace the stepsfor assessing which management option to pursue for a particular type of fishery - one forenhancement of existing fisheries and one for creation of new fisheries either in new waters(where a particular fishery does not already exist) or within waters that already support otherfisheries.
These two broad categories of potentially enhanced fisheries will need very differentquestions posed and answered. The fourth chart picks up from the previous two at the optionof ‘stock enhancement', and traces the steps proposed for assessment of stock enhancementprojects.
It is important to understand that when reading this paper, it is not saying fish stockenhancement will or will not be allowed in a certain circumstance; nor does it attempt toprovide a complete discussion of all the environmental, social and economic issues associatedwith stock enhancement. It sets out a possible process and provides some backgroundinformation to illustrate the types of considerations that will need to be taken into accountwhen deciding whether to put forward a stock enhancement proposal.
The final decision on any project would have input from a number of other departments withinterest and legislative power over aspects of stock enhancement, such as the Department ofConservation and Land Management (CALM), the Department of Environment and theEnvironmental Protection Authority (EPA).
Proponents for stock enhancement projects will be required to ensure that their proposal meetsthese departments' requirements prior to submitting an application to the Department ofFisheries.
One of the main issues the Department of Fisheries faces in developing a policy for fish stockenhancement is the multi-departmental responsibility for resource use affecting fisheries.
Land tenure, and its control by other bodies, will have a major impact on any stockenhancement management plan.
Other important issues include: Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 The Department of Fisheries does not have the legislation at present to regulate stockenhancement per se unless it involves translocation or poses a high risk to aquatichabitats. One possible outcome of the proposed policy is legislative change to allow theDepartment to issue licences for stock enhancement.
Monitoring the success or otherwise of projects in open systems is difficult.
Inadequate data, in many cases, has made it difficult to assess the level of impact andsuccess of fish stock enhancement projects.
Developing a policy on fish stock enhancement is not an easy task. The issues are complexand need to be considered in context of Integrated Fisheries Management within ESDprinciples. This paper and its proposed processes should not be seen as either the opening orclosing of doors for stock enhancement, but as recognition that it is a tool for fisheriesmanagement and that there is a need to identify and define its most effective use.
This paper complements a paper recently written on reseeding of grazing gastropods andbivalves (Borg, 2002).
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 SECTION 3
For the most part in Western Australia (WA), existing fisheries management has facilitated
sustainable harvesting of fish1 resources. With a small number of exceptions, management of
marine and riverine fish resources in WA has involved proven methods of fisheries
management that regulate fisher behaviour, such as licensing restrictions, area and seasonal
closures, and output controls.
Despite effective management of the majority of fisheries, long-term exploitation, changingoceanic conditions, pollution and habitat destruction have influenced the levels of fish stocksoff the coast of WA. Similar influences – agriculture, human exploitation, climate andenvironmental variability – have affected stocks in our rivers.
For example, under the water allocation policy, people are licensed to divert or damrivers/streams in private property, meaning there is no guarantee of water levels or access towater supplies. This has a huge affect on stream flow in south-west WA. It is anticipateddemand on fish resources from both commercial and recreational sectors, along with coastaldevelopment, will continue to increase, therefore furthering pressure on these limitedresources.
Consequently, there are some fisheries for which arguments are being made to artificiallyenhance fish stocks and fisheries through release of hatchery stock, the translocation ofjuvenile and adult broodstock and the introduction of new species. Such enhancement,however, has to be considered in the context of ecologically sustainable development (ESD) –the impact on the ecosystem, biodiversity, and social and economic development.
Stock enhancement is not a new concept either in Australia or overseas. Appendix 1 providesan overview of some of the fish stock enhancement projects undertaken in Australia andelsewhere.
Blaxter (2000) notes that historically, most fish stock enhancement throughout the world hasbeen ad hoc with little or no long-term planning. It has been trial and error – trying to find asolution before addressing the cause (noted also by Blankenship and Leber, 1995; Wahl et al,1995). While enhancement may teach us about certain aspects of ecology and may work inthe short term, if it fails, it is difficult to ascertain what went wrong. Similarly, ad hocenhancement makes it difficult to determine what caused a project to be successful. Blaxtersupports a bottom-up approach, through researching the appropriateness of releases and, ifthey are to occur, the development of a model that allows explanation of successes or failures.
This paper's proposals go further by including a strategic approach and a policy frameworkwithin scientific or economic models that must accompany stock enhancement projects.
This paper does not address the actual mechanics of stock enhancement. It sets out aproposed approach for the assessment of stock enhancement proposals in WA that sits withinthe general framework of options for managing fisheries resources.
1 This paper adopts the definition of fish as set out in the Fish Resources Management Act 1994 – in brief, any
aquatic organism, excluding aquatic mammals, aquatic reptiles, aquatic birds, amphibians or pearl oysters.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 It also tests whether stock enhancement is the right response to a problem or to anopportunity, and if it is, how proposals to introduce stock enhancement should be furtherassessed.
What is stock enhancement?
The Department of Fisheries has adopted the international definitions for ‘ranching'. (Whichthe Department refers to as ‘reseeding') and ‘stock enhancement' (Bannister, 1991). Theseterms are cited and reaffirmed in Howell (1998): Ranching: Identifiable2 stock released with the intention of being harvested by the releasing
Enhancement: Stock released for the public good without the intention of benefiting an
exclusive user group.
This would include: Compensation3 for depletion of a natural resource (restocking);
Compensation for loss of habitat (augmentation); Genuine addition of new stock, for example stocking artificial reefs (addition).
These three methods of stock enhancement will be discussed further in section 2.5 of thispaper.
This paper addresses the issues surrounding stock enhancement in WA. It does not addressthe situation of private fisheries in enclosed and privately owned waters (i.e. not WA waters)as government only regulates these fisheries where the species involved is a translocated one.
Where this is the case, please refer to Ministerial Policy Guideline No 5: The aquaculture andrecreational fishing stock enhancement of non-endemic species in Western Australia(Fisheries Department of Western Australia, 1997a). For a discussion of reseeding, please see Fisheries Management Paper 162: Reseeding ofgrazing gastropods and bivalves into the marine environment in Western Australia (Borg,2002).
‘The Public Good'
The definition of stock enhancement adopted in this paper means that successful projectswould be implemented for the ‘public good'. A broad definition of public good has beenadopted in this paper to account for the various investment scenarios that could be made instock enhancement where there is a public good component.
2 Stock released may not always be identifiable and it will not always be required in Western Australia. See
3 Physical reparation.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 The State Government is moving towards an integrated, ecosystem approach to managementof fish resources (a proposed system known as Integrated Fisheries Management) as opposedto the traditional sectoral approach. There may be some value in touching on some of thesectoral issues (particularly recreational, commercial and environmental), as these are likelyto be raised in the debate leading up to the development of a stock enhancement policy forWestern Australia.
The right to fish recreationally is considered by many as being a basic right, with fisheriesresources assumed to have ‘public or social goods' characteristics (Cauvin, 1980). However,in reality, fisheries resources do not meet the requirements of such goods: free access to all,with consumption by one person (the amount a fisher catches) having no impact onconsumption by another (the amount another fisher catches). Cauvin argued more than 20years ago the public good argument no longer held sway. This is even more the case today.
Governments can and do regulate and enforce controls for recreational fisheries. Thus peoplecan be excluded from recreational fisheries at some level (for example, closed areas/seasons,bag limits).
There are no longer too many fish to be caught by the few recreational fishermen, and there iscompetition for limited recreational fishing resources. This is evident by stock depletion,crowding at popular fishing spots, and so on. Obviously, there will be some remoterecreational fisheries for which these assertions do not apply, and they may not apply to someenhanced ‘put and take' fisheries where additional stock can be added to ensure there arealways enough fish to guarantee fish for all.
Although recreational fisheries may not always meet the requirements as a pure public good,there is arguably considerable community benefit in the recreational fishing experience. Thisis borne out by the fact that more than 640,000 people go fishing at least once a year(Department of Fisheries, 2002c).
This benefit could significantly increase if stock enhancement resulted in not only more fishto catch, but an increase in the quality of fishing. The significant economic contributionrecreational fishing brings to regional economies would itself generate public good, both forthose involved in fishing and for others who live in these regions and in the State.
Related to recreational fishing is the economic interest shown in fisheries by those not directlyinvolved in the harvest of fish resources. There may be value in tourism ventures or otherservice industries financing stock enhancement of fish resources in a particular area for theirown commercial benefit. The improvement in fishing for all user groups would be a publicgood associated with a commercial investment in the fishery.
More closely related to fishing is the case where a commercial fishing interest/group financedstock enhancement of an existing fishery where the benefit did not flow exclusively to thatperson or group. An example of such enhancement would be the movement of rock lobsterpuerulus from one part of the fishery where there is excess to the fishery/ecosystem'srequirements, to another part of the fishery where there is a deficit of puerulus. This wouldbenefit the commercial fishing industry, and there would be a public good component for anyperson holding a rock lobster recreational licence as they would be able to access theenhanced fishery.
Enhancement of a commercial fishery by the commercial fishing industry or by government,in some circumstances, may also occur to smooth recruitment or to repair the fishery after acatastrophic event. In a largely commercial fishery, this may fall under the policy for Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 reseeding. Conversely, in a fishery with a large recreational component as well as acommercial fishery, such enhancement would be considered to have ‘public good'.
Where there is no significant use of fish resources for extractive purposes, stock enhancementcould be employed for conservation purposes, that is, for direct public good.
Why enhance fish stocks?
As fish hatcheries become more efficient at producing seed and fingerlings, the questionsasked are – why not put fish back into the water to increase the number of fish available to thepublic, to increase the quality of fishing experience, to repair damage done by overfishing orpollution or some natural environmental event? These are valid questions. Superficially, tothe question "why enhance fish stocks?" the answer may be "because we can", "or why not?It can't hurt".
Placing millions of small fish into the water does not necessarily resolve the underlyingissues. Although this was the early attitude to stock enhancement (Welcomme and Bartley,1998), the implications of doing this could be serious. The stocking of redfin perch inAustralia resulted in the spread of a dangerous virus to trout and a number of native fish, aswell as predation of small fish and fry (Thorn, 1995). Consequently, developing a policy onfish stock enhancement requires a more thorough consideration of the issues.
Although the government is required, under fisheries legislation, to optimise social andeconomic benefits and to foster development of the various fishing sectors, its primaryconsideration is to conserve fish and protect their environment. All other considerations aresecondary to this (given that without fish resources, there are no fisheries) and therefore allsocial and economic arguments for stock enhancement must sit under the key consideration -sustainability of the fish resources and their environment.
Having said this, the government recognises the strong link between biological and socio-economic impacts. Bartley and Casal (1998) suggest that socio-economic changes that resultfrom stock enhancement can, in turn, cause more ecological changes. This connection isdiscussed further in section 184.108.40.206.
Consequently, although biological risk is the primary concern when considering fish stockenhancement, this paper embraces the concept of ecologically sustainable development (ESD)– a process that considers economic, social, legal and institutional factors within broaderbiological imperatives.
The following approach considers these issues using the structure of two conceptual policyframeworks through which any proposal for stock enhancement should be taken. Chart 14provides steps that point to the appropriate framework to follow.
4 Each of the charts in this paper were developed in conjunction with those presented in Fisheries Management
Paper 162 on reseeding (Borg 2002).
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Overview Assessment for Fish Stock Enhancement Projects stock to be enhanced/released within its Translocation risk target species part of an existing written translocation approval fishery in the area proposed for The steps of the conceptual frameworks (charts 2 and 3, pages 13 and 29, then chart 4, page33) are proposed to ensure that stock enhancement is put in the broader perspective offisheries management in Western Australia.
The frameworks illustrate the approach being taken in Western Australia - that stockenhancement is not a ‘given'. It is one tool of many available to fishery managers. Thisapproach is necessary because the existence of hatchery technology generates pressure to usethis technology to either enhance fisheries identified as having a real or perceived problem, orto create new fisheries. However, before doing any of this, it is necessary in an existingfishery to firstly analyse the problem and ask whether stock enhancement will address it; andfor a new fishery, to assess whether the species proposed is appropriate for that environmentand whether the fishery is likely to survive (ecologically or economically) if created.
It is acknowledged that stock enhancement can be used as a positive contribution to a well-managed fishery and not just to solve problems. For example, a fishery may be meeting itscurrent management objectives in terms of sustainability, but there may be naturally unevendistribution of stock across the fishery. If it was feasible, and there was no detriment to theecological balance of the existing ecosystem, to redistribute natural stock or to introducehatchery stock of that species into ‘barren' or less productive areas, stock enhancement mayimprove the overall performance of the fishery.
This paper recognises four broad types of fisheries where stock enhancement may beconsidered an option: Where a wildstock fishery is not, or perceived not to be, performing against definedfisheries management objectives and targets or biological reference points (for whateverreason, including natural catastrophic events); Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Where a well managed wildstock fishery could be further improved; Where an ‘artificial fishery' is to be established in waters where other (possibly similar)species are already fished (new fisheries in ‘old' waters); and/or Where a new fishery is established in waters where fishing is not already occurring(new fisheries in ‘new' waters).
Given the assessment process for these types of fisheries will differ, as mentioned above, twoframeworks have been posed. The processes to be followed for the third and fourth types offishery would be similar. Framework 1 addresses restocking or movement of species withinexisting fisheries, and framework 2 addresses the movement or translocation of new speciesinto either existing fishing grounds or new fishing areas.
The remainder of this paper will examine the steps of the two conceptual frameworks,presenting some of the theory, arguments and questions associated with each step. Section 4addresses framework 1 as presented in chart 2. Section 5 does similarly for framework 2 inconjunction with chart 3. Discussion of the development and assessment of stockenhancement proposals occurs in section 4 of this paper. The proposed application process ispresented in section 7.
It should be noted, if at any stage an enhancement proposal fails to progress because it has notsatisfied a component in the framework, the proponent may redesign the proposal andresubmit it for assessment.
To assist in linking between the text and charts, boxes have been included next to headingsshowing the relevant box from the chart for each conceptual framework. Should the speciesinvolved not be endemic (naturally occurring) to the area of the proposed fishery, approvalmust be sought from the Executive Director under Regulation 176 of the Fisheries ResourcesManagement Regulations 1995 to allow that species into the area.
See Ministerial Policy Guideline No 5 (Fisheries Department of Western Australia, 1997a) forfurther information on the translocation processes. Should the translocation assessmentprocess be triggered, it would run in conjunction with the process outlined for the assessmentof a new fishery in chart 3.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 SECTION 4
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 1: ENHANCEMENT
OF EXISTING FISHERIES
Conceptual Framework for Assessing Potential Fish Stock EnhancementProjects in Existing Fisheries management objectives/performance targets set and are they within ESD the fishery performing against objectives and traditional fisheries there opportunities management tools solve Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 4.1 Fishery management objectives and performance targets
4.1.1 Impact of Legislation
Commercial and recreational fisheries in Western Australia are managed under the FishResources Management Act 1994 (FRMA) and the Fish Resources Management Regulations1995 (FRMR). The waters and surrounding land are also covered by legislation from anumber of other Commonwealth and State agencies. A list of identified natural resourcemanagement legislation is shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Commonwealth and State legislation with a possible impact on fisheries withinWestern Australia Agriculture Act 1998 Coastal Waters (State Powers) Act1979 Competition Policy Reform (WA) Control of Naval Waters Act 1918 Act 1996Conservation and Land Management Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act1999 Constitutional Powers (Coastal Native Title Act 1993 Waters) Act 1979Enzootic Disease Act 1976.
Biological Control Act 1984 Exotic Animal Diseases Act World Heritage PropertiesConservation Act 1983 Local Government Water SupplyPreservation Act 1892Stock Diseases (regulations) Act1968Water & Rivers Act 1995Water Corporation Act 1995 Waterways Conservation Act 1945Wildlife Conservation Act 1950Heritage of Western Australia Act1990Environment Protection Act 1986 With the lack of coordinated whole-of-government marine or inland water resource useplanning strategies, there are far-ranging implications for management of fish resources in Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 these water bodies. This is an ongoing issue with management of existing fisheries resources,and further complicates the ability of proponents to set realistic objectives and targets for fishstock enhancement projects.
4.1.2 Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) targets and framework
The Government's policy on ESD is significant to potential stock enhancement activities.
Would the enhancement or creation of fisheries contribute to the ESD of existing fisheriesresources in an area or fishery? In its policy paper on implementation of ESD in fisheries and aquaculture (Department ofFisheries, 2002b), the Department outlines the ESD National Framework core objectives forsustainable fisheries. These objectives seek to: Protect biodiversity and maintain essential ecological processes; Enhance individual and community wellbeing by following a path of economicdevelopment that safeguards the welfare of current and future generations; and Provide effective legal, institutional and economic frameworks for ESD.
Seven major goals were drawn out of these objectives to assist in assessing a fishery'scontribution to ESD. These goals cover ecological, social, economic and legal areas and canbe found in more detail in the Department's ESD policy paper. Assessment of anyenhancement project would need to take into account whether the proposed projectcomplemented these ESD goals.
In terms of fisheries-specific ESD goals, the Department of Fisheries has so far onlydeveloped objectives for biological components, as these have been required as a priority forall fisheries needing to meet the Department of Environment and Heritage's legislation forexport of product. Work is underway to develop fishery-specific objectives for othercomponents. Proponents are encouraged to provide more information in addition tobiological factors in their applications. This said, applications will only be assessed againstESD objectives for which the Department of Fisheries has provided documentation.
4.1.3 Fisheries objectives and targets
Commercial fisheries and recreational fishing are managed under various types ofmanagement regimes and plans. Increasingly, management arrangements for existingfisheries are being formalised through fisheries management plans (commercial) and regionalmanagement strategies (recreational) increasing integration under a single set of biologicalreference points/management triggers.
Each management plan/strategy is underpinned by explicit management objectives and, whereappropriate, performance targets. These objectives not only give a context to ongoingmanagement of existing fisheries, but also provide a framework and guidance to otherappropriate uses of those fish resources.
Having said this, performance targets set within objectives must be realistic. In manyfisheries, there is not sufficient information to be able to set meaningful targets. In otherfisheries, the data exists and those fisheries have been managed accordingly. However, thesetargets are not set in concrete – they are regularly re-evaluated in the light of new information,and, where appropriate, the targets are changed or new resources are identified and developed.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 As with existing fisheries, user groups must be involved in the setting of objectives andtargets for new or enhanced fisheries. Negotiating common objectives and then a plan forwhat can actually be achieved will present a challenge. For example, a recreational fishinggroup may want an enhanced fishing experience reminiscent of one available 20 years ago.
There may be a big difference between this desired outcome and what can be achieved giventhe change in the physical, social, political and economic environment affecting managementduring this time.
Is the fishery performing?
Without specific objectives or targets, ‘performance' is merely a value judgement accordingto a person, group or institution. If a fishery is not meeting preset objectives and targets, it islikely to be due to one or a combination of threatening processes.
Baird (1999) suggests habitat degradation is the most important threat to the long-termrecovery and preservation of exploitable fish stocks. In Western Australia, this is more so thecase in freshwater and estuarine environments. There is a wide range of effects that havenothing to do with what is traditionally blamed for poor fishery performance. These areprimarily associated with human population growth and development in coastal areas.
A large number of commercial and recreational fish species are dependent on estuaries forreproduction, nursery areas and/or migration. These estuaries, in turn, depend on healthyemerged and submerged wetlands (Schmitten, 1999). In the Great Lakes basin ecosystem inthe United States, "direct removal of or damage to habitat was implicated as a threat fornearly 60 per cent of species undergoing historic declines and nearly 50 per cent undergoingcurrent declines." (Hartig and Kelso, 1999).
Threatening processes need to be ranked according to scale, severity and persistence (Baird1999). The following list of man-made or natural influences is drawn from Molony et al(submitted) and Schmitten, (1999): fishing – excessive bycatch, overfishing; habitat loss or modification – destruction of wetlands, physical alteration of theenvironment (both adjacent to and within coastal areas), gear induced habitatdestruction; introduction of exotic species; shifting distribution of fishing effort (where people are fishing, how intensively and forwhat period of time); pollution (point source or accidental release) – eutrophication, algal blooms, inadequatewater quality; and/or changes in community perception (eg conservation) and in the objectives/goals of usergroups.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 The challenge is to identify and understand these underlying causes in any particular fishery.
In many situations there may not be enough evidence to identify the underlying cause(s). Forexample, overfishing by recreational fishers is difficult to evaluate because there is not usuallyhistorical data setting out catch, effort and participation. Although the information base isgrowing, there is still much to learn about recreational fisheries. Likewise, there may beinsufficient information about the stock/population of fish, or about the water body, watersystem, or fishery itself.
Having identified threats (to the level possible) against achieving fishery objectives, thequestion must be asked - can these threats be mitigated? If not, there may be no pointproceeding because management decisions, and subsequent actions (including fish stockenhancement), will not be effective. For example, if the habitat has been damaged, it may notbe able to support an enhanced fishery.
Part of the difficulty is responsibility for different aspects of habitat management lies with anumber of State, local, and in some cases, Commonwealth authorities. Consequently, fisheriesmanagers may only be able to influence a small part of the total system within which thefishery operates (as noted in section 2.1.1). The priority placed on habitat and its role inmarine or freshwater water ecosystems may not always be high in each of these otherdepartments – there are competing social, economic and environmental objectives anddemands.
How much do we try to find out – risk assessment?
By necessity, fisheries management decisions are often made without the benefit of allinformation, but not before assessing the implications of acting or not. Stock enhancementintroduces a different dimension because, in the majority of cases, it involves introducingsomething new into a biological system and it is likely that not all the effects of thisintroduction would be known. The precautionary principle states: "Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty
shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental
This principle has been extended to most environmental situations, including fisheries
management, such that caution should be taken in respect to fisheries actions that may have a
serious or detrimental effect on the environment.
6 Declaration from the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, also known as
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Specifically, Australia's Oceans Policy (Commonwealth of Australia, 1998) provides furtherguidance in terms of application of the precautionary principle: "If the potential impact of an action is uncertain, priority should be given to maintainingecosystem health and productivity. Incomplete information on possible impacts should not beused as a reason for postponing precautionary measures intended to reduce or avoidunacceptable levels of change or to prevent serious or irreversible environmentaldegradation…" Also of interest (although Australia is not a signatory to this convention) is the guidanceprovided by the following principle from the OSPAR Convention For The Protection Of TheMarine Environment Of The North-East Atlantic, 1992: "…preventative measures are to be taken when there are reasonable grounds for concern thatsubstances or energy introduced, directly or indirectly, into the marine environment maybring about hazards to human health, harm living resources and marine ecosystems, damageamenities or interfere with other legitimate uses of the sea, even when there is no conclusiveevidence of a causal relationship between inputs and the effects." 7 Neither principle says "don't do anything unless there is perfect information". But theyrequire a cautious approach and a meaningful attempt to assess the risks associated withactions at various levels of information and knowledge.
Prokop (1995) notes there is no such thing as ‘no risk' in stock enhancement. Therefore adecision is needed to determine ‘what is an acceptable level of risk?' In terms of stockenhancement of inland waters, Prokop offers the following levels of risk: The lowest risk is the introduction of naturally occurring species into areas within theirrange but where they are not currently found. In WA, this has occurred with thestocking of Jerdacuttup Lakes and Lake Dumbleyung with black bream, both of whichare in the general geographical range of the species.
The next level is a species outside its natural range, whose reproductive biology is wellunderstood and conditions for successful reproduction cannot be met. This is thecategory with the greatest potential for establishing significant recreational fisheries.
The next greatest risk is translocation outside a species' natural range, wherereproductive biology is not known or conditions for successful spawning exist in theenvironment into which the species has been introduced.
The highest level of risk is overseas translocations – tilapia, carp and redfin perch havebeen introduced into WA. So far, due to stringent testing, WA has escaped disease,however, the risk compounds with each introduction. Ecosystem impacts may also besignificant, for example, redfin has become a predator of marron in some WesternAustralian waters.
Another risk category not mentioned by Prokop is the option with the lowest risk - one that is
being considered for some fisheries. This is enhancing stock within its range and where it is
already found, to increase abundance or productivity of naturally occurring stock. Even when
being undertaken for a commercial purpose, there is potential for a large public good side
effect, as the benefits may flow outside the commercial industry. Enhancing fisheries with
7 Article 2 of the Oslo and Paris Commission, OSPAR Convention For The Protection Of The Marine
Environment Of The North-East Atlantic, 1992.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 fish of the same stock is already occurring in recreational fisheries for black bream in both theSwan and Blackwood Rivers.
In recognition of the wider risks associated with stock enhancement, the West CoastRecreational Fishing Working Group (2000) published a position statement on restocking aspart of its proposed recreational fishing management strategy: "Management of wild fish stocks should always be the primary focus for recreationalfisheries management, and restocking should only be considered as a strategy to assist withthe recovery of a stock where it can be identified that the stock has been significantlydepleted." Stock enhancement in estuarine or coastal waters has further implications because there are nodefined boundaries on these systems. Stock released into an estuary or into coastal watersmay move into other water bodies and may impact not only on the ecosystem into which theyare released, but also ecosystems adjacent to or further along the coastline. It would appearthe risks in such cases would be higher than releases into inland waters, especially if thosecoastal releases were successful in enhancing wild stocks.
Welcomme and Bartley (1998) suggest by applying elements of the precautionary approach tofish and fishery enhancement, such as risk analysis, implementing monitoring systems withdefined levels of acceptable impact, and corrective measures in advance of adverse impact, itis possible to reduce the likelihood of an adverse impact. Is it worth finding out what is notknown, or do we make decisions based on what is known? A risk analysis of different coursesof action and a cost benefit analysis on options for obtaining more information should answerthese questions.
Traditional fisheries management tools
If threatening process(es) identified as impacting on the performance of a fishery can bemitigated, then it is likely a management strategy can be developed to address poorperformance in a fishery. The first step is to look at traditional management tools to ascertainif these can address the problem(s) in the fishery. The main traditional fisheries managementtools are those controlling fishing activity and those protecting fish and fish habitat.
4.4.1 Fishing activity - input/output controls
Fisheries managers throughout the world have two main sets of tools for managing fishingactivity. These are input controls and output controls.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Input controls include measures such as restricting the number of licences and/or boats,nominating a fishing season, closing certain areas to fishing, and boat and/or gear restrictions.
Input controls have been the dominant management tool in Western Australia since fisheriesmanagement commenced in the 1890s. Despite this, stock sustainability, marketingrequirements and the need for increased economic efficiency in commercial fisheries are notalways met under these rigid controls. An alternative system of input controls in WesternAustralian commercial fisheries is individual transferable effort units. This system unitisesthe total available amount of fishing gear or time and allocates it among participants. Theseunits can be traded to allow fishers to adjust their operations, as circumstances require.
Individual transferable effort units are usually supplemented with fixed input controls such aslicensing controls and area restrictions.
The most extreme of these management systems is total closure of the fishery, eithertemporarily or permanently. While this is an option, in most cases, it would be considered asthe last resort. If management measures fail to restore a fishery to an economically viable,ecologically sustainable level, and if habitat modification or stock enhancement are notfeasible or fail, then the only responsible action is to close the fishery. The alternative wouldlikely be the collapse of the fishery (for example, the recreational fishery for Shark Baysnapper in the inner gulf) or the irreversible depletion of some species within that ecosystem.
Neither of these are acceptable outcomes, either for the government or the community.
Input controls are also in place for recreational fisheries in Western Australia. The primarymanagement tools are licensing (required for the major five recreational fisheries only), areaand seasonal closures, and gear restrictions.
Output controls in commercial fisheries generally refer to catch quotas. These can be totalallowable catches or individual allocations, and transferable or non-transferable. The mostflexible, and most widely used of these controls in Australia, is individual transferable quotas.
Notably, the system is not appropriate to all fisheries. Individual transferable quotas are usedto manage the Western Australian abalone and south coast purse seine/small pelagic fisheries.
Bag and possession limits, output controls, are a major management tool in recreationalfisheries - they regulate how many fish an individual can take out of the water or have inhis/her possession.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 4.4.2 Protection of fish and fish habitat
Fish protection measures are put in place to protect and enhance commercial, recreational,environmental and social values associated with the fish resources in Western Australia(Bunting, 2001). They use regulations under the FRMA "to control fishing and associatedactivities and some other human activities which may damage the aquatic environment"(Bunting, 2001). The range of situations is diverse and so are the measures available. Theycan be grouped according to whether they are based on size or spatial extent (marine protectedareas, total prohibitions); species specific or activity specific; or according to their primaryobjectives.
Bunting (2001) lists the primary objectives for developing protection measures and someexamples of these measures: Conservation – prohibitions on taking vulnerable species, bans on destructive fishingpractices, protection of nursery and spawning habitats, protection of threatened habitats,refugia; Stock or fisheries management – commercial and recreational fishing controls to protectrecruitment, measures to ensure all users have appropriate access to the resource; Scientific study – experimental control sights, research zones; Observation and ecotourism – protection from fishing, refugia, observation areas; and Health protection – closure of fishing where contamination has occurred.
Many of these measures are achievable through the commonly used fisheries managementmechanisms provided within the FRMA, such as management plans and section 43 Orders.
Stronger and more specific habitat protection provisions are also within the FRMA. Section115 allows for the creation of fish habitat protection areas, within which any activity can beregulated in order to ensure the protection or management of the area. Powers are not limitedto regulation of fishing activity.
Options if traditional methods fail
If traditional management tools cannot alleviate the problems being experienced in an under-performing fishery, managers have a limited number of other options: • Restore/modify the habitat such that the natural populations increase without further assistance (this option could be employed in connection with the next option); or • Enhance the natural populations of fish by introducing hatchery-produced stock (preferably endemic), or broodstock sourced from outside the target area.
In the event of either option being pursued, it is likely traditional management tools wouldneed to be employed to supplement the option chosen, namely, to protect the restored habitator the newly enhanced stock.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 If threatening processes cannot be mitigated, and hence a sustainable managed fishery cannotbe maintained through management controls, habitat protection or modification, stockenhancement or some combination of these, as a last resort, the fishery may have to be closedto further fishing, either on a temporary or permanent basis.
The first option is habitat modification or restoration. Hartig and Kelso (1999) define habitatas "the physical, chemical, and biological factors that integrate to support a particular speciesor assemblage".
In WA, and similarly in the rest of Australia, the main causes of habitat damage areurbanisation, land and freshwater use, and introduced pests and diseases. The sources of mostof these are well understood, however, due to a complex combination of social and economicreasons, not all are removable threats.
The most efficient way to attack habitat loss is to identify the essential fish habitats beforeundertaking modification or restoration and then to target restoration/modification of thoseessential habitats. This identification has yet to occur for many regions and there are stillmany questions on the role of these habitats have in fisheries production and in maintainingecosystem integrity and biodiversity (Cappo, 2002).
Habitat restoration may be possible on smaller scales, especially in riverine and estuarineareas where barriers (e.g. small dams, culverts) can be removed to restore river flow or accessto essential fish habitats. In some cases, artificial habitats may be installed to replace structurethat has been historically removed (e.g. artificial or natural snags into clear-bottomed dams,artificial reefs into areas that have structure removed). Where the source of the problem ispollution and the damage is not irreversible, removing the source of pollution may be enoughto restore essential fish habitat.
Often the option of habitat modification or restoration is overlooked. People want a quick fixor instant answer to the perceived lack of fish for the taking. Restoration or modification ofhabitat will not, in most cases, provide an instant solution.
Nevertheless, there is evidence that improving essential fish habitat can improve and restorefish populations (Cappo, 2002, Cappo et al 1998). As with any management method, thecosts and benefits of undertaking habitat modification needs to be assessed. It may bephysically possible to restore a particular habitat, but there may be other reasons why it wouldnot be done. This is further complicated for fisheries managers in WA by the fact that,traditionally, habitat restoration has not been seen as a major role for the Department ofFisheries.
220.127.116.11 Marine and estuarine Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 These can be effective if properly placed and built of appropriate materials. Placement andconstruction of artificial reefs should be assessed thoroughly in order to ascertain the mosteffective and efficient means of enhancing fish stocks. If the placement is wrong, it coulddisrupt rather than enhance the natural environment and/or attract fish not usually found in thelocality, which may have unwanted consequences. If the material is wrong, thendecomposition may occur and/or the structures may dislodge and damage natural benthicstructure (Wilbur and Pentony, 1999).
Korea has been installing artificial reefs successfully along its coastline for 30 years in anattempt to restore fish, shellfish and seaweed fisheries. Monitoring on sample sites has showncatch volumes on artificial reefs of two to 13 times that of natural reefs (Kim 2001).
Proponents should note that under Western Australian legislation, coral is defined as a fish, soany proposal involving the use of coral as an artificial reef would need to be considered underthis stock enhancement policy, not just as an artificial reef but as creation of a new fishery.
The translocation policy may also be triggered, depending on the source of the coral.
Restoring coastal wetlands Restoring coastal wetlands will not assist in restoring fish populations unless the projectsinclude the enhancement of fish habitats. It cannot be assumed that replanting of previouslyoccurring vegetation will result in re-colonisation of fish (Minton, 1999). Unfortunately, thebaseline data needed to accurately restore the necessary fish habitat is often not available.
Having said this, there is a growing body of evidence that "restoration of coastal wetlands willincrease the abundance of wetland habitat types required by commercially and recreationallyvaluable species of marine fish" (Minton, 1999).
Locally, an assessment of the effect of the Dawesville Channel, part of the Peel HarveyEstuarine System (PHES), south of Perth (D A Lords & Associates Pty Ltd, 1998) showed abeneficial effect on local commercial and recreational fisheries. The channel was notpurpose-built for fisheries management, but rather to increase the environmental health of thetotal PHES.
Since the opening of the channel, prawn and crab densities have increased, and improvementsin water quality have meant an increase in small benthic invertebrates that are food for mostfish species. Marine fish species moved further into the estuary and at higher densities, andwith the exception of prawns, commercial catch per unit effort for the major commercialspecies has either increased or at worst, stayed the same. The drop in prawn catch appears tobe related to the inability of fishermen to use their trawling gear in the stronger currents of thechannel and not to the abundance of prawns.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Freshwater Water quality can be affected by runoff from land clearing, agricultural production or by
industrial and domestic pollution. It is largely tied to the state of the catchment area and the
activities that occur within it (Environment WA, 1998). Important indicators are salinity,
levels of dissolved oxygen, heavy metal levels, water clarity, temperature, volume of water,
and reliability of flow (C. Chalmers8, pers. comm.). Water quality is decreased through
salinisation, acidification and eutrophication. Decreased water quality can lead to excessive
weed growth and/or algae, both of which may be detrimental to fish populations.
These can be addressed by regulation and education at the source of pollution and by re-establishing the natural riparian environment along the banks of the rivers. This is assisted bythe availability of funds through local/State and Commonwealth funded programs aimed atprotection and restoration of the environment. However, land tenure issues and the fact that anumber of local, State and sometimes Commonwealth bodies have controls over the landand/or water, often complicate such efforts.
Access through dams A number of fish species require both fresh and saline water to complete their life cycles, andneed to be able to swim up stream to the breeding habitats. The construction of dams acrossnatural waterways inhibits such activity and threatens the survival of such fish species.
Recognition of this requirement has led to construction of access ways in some dams.
Maintaining stream flow Stream flow is important to freshwater fish, with the level of importance depending on thespecies. The construction of dams obviously changes the stream flow below the dam wall(also temperature, as dams tend to release cold water). Further, this flow would not beregular, and depending on the amount of water being released through dam walls.
Pumping for agriculture also has an impact on stream flow. Again, the impact would dependon the species of fish and its requirements. Marron, for example, could be significantlyaffected, as pumping is likely to be greater in the summer dry periods that coincide with themarron's breeding season.
8 Colin Chalmers is Manager of the Fish and Fish Habitat Protection Program in the Department of Fisheries.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Restoring breeding sites Man's interference with natural water systems can result in the removal or modification ofsignificant fish habitats such as sunken trees and branches. Resnagging some areas of thestreams and rivers can help redress the impact on breeding sites.
Restoring river banks Riparian vegetation has a strong influence on water temperature and light filtration, in streamenergy production and on the type and quantity of food matter and nutrients in the stream.
Clearing this vegetation disturbs the natural ecosystems and can greatly affect fishpopulations (Land & Water Australia, 2002).
In many regions of Australia, native vegetation is being replanted along streams in an attemptto decrease erosion and recreate shade so weeds and algae can no longer survive.
4.5.2 Stock enhancement
The second option mentioned is stock enhancement. Stock enhancement will work best whenused as a component of integrated resource management. "Fisheries management will bemost successful if geared to the productive capacities of water bodies, rather than trying toexceed them, and to sustaining the native (locally normal) biodiversity and health ofecosystems, rather than extirpating species and destroying ecological functions of bioticcommunities." (White et al, 1995, p.534).
Stock enhancement will always have an impact on the ecosystem into which fish areintroduced; but the level of impact on the existing stock or fishery will vary and rarelyproduce the results desired by some groups – the immediate availability of more fish to takeor the gradual return to a past ‘utopia'. The ‘how' and ‘what' of enhancement will depend onthe ‘why', that is the objectives and performance targets of the enhancement project.
Stock assessment can only seriously be considered an option in the light of other uses of thearea and resource to be enhanced. A number of parameters need to be considered whenchoosing which resource to enhance: Age that the species reaches maturity; Recruitment variability; Fecundity – is it high or low? Natural mortality – is it high or low? These parameters are interlinked and, with the exception of a pure addition fishery (seesection 18.104.22.168), are crucial in determining which species may successfully be enhanced.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Where enhancement would occur is also a critical factor. Freshwater is the easiest to enhance.
Estuarine is more difficult and deepwater marine would be virtually impossible. Even if itwere achievable, the extent of the deepwater ecosystem would make it virtually impossible tomonitor and evaluate the level of the enhancement's success or its impact on the remainder ofthe ecosystem.
Welcomme and Barkley (1998) report evidence from existing introductions implied thatinland rivers throughout the world have benefited from well planned introductions. The samecannot be said for the majority of marine stockings, where translocating species has seldomenhanced fisheries. There appears to more success with enhancement where stockinginvolves fish native to the area of enhancement, such as Pacific salmon off the coast and in therivers of the United States (US), and chum and Pacific salmon in Japan.
Leber et al (1995) suggest that successful marine enhancement depends on the reality of twohypotheses that would underlie any enhancement – that a significant number of hatchery fishcan survive in the wild, and that released hatchery fish will increase abundances, not displacewild fish.
Kellison et al (2000) also pose the question as to whether it is possible to produce appropriatehatchery reared fish that can survive in the wild. Brown and Day (2002) list six major areasof behaviour that enable fish to survive in the wild. They must be able to avoid predators;acquire and process food; interact socially with other conspecies (species of the same genus);find or construct shelters; move around in or on complex terrain; and orientate and navigate ina complex environment. It is therefore important to have a good understanding of the biologyand ecology of the fish species to be enhanced or introduced and the environment into whichit is to be released.
Inshore enhancement of striped mullet in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, demonstrates that there issome potential for marine enhancement given a controlled approach to management (Leber etal, 1995). Similarly, Welcomme and Bartley (1998) cite some success from initialintroductions of striped bass and American shad in North America, rainbow trout in NewZealand and Chile, and Kamchatka king crab in the Barents Sea. Appendix 1 provides moreexamples.
Other important questions are: Is it feasible in the light of other fisheries management in thearea? Are there passive users who would be disadvantaged by the project? Are there futuredevelopment projects that would modify the habitat such that the fishery or the area could nolonger support the enhanced stock? If the species and the environment are supportive and the answers to these and other pertinentquestions indicate it is feasible to consider stock enhancement, then the options arerestocking, augmentation and addition. This latter option is more fully developed in Section 4of this paper.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 When most people think of stock enhancement, what they have in mind is restocking – theproduction and release of fish from a hatchery to replenish an area where fish used to be andnow are not (re-introduce a species), or to provide additional fish into an area where thefishery has declined or collapsed (supplement existing stock). Many important fisheries in theworld are in crisis from habitat degradation or overfishing. Restocking is often seen as theanswer. It cannot offset these problems, but it can make them worse or create new ones(White et al, 1995).
There are feasible and appropriate opportunities for fish restocking. A local use forrestocking may be releasing marron into Waroona Dam after it has been drained for repairsand refilled. Black bream has also been successfully restocked into the Swan River in WA(see Appendix 1). Restocking of pink snapper into Shark Bay may also be possible.
Restocking may not be needed regularly, especially if restocked fish are protected bytraditional fisheries management measures, such as closing the waters for a period of time.
In fact, with a few exceptions, White et al (1995) suggest stocking "as few fish as possible inas few waters as possible for as few years as possible" (p 539).
Restocking may also be useful for smoothing out major fluctuations in recruitment. To besuccessful, this requires scientists to be able to predict when recruitment will drop so thatappropriate hatchery stock is available at the time it is needed.
Consideration also needs to be given to the downstream implications of periodic stocking, forexample, recruitment smoothing. If the troughs are naturally occurring rather than induced,there may be other species that take advantage of these troughs, and these would be affectedby restocking during these times.
Where the fishery is affected by habitat loss or modification, augmentation of the stock maybe an option. Augmentation acknowledges the effect of the existing habitat loss ormodification through the release of fish at a size where the habitat is no longer a limitingfactor, for example where habitat damage has incurred in an estuary that provides the habitatfor the juvenile phase of a fish. In this case, augmentation would involve release of fish at thesize at which they would normally leave the estuary. The stock gets extra fish withoutactually treating the problem in the estuary.
Augmentation may assist in the conservation of some species. It may also facilitate anincrease in productivity of a particular stock. For example, consideration is being given toaugmenting rock lobster stocks through the transfer of puerulus within the natural range ofrock lobster.
22.214.171.124 Addition Addition is when a new species is introduced into an area outside its natural range. Theproduction and stocking of trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo trutta) in Australia is agood example of stock enhancement by addition. Trout is a ‘put and take' fishery as, in mostareas, it does not breed locally and therefore needs regular enhancement. Another ‘put and Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 take' fishery, with a slight difference, is one where the species is targeted in enhanced areasbelow size of reproductive effort. Again, such a fishery would need regular enhancement.
Another example of enhancement by addition is the introduction of an endemic species toother parts of the State, such as marron in the South West. Also addition is trochus in theKimberley, where trochus naturally grows on some reefs and not others.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 SECTION 5
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 2: NEW FISHERIES
IN ‘NEW' AND ‘OLD' WATERS
Chart 3 Conceptual Framework for Assessing Potential Stock Enhancement Projects in NewFisheries/New Waters and New Species in "Old Waters" Potential Fishery X potential fishery sit within the regional and management objectives body appropriate for the proposed species? Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Regional management of fisheries within WA occurs through a number of complementarystrategies.
In 1997, the Government, in conjunction with the Recreational Fishing Advisory Committee
(RFAC), committed to a strategic approach to the development and management of
recreational fisheries within WA. Four regional management strategies were to be developed
incorporating a detailed planning process, which would allow more flexibility in terms of key
management issues. To date, regional plans have been implemented for the Gascoyne and
West Coast regions. Pilbara/Kimberley and South Coast reviews commenced in April 2003
and the Department of Fisheries expects to release draft discussion papers for public comment
in March 2004.
Traditionally, commercial fisheries management has been on a fishery-by-fishery basis, rather
than taking an ecosystem approach or a regional approach. This has resulted in a number of
fisheries management plans, regulations and Section 43 Orders that, together, regulate the
commercial fisheries off WA. In more recent years, this has started to change, with
recommendations from management advisory committees and decisions by government
taking into account other regional fisheries and activities (See Fisheries WA2000a). In
addition, this integrated fisheries management approach is likely to result in a regional
approach to the management of the wetfish fishery (see Department of Fisheries 2002c).
In 1994 the Aquaculture Development Advisory Council recommended a regional approach
be taken to planning and development of aquaculture in WA (Aquaculture Development
Advisory Council, 1994). This recommendation recognises the contribution aquaculture has
made to society and the environment. The first of these plans was released for the Kimberley
(Fisheries Department of WA, 1996a), shortly followed by the Gascoyne (Fisheries
Department of WA, 1996b). Specific aquaculture plans have also been developed for high use
areas within regions, for example, the Abrolhos Islands (Fisheries WA 2000b).
Fish and fish habitat
The Department of Fisheries is preparing a series of Fisheries Environmental Management
Reviews, the first of which was released for the Gascoyne in December 2000 (Fisheries WA,
2000c). These reviews outline the status of fisheries and aquaculture in the region, and
Identification of any associated environmental effects; Proposals for management of environmental effects; Identification of potential threats to fish and their habitats; and Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Identification of areas in need of fish and fish habitat protection (Bunting 2001).
The reviews do not cover inland fisheries.
Any proposal to enhance fish stocks in any water body should be considered in the light of theappropriate regional fisheries policies and plans9. Does the project fit in with the vision for theregion involved? Does it sit within objectives, performance targets and ESD objectives setout for that region? Is the water body appropriate for the species?
There are two sides to the question of appropriateness – will the water body be able to supportthe species? And will the species cause damage to the water body? The first involves both environmental health issues and the physical conditions of the dam,riverine or coastal environment. Environmental health refers to aspects such as water qualityand stream flow. Is the water body polluted or not? Is there enough water at the right time?These issues were mentioned in Section 126.96.36.199.
Once water quality conditions are satisfied, it needs to be established whether the physicalconditions are right for that species. Will the fish survive? Are there appropriate habitats forbreeding? Is there shade or shelter where necessary? Is the water flow sufficient in a river?Does the estuary flush? The second question is addressed in more detail through discussions on environmental issueselsewhere in this paper. In short, the answer is "yes" – fish stock enhancement will alwayscause some level of damage. The more relevant question is: "is the damage sufficiently largecompared with the benefits of stock enhancement such that the project would not proceed?"Consideration must be given to the fact that in many situations, the water body proposed forstock enhancement would already be a modified environment, so there may be a case forintroducing species better suited to that environment than the species that originallydominated the water body.
9 Although many of the documents mentioned above are called plans, most have no statutory basis. The
exceptions to this are the commercial fisheries management plans made under Part 6 of the Fisheries Resources
Management Act 1994.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Options for management
5.3.1 Habitat modification
Habitat modification for a new fishery is most likely to be necessary in a closed system, suchas a dam. A situation may arise where a dam that has been drained is to be refilled, and itmay be desirable to introduce a species that has specific habitat requirements, such as marron.
In this circumstance, habitat modification may occur. Marron require nooks and crannies inwhich they can hide, so provision of these is essential for successful marron enhancement.
5.3.2 Stock enhancement
A description of the options for stock enhancement is given in Section 2.5.2. The type ofenhancement most likely in new fisheries is type 3: addition (described in 188.8.131.52). It is alsomost likely such enhancement would involve translocation, and therefore trigger thetranslocation risk assessment and approval protocol.
5.3.3 Do nothing
A project may be assessed as having a chance of succeeding from a scientific point of view,but there may be social, economic, environmental or other reasons as to why the projectshould not proceed. Alternatively, if a project proceeds to a pilot stage, results of the pilotstudy may not support continuation of the enhancement activities.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 SECTION 6
DEVELOPING AND ASSESSING STOCK
Where stock enhancement is considered feasible and viable, and is the best option to assist inthe sustainable management of a fishery or resource, a process must be followed to enablethorough assessment, monitoring, evaluation and review of each project. This process is thesame for any stock enhancement project, regardless of which framework has been used. Thisis depicted in Chart 4. The remainder of this paper addresses such a process.
Chart 4: Decision tree for assessment of stock enhancement proposals Stock Enhancement Set objectives/performance targets Are these achievable within environmental, social, economic and government boundaries? Initiate pilot project withobjectives, targets,monitoring and evaluation.
successful and viable? Full scale stock enhancement may proceed, with stock enhancement to be included in any existing fishery management arrangements Monitor and discontinue if negativeoutcomes against objectives andperformance targets.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Objectives and performance targets
"One of the primary goals of stock enhancement is to increase population size and/orpopulation growth rate without deleterious effects on wild stocks. This is also the goal ofmost species-management plans, and fish hatchery release programs can be viewed as one ofmany management tools designed to enhance fisheries or rebuild depleted stocks. Thesuccess or failure of a management plan can only be assessed if specific goals are outlined inadvance, such as minimum increase in yield or growth of a population to a certain size by acertain date. Releasing thousands or even millions of hatchery-reared juveniles initiallyincreases juvenile cohort size, but does not necessarily lead to long term population-levelincreases" (Heppell and Crowder, 1998, p.495).
Each proponent must be clear on what he/she is trying to achieve, and set specific objectivesand associated performance targets to allow continued monitoring of success. Objectives needto be set within the framework of other management in the area or affecting the fish resourcesbeing enhanced.
Blankenship and Leber (1995) recommend the development of stock rebuilding goals andgenetic objectives, as well as the definition of quantitative measures of success. The goalsand objectives of any enhancement must be clearly understood before the enhancementcommences. They also suggest prior identification of assumptions and expectationsconcerning the performance and operation of the project necessary for its success. There willbe a number of external factors that could affect the success of the project – predators,accessibility to critical habitat, carrying capacity, food availability, temperature, salinity andhabitat degradation. There will also be behavioural deficits in hatchery-reared fish that willaffect survival (Blankenship and Leber, 1995; Kellison et al, 2000).
Performance targets need to be set against each of the objectives. Targets should be able to bemeasured and tested.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 6.2.1 Resource Sharing
184.108.40.206 Who are the user groups? It would be a rare case for a fish stock enhancement project to be proposed for waters whereno other group had an interest. Where possible, all user groups should be identified andconsulted on the implications of the proposed stock enhancement.
220.127.116.11 Property rights - beneficiaries and flow of liabilities Howarth and Leria (1999) examine the implications of stock enhancement on property rights.
These appear to differ throughout the world. English law has established that ownership isrelinquished once fish are released into open (non-enclosed) waters, even if they have beenhatchery reared. Norway, on the other hand, has established rights of ownership oversalmonoids and freshwater fish to the landowner of the closest adjacent property to the coastor river. In general, they acknowledge there are difficult legal and administrative questionsthat still need to be addressed about ownership, for both current and future generations. Athorough discussion of the legal aspects of property rights, both historically and present, inrespect to fish, can be found in Walrut (2002).
With the exception of private farm dams, all stock enhancements in Western Australia to datehas been aimed at fish in ‘the commons' – recreational fisheries such as trout and blackbream. Regardless of who breeds fish for release, unless they can be individually marked orkept within a confined area, so that the same fish released can be retrieved, fish released intoState waters (inland and coastal) are not owned by an individual. Licences may allowindividuals to catch certain fish using particular gear, but this is a right to catch, not ownindividual fish while the fish are still in the water (supported in Walrut, 2002). A licence toenhance stock would therefore not represent a strong property right.
Recreational fishing licences are required for angling in WA's inland waters. However, theselicences are not limited, and consequently such enhancement could be considered for thepublic good. Future fish stock enhancement proposals would need to include an identificationof beneficiaries. Any changes to the status of a public good fishery as a result of enhancement(for example, a proposal to licence access to an area) should be negotiated with identified usergroups prior to the issue of any enhancement licence.
In terms of liability, as in the majority of cases overseas, stock enhancement in Australia islargely a function of government. At present, stock enhancement in Australia occurs in inlandwaters, with some restocking of catadromous fish (and consequently some exposure toestuarine and marine waters), which takes place mainly in Queensland. Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 In WA, the major enhancement is restocking of trout – a species that does not recruit naturallywithin the river systems and requires continual restocking. The risks here are twofold: theintroduction of disease and the effect of the trout on native finfish.
Testing for some diseases is done annually, although the Department of Fisheries is currentlyreassessing the risk associated with the release of trout from the Government-run hatchery.
From experience to date, it is expected the effect of trout on native fish is more of a risk, dueto predation, competition for food, competition for breeding spots and so on.
This risk may be lessened if small populations of native fish remain in the waterways,enabling the natural population to be re-established once enhancement has ceased.
The issue of liability in stock enhancement has not been fully explored, although it isacknowledged if something were to go wrong, liability would exist for the releasing agent.
Legal claims may range from an individual aggrieved about a negative impact on his/herfavourite pastime, to claims about loss of genetic diversity. Legal precedent would exist,either in fisheries overseas or in non-fishery matters such as pollutants, fluoride in toothpastean so on. The ability to pursue any claim would depend on the standing of the potentialplaintiff - that is, whether the plaintiff was directly affected by the ‘negative impact' or has aspecial interest above that of the ‘man in the street'.
As discussed in previous sections of this paper, there are several government departmentswith powers over and interests in the use of various water bodies in WA. Any proposals toenhance fish stocks or create new fisheries through stocking would therefore needconsultation with these departments.
18.104.22.168 Ecological balance In the majority of cases, enhancement is considered for stocks that have already been fished.
Therefore, when considering the impact of enhancement on ecological balance in such waters,it must be noted that the pre-enhancement ecological balance will not be the natural situation.
Fisheries today are based on an altered ecological balance.
Having said this, the ecological balance will be further affected by any enhancement.
Arnason (2001) states the most fundamental externality10 associated with stock enhancementis that it adds organisms to the marine environment and in doing so, immediately impacts onthe equilibrium of the ecology into which it has been added. He further suggests that, even iffish stock enhancement ceased, the original balance could never be restored (also Welcommeand Bartley, 1998).
This impact may be more severe than the physical presence of extra individuals. Theseindividuals, if hatchery-reared, will have a number of differences from wild fish, includinggenetics, physiology and behaviour (White et al, 1995).
10 An externality could be generally described as an uninvited impact or side effect. However, when used in an
economic context (as is the case in section 4.2.3 of this paper), it describes an effect (cost or benefit) that is borne
by someone/something that is not involved in the market transaction.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Wahl et al (1995) suggest that within any ecological community, three factors interact todefine that community: competition, predation and abiotic environment. Competition canhappen between or within a species and at any lifecycle stage, while predation can vary withthe removal or addition of predators or prey in the system. Stocked fish have the additionalstress of changing abiotic conditions, such as handling, transportation, and difference in watertemperature.
Research worldwide provides many examples of stockings, either sanctioned or otherwise,where the introduced fish have replaced or dominated native fish populations (Goldburg et al,2001; Friedlander et al 2002; Whittier and Kinkaid, 1999; Bagarinao, 2001; Einum andFleming, 1997, Welcomme and Bartley, 1998). This is due to competition for food and nichehabitats, differing predation responses, and/or the introduced fish being a new predator.
In Hawaii, the addition of 3,200 snapper at one island only has resulted in an expansion ofrange where it now exists along the whole of the Hawaiian Archipelago (about 2,900km) andis ranked second among all species in the study area (Friedlander et al, 2002).
Even where the introduced fish are native species, biodiversity can still be lost throughbreeding between hatchery and wild stock (Kellison et al, 2000, Barnabé and Barnabé-Quet,2000, Davenport et al, 2003). The differing survival traits of these introduced individuals canaffect the ecological balance.
Every system has ecological limits, but these limits (for fish, the carrying capacity) are notalways known or well understood. Where this is the case, it is extremely difficult todetermine the appropriate number of fish to add to the system. Further complications arise ascarrying capacity varies according to environmental conditions, outside pressures on thesystem (for example, habitat modification adjacent to the water body), or the size/maturity ofthe fish to be added to the system (Borg, 2002).
For example, the release of Norwegian cod in fjords failed in part because of carryingcapacity. From the early 1980s to the mid 1990s, Norway released over 660,000 juvenile codalong its coast. Many of the early results were encouraging, but at the stage when the ‘2group' (two-year-old) fish should have entered the fishery, there was no sign of enhancementin the stock. Norwegian scientists put this down to dietary overlap with wild cod, lowcondition factors, density-dependent growth and cannibalism. This suggested the fjordalareas were "fully exploited with little or no excess ‘carrying capacity'" (Blaxter, 2000, p.21).
On the other hand, introductions of various fish species into the north-eastern US lakes haveseen viable populations established without any large change in native species richness(Whittier and Kincaid, 1999). Whittier and Kincaid surmise the carrying capacity of theselakes may not have been reached naturally and therefore not fully utilised pre-humansettlement.
This last point illustrates that the impact of stock enhancement cannot be assessed withoutconsidering the flow-on impact that human activity may have post-enhancement. Theenhancement or creation of a fishery through stocking is very likely to lead to an increase inhuman interaction. This could be through direct fishing pressure or changes in land useadjacent to the fishery. This increased pressure on the resources will affect not only the newlyenhanced resource, but may also impact on wild species already in the area (Bartley andCasal, 1998).
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 22.214.171.124 Genetic impact "The productivity of populations and their resilience to environmental change is a result of thegenetic diversity they contain" (Busack and Currens, 1995, p71).
In any stock enhancement, existing wildstock will be genetically affected by the introductionof same-species. In fact, one of the greatest threats to genetic resources of a wild population isfrom culture and stocking activities (Cooke et al, 2001).
Studies have found that hatchery-reared stock do not have the same survival techniques aswild stock (Kellison et al, 2000; Cooke et al, 2001; Walrut, 2002; Davenport et al, 2003). Asmentioned in 126.96.36.199, some may out-compete wild or native stock (Einum and Fleming, 1997;Friedlander et al, 2002), some may be more vulnerable due to susceptibility to predation(Kellison et al, 2000). These introduced stock then breed with wildstock, introducing ahybrid stock that has different genetic makeup, and sometimes, a different set of survivaltechniques again.
Cooke et al (2001) argue although stocking usually occurs to supplement natural stocks andincrease abundance, unless genetic integrity is maintained, it is most likely the enhancementwould be counter-productive. This is especially important where stock enhancement is aimedat restoring endangered species (Brown and Day, 2002).
Cross (2000) states "even one generation of artificial spawning and hatchery rearing can causelarge changes in genetic make-up (often detrimental to fitness) in terms of geneticcomposition and level of genetic variability". This can be minimised by collecting largenumbers of broodstock randomly and then using all individuals in spawning.
However, even if precautions are taken in the first generation, Cross (2000) notes that"genetic composition can vary unpredictably between year classes of the reared strain" (p 85).
He also suggests that hatchery stock for stocking not be kept in the hatchery for more than onegeneration (supported by Davenport et al, 2003; also minimising exposure to hatcheryconditions is supported by White et al, 1995). This is further complicated by the fact some species of fish do not operate as panmictic(random-mating) populations, rather as a number of genetically different groups (Cooke, et al2001).
Conscious of the importance of genetic diversity, the genetic objectives of stocking should beto maximise the effectiveness of the program while minimising detrimental effects on naturalpopulations or species (Cross 2000).
To this end, it is proposed to introduce similar guidelines as established in the barramundistock enhancement paper (Thorne, 2002). These are set out in Appendix 2. Should thereneed to be any species-specific modifications to the final guidelines, these will be developedbetween the Department of Fisheries and the proponents prior to approval of the project.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 188.8.131.52 Environmental impact assessment Under Western Australian law, stock enhancement would trigger the environmental impactassessment process. For the most part, the environmental impact assessment process inWestern Australia is initiated by proponents (Department of Environmental Protection 1997).
The Environmental Protection Act 1986 requires proponents, or project developers, to informthe Environmental Protection Authority (EPA) and the community what they want to develop,what they expect the environmental impacts to be, and how they plan to manage their projectsso the environment will be protected. Proponents are also required to commit themselves tothe environmentally responsible implementation of their proposals (EPA, 1996).
Other parties, including members of the public, may also refer projects to the EPA.
Usually, the EPA would leave the regulation of environmental effects from fisheries-relatedactivities to the Department of Fisheries, but if the Department of Fisheries does not have thenecessary powers in a particular circumstance, the EPA could step in and regulate theenvironmental aspects of the activity. Alternatively, the Department could refer the proposalto the EPA.
Should the EPA consider it necessary to act in regard to a particular project, it would set theassessment level based on the significance of the following environmental factors associatedwith the proposal: Character of the receiving environment and the use and value which society hasassigned to it.
Magnitude, spatial extent and duration of anticipated change.
Resilience of the environment to cope with change.
Confidence of prediction of change.
Existence of policies, programs, plans and procedures against which the need forapplying the environmental impact assessment process to a scheme can be determined.
Existence of environmental standards against which a scheme can be assessed.
Degree of public interest in environmental factors likely to be associated with a schemeor amendment (EPA, 1998).
Having assessed these factors, the EPA may: Decide that assessment is not required because it is considered environmentallyinsignificant (known as ‘Not Assessed'); Decide to assess it ‘in-house' and provide public advice (known as an Informal Reviewwith Public Advice); Issue a works approval; or Decide to assess it ‘formally' as a Consultative Environmental Review, PublicEnvironmental Review, or Environmental Review and Management Programme.
Formal assessments require varying degrees of environmental and public review andevaluation (EPA, 1998).
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 The decision trees used by the EPA for assessment of environmental impact are at Appendix3. Further information on these processes and the responsibilities of proponents can beobtained from the EPA.
184.108.40.206 Economic feasibility/viability of projects – cost benefit analysis Blaxter (2000) suggests the cost benefit analysis (CBA) for enhancement is rarelystraightforward, especially in open systems. Costs for raising and releasing fish are usuallyidentifiable, however, unless released stock can be accurately identified and monitored, yieldper released fish is not usually available.
It is important to capture all costs, including the opportunity cost of broodstock or the returnfrom translocated fish had they not been translocated (Blaxter, 2000). Similarly, indirectbenefits need to be taken into account, such as employment associated with hatcheries andtransfers of fish. Ownership of the enhanced stock will also impact on the economics of afishery. For example, many enhancement studies in the United States, Japan and Norwayhave been State-funded, yet the beneficiaries are commercial and recreational fishermen(Blaxter, 2000).
Most of the successful attempts to evaluate costs and benefits have captured the obviousproduction costs and value of recaptured fish, but fail to understand intervening mechanismsof survival and mortality. There is a danger in omitting the less obvious costs and benefits, orthose harder to quantify, that the CBA may not accurately reflect the true situation.
In the case of ‘public good' fisheries, which are the subject of this discussion, it is oftenargued that there are many costs and benefits that cannot be accurately valued in terms ofmonetary value by their very nature (see also section 220.127.116.11 of this paper). However, asCauvin (1980) suggests, it could also be argued those fisheries "valuable" enough to beconsidered for enhancement are not a pure public good (see section 3.3 of this paper forcomment on this point), so a value can be placed on their existence and their enhancement.
Consequently, an attempt should be made to calculate these values for the purposes ofanalysing costs and benefits of each project.
The difficulties associated with conducting a CBA for a public good fishery may leaddecision-makers to look for an easier solution. Blaxter (2000) goes so far as to suggestenhancement may be used as a cosmetic exercise to placate fishermen, politicians orenvironmentalists, regardless of costing.
The push for enhancement of recreational fisheries includes the argument that large numbersin WA enjoy recreational fishing and contribute greatly to the economy. Therefore, thesefisheries should be enhanced wherever possible. Further, stock enhancement is a relativelycheap form of management and may return benefits that far exceed costs. The validity of thisargument needs careful consideration.
Cauvin refutes similar claims made in Canada (Cauvin 1980, p. 1,325). He argues, firstly, thatit is not realistic to attribute money spent on recreational fishing, for example, vehicles, petrol,gear, food, boats, as an exclusive contribution to the economy. Resources are scarce, so withthe possible exception of fishing rods and other direct capture equipment, other resources Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 would still be expended and make a contribution to the State economy in some other way.
That is, people would still buy 4WDs, petrol, camping gear, and so on (even if they don'tfish).
Secondly, if there is little net economic gain to society from recreational fishing, then there isa danger to the allocation of resources in giving recreational fishing too high a social value.
There is the danger of public money being diverted from important but more costly services,such as fisheries management to cheaper, seemingly quick fixes, such as stock enhancement(for example, funds being diverted from fisheries management to hatcheries).
This is exacerbated by the fact that government provides recreational fishing free or at anominal cost, sending the signal to government that demand is infinite (there is no measure ofthe true economic value of recreational fishing to society) and placing pressure ongovernment to supply resources to meet the desires of the beneficiaries (Cauvin, 1980). Bothfishers and government may see stock enhancement as a way out of this situation.
Bartley and Casal (1998) and White et al (1995) both provide detailed reviews of the effectsof fish stocking on wild stocks. Table 2, taken from Bartley and Casal, (1998, p.16), showssome potential adverse effects, drawn from international fish databases. Each of these directand indirect effects should be taken into account in a CBA.
Through this table, Bartley and Casal (1998) report most of the recorded ecological effects ofintroducing species were negative. However, reported socio-economic impacts were mostlypositive and often outweighed the negative ecological impacts. Although it may not bepossible to put dollar values on all of these costs and benefits, they do need to beacknowledged and attempts made to value them.
Some potential adverse effects of introduced aquatic species Mechanism - Mechanism – social Change in fishing pressure and access to resources; treatment measures to disease transmission enhance introduced species Change in abundance of Fish farms providing more terrestrial fauna food for birds and animals orkilling predatory birds Change in fishery Successful introductions lead to other introductions Burrowing, sediment Change in land use, e.g.
mobilisation, removal of creation of fish farms Change in species Change in access rights, land abundance or distribution tenure; financial liability for leading to changes in damages through national and fishing or consumption Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 18.104.22.168 The economic impact of externalities
The mere act of fishing causes externalities, because the actions of one fisher cause loss toanother and fishers do not take this into account when making decisions on their fishingactivities (Cauvin, 1980). Similarly, enhancing a stock of fish may impact on other users ofthis stock or the area in which the stock occurs, or have downstream environmental impactsthat have an associated social or economic impact.
Where commercial interests are involved in enhancing a ‘public good' fishery or a fishery inwhich there is some public good component, the result of these externalities is that marketforces will drive those undertaking the fish stock enhancement to do so at the highest levelpossible, which would set the level of enhancement at a socially inappropriate level (Arnason,2001). Although publicly funded enhancement does not have to respond to market forces, itis often the case that governments do not act in a socially optimal fashion either. This impliesthere are no social forces that would guide enhancement toward the common good (Arnason,2001).
Therefore, there would need to be some means of guiding commercial operators to act in asocially optimal manner. Arnason (2001) suggests either imposing a system of correctivetaxes or subsidies (not likely to occur in the current political climate), or extending privateproperty rights to cover the resources affected by the externalities (for example, introducequotas).
Should the Government decide to regulate newly enhanced fisheries, catch sharing (even ifnot individual transferable quotas) between sectors would appear more administratively,economically and politically practical than corrective taxes and would likely to be moreappealing to the various user groups. It also gives user groups more control as this methodrelies on the total knowledge held by the private sector. This knowledge will drive price,which in turn should send economic signals about optimal behaviour to those undertakingenhancement and others utilising the ecology.
Where stock enhancement does not involve commercial interests, or where the objective ispure public good, such as for conservation purposes, the Government's response to theseexternalities may differ. However, given the economic drivers associated with any use of anatural resource (even conservation), explicit catch share arrangements would still appearappropriate. For example, an area enhanced for conservation of a species of fish may beclosed to extractive use, making an explicit allocation for the use of conservation. A lesssevere option may be to make an allocation of a certain number of fishing days per week ormonth: allocating partly to conservation and partly to commercial and/or recreational fishing.
Any change in allocation, or perceived allocation of resources, as a result of stockenhancement would be an externality and would have a cost associated with it. How this costis resolved will need to be negotiated between the parties involved. It may be appropriate touse negotiated resource sharing agreements as part of this process.
6.2.4 Government agenda
The current Western Australian government has a large number of policies that may influencethe development of the State's fisheries, and particularly the development of aquaculture andopportunities for stock enhancement. In terms of stock enhancement, some of these policies Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 will support new technology and new development, and some will imply tougher conditionswith respect to the use of the environment. Together, they provide a business and socialenvironment that should be kept in mind when considering the feasibility and/or desirabilityof stock enhancement projects.
The main relevant policies and focus areas follow.
22.214.171.124 Social objectives Work with industry to ensure adequate equity measures are in place to allow for theresolution of disputes concerning such issues as security of access and resource sharingbetween recreational and commercial fishers and other stakeholders.
Establish and build partnerships to improve conditions for WA's Indigenous people.
Build partnerships at a State, regional and local community level, and betweengovernment and Indigenous peoples in pursuing healthy, self-determining Indigenouscommunities.
Support employment, enterprise and economic development for Indigenous people andIndigenous communities to ensure equality of opportunity in all aspects of life.
126.96.36.199 Environmental policies More marine parks and reserves.
Environment friendly tourism.
Address salinity, catchment management plans, and conservation of remnant vegetationon farms.
Introduce biodiversity conservation legislation.
River bank restoration and erosion controls.
Develop sustainability indicators and monitor reporting against these indicators.
Complete comprehensive bioregional surveys.
Audit all wetlands and prepare rectification plans where necessary.
188.8.131.52 Regional development/tourism Regional investment fund to support new industry development and tourism.
Promotion of tourism and ecotourism.
Improving transport to and from regions, improving operations/services at ports andairports.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 184.108.40.206 Supporting developing industries (aquaculture) Removal of unnecessary red tape.
Improving quality and scope of research, development and extension advice from theDepartment of Fisheries.
Establish appropriate business development and support mechanisms in order to fosterthe development of WA's aquaculture and mariculture industries.
Establishing a pilot project
Once a project is assessed and deemed to be feasible, it would enter a pilot phase duringwhich environmental, economic and social responses to the enhancement project aremonitored to determine its viability. For this pilot phase to proceed, it is essential that there isa full assessment of all issues associated with possible escapes from the project area.
Similar to the process proposed for reseeding projects, set out in Borg (2002), the projectwould be licensed for the period of the pilot, with clear objectives/targets, monitoringstrategies and evaluation techniques being in place prior to the commencement of the project.
Objectives/targets could include percentage increases in fishable biomass, percentageincreases in reproductive biomass, target levels of catch per unit effort, and so on.
The pilot project would be large enough to allow the fish stock enhancement techniques(including tagging/marking) to be evaluated at a useful scale, but small enough so anynegative effects (e.g. displacement of wild stock or other species) would be minimized.
Further, if the project were not viable, minimal loss of investment would occur.
Brown and Day (2002) suggest the first stage in evaluating whether a stocking program hasbeen successful needs to be based on scientific assessment – estimating the survival ofreleased fish and the main causes of mortality; their contribution to the gene pool and theirimpact on the environment. Economic assessment then follows – are releases economicallyfeasible? White et al (1995) supports this paper's proposal that the results of stock enhancement shouldbe measured against the objectives set at the beginning of each project. The evaluation shouldinclude information about: Performance of the stocked fish (survival, body growth, and reproductive success); Effects on other fish populations (hybridisation and ecological effects, e.g.,competition, predation, habitat alteration, and disease transmission); Effects on other members of native biota; and Effects on humans (catch rate and other measures of fishing quality; economic,aesthetic, and social effects; and ramifications for public understanding of andattitudes toward resource issues)" (p. 537).
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 They also recommend a full economic evaluation, acknowledging both direct and indirectcosts, something not usually undertaken in depth.
However, as Bartley and Casal (1998) reasonably suggest, it is only possible to accuratelyassess the impacts of an enhancement if there is an accurate assessment of the pre-enhancement ecological and socio-economic environments. In many cases, some or all of thisinformation will not exist – making monitoring and evaluation of enhancement projects verydifficult in those situations. It is hoped by running pilot projects before full stockenhancement is allowed to continue will cause much of this information to be collected, notjust for the project in question, but increasing the overall database upon which futureproponents can draw.
As with reseeding, if a pilot project is not successful, it would be important to recognise whythis has been the case. For example, it may have been affected by external environmentalfactors such that a similar project at a different time may be more successful. In addition,"natural fluctuations in marine stock abundance can mask successes and failures"(Blankenship and Leber, 1995, p 171).
Full-scale stock enhancement
6.4.1 Monitoring success
"One of the most critical components of any enhancement effort is the ability to quantifysuccess or failure. Without some form of assessment, one has no idea to what degree theenhancement was effective or, more critically, which approaches were totally successful,partially successful, or a downright failure" (Blankenship and Leber, 1995, p 171).
A successful pilot project may lead to the licensing of a long-term, full-scale stock
enhancement within a fishery or an area of water. Despite the progressive nature of such a
project, the government cannot draw back from its stewardship role and the continuing
requirements for objectives and targets as foundations to the enhancement project11. Without
these, monitoring would have no basis, and success could not be effectively measured or
assessed. This is especially important for activities where social objectives may be weighted
more heavily than economic, making them more difficult to measure accurately.
Where the fish stock enhancement occurs within an existing commercial or recreationalfishery, management of stock enhancement activities needs to be assimilated into any existingfisheries management arrangements. Consequently, monitoring and evaluation of success insuch fisheries must be assessed in terms of not only the enhancement itself, but also theimpact on existing uses of the resources or the area.
11 It is recognised the government may also actually be conducting the enhancement, as is the case with trout in
Western Australia at present.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 In the short term, there is no fisheries legislation covering stock enhancement, except forrequirements associated with translocation of non-endemic species. The Enzootic DiseaseRegulations 1970 established under the Stock Diseases Act 1968 contains provisions relatingto the movement of some species within and into WA. Consequently, there are no additionalshort-term compliance implications.
It is envisaged should a licence be introduced for stock enhancement activities, compliancewould only be required with regard to the fish being released in accordance with licenceconditions. Should a quota be imposed as part of management of the enhanced fishery,consideration would be given to incorporating these costs into management fees for thatfishery.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 SECTION 7
Legislative basis for management of stock enhancement activities
At present, there is no legislative requirement to be licensed by, or seek the approval of, theDepartment of Fisheries to release fish into the marine or freshwater environment unless thespecies to be released is not endemic to the area. If the species is not endemic, then theproponent must apply for permission to translocate the species. The process for translocationapproval is set out in Ministerial Policy Guideline No 5, (Fisheries Department of WesternAustralia, 1997a). The Department of Fisheries, in conjunction with the development of this policy on stockenhancement, will move to introduce powers under the Fish Resources Management Act 1994to allow the Department to regulate the release of fish into marine and freshwaterenvironments for the purpose of stock enhancement. Changes to the Act will requirelegislative amendment and is not likely within at least the next 12 months.
It is envisaged applications for stock enhancement would be taken through a consultation andassessment process similar to that set out in Ministerial Policy Guideline No. 8 (FisheriesDepartment of Western Australia, 1997b), to ensure accountability of the proponent and fullconsultation with user/interest groups.
As proposed for the assessment of reseeding applications (Borg, 2002), consideration will begiven to establishing a similar stakeholder committee to assist the Executive Director in theassessment of applications for stock enhancement, once the head power is legislated.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 SECTION 8
OPPORTUNITIES FOR COST RECOVERY
Once legislation is amended, regulation and licensing of stock enhancement activities will bepossible.
Cost recovery will be considered as an option, possibly through a licence fee to coveradministrative costs and a management fee to allow cost recovery for monitoring andevaluation. This said, no detailed consideration has been given to this issue at this stage. Itremains an option for the government to fund some stock enhancement activities as acommunity service.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 SECTION 9
CONSULTATION – WHERE TO FROM HERE?
The release of this discussion paper is the result of research, consultation within the variousdivisions of the Department of Fisheries and consideration by a focus group comprising majorstakeholder groups. After the public consultation period, all written and oral submissions willbe considered by the focus group and taken into consideration for the drafting of policyguidelines for application and assessment. The Department will circulate draft policyguidelines to appropriate agencies for comment prior to finalisation and approval.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 SECTION 10
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Department of Fisheries, 2002a. The translocation of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) andRainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) into and within Western Australia. FisheriesManagement Paper No 156, June 2002, Perth, WA. 88pp.
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Doupé, R.G and Bird, C, 1999. "Opportunities for enhancing the recreational fishery of LakeKununurra using Barramundi Lates calcarifer: a review." Proceedings of the Royal Society ofQueensland 108: 41-48. Brisbane.
Einum, S and Fleming, I.A, 1997. "Genetic Divergence and interactions in the wild amongnative, farmed and hybrid Atlantic salmon". Journal of Fish Biology 50(3):634-651 Environment ACT, 2000. Fish Stocking Plan for The Australian Capital Territory2001–2005, May 2000, Environment ACT Home Page: http://www.act.gov.au/environ.
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Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 SECTION 11
Factors that are non-biological in nature but still play an important rolein the organism's environment.
The keeping, breeding, hatching or culturing of fish (FRMA 1994).
A diversity of species of plants and animals.
Animals that are used as breeding parents to obtain young stages foraquaculture.
Carrying capacity The total number of individuals of a population that a given environment can sustain.
A catadromous fish spawns in salt water but spends most of its life infreshwater.
Using, conserving and enhancing the community's resources so that ecological processes, on which life depends, are maintained, and the total quality of life, now and in the future, can be increased (NationalStrategy for Ecologically Sustainable Development, Council of AustraliaGovernments, 1992).
A community of organisms interacting with one another and theenvironment in which they live.
Tourism which involves no degradation of the environment and whichfeatures places of ecological interest.
The number of eggs produced per female per unit time (often: perspawning season).
Any aquatic organism, excluding aquatic mammals, aquatic reptiles,aquatic birds, amphibians or pearl oysters.
A unit determined by an authority or other entity that is engaged inraising and/or harvesting fish. Typically, the unit is defined in terms ofsome or all of the following: people involved, species or type of fish,area of water or seabed, method of fishing, class of boats and purpose ofactivity (Dept of Fisheries, 2002b) The amount of fishing gear of a specific type used on the fishinggrounds over a given unit of time e.g. hours trawled per day, number ofhooks set per day or number of hauls of a beach seine per day.
A subset of aquaculture where the activities involve marine and/orestuarine species.
Natural mortality Deaths of fish from all causes except fishing (e.g. ageing, predation,cannibalism, disease and perhaps increasingly pollution). It is oftenexpressed as a rate that indicates the percentage of fish dying in a year;e.g. a natural mortality rate of 0.2 implies that approximately 20 per cent of the population will die in a year from causes other than fishing.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 e.g. a natural mortality rate of 0.2 implies that approximately 20 per centof the population will die in a year from causes other than fishing.
The total number of organisms in a species.
Relates to the birth, growth and death rates of a stock. A highlyproductive stock is characterized by high birth, growth and mortalityrates, and as a consequence, a high turnover and production to biomassratios (P/B). Such stocks can usually sustain higher exploitation ratesand, if depleted, could recover more rapidly than comparatively lessproductive stocks.
The amount of fish added to the exploitable stock each year due togrowth and/or migration into the fishing area. For example, the numberof fish that grow to become vulnerable to the fishing gear in one yearwould be the recruitment to the fishable population that year. This termis also used in referring to the number of fish from a year class reachinga certain age.
Areas in which flora and fauna species are able to survive despite theimpacts of major threatening processes, for example, those associatedwith environmental or ecological change.
Replacing snags in waterways; where snags are any standing dead,partially dead, or defective (cull) tree at least 25cm in diameter at breastheight and at least 180cm tall.
Recreational Fishing Advisory Committee.
An Order made by the Minister for Fisheries under section 43 of theFRMA 1994 to prohibit persons or any specified class of persons fromengaging in any fishing activity of a specified class.
A group of individuals in a species occupying a well defined spatialrange independent of other stocks of the same species. Random dispersaland directed migrations due to seasonal or reproductive activity canoccur. Such a group can be regarded as an entity for management orassessment purposes.
The amount of water passing a particular point in a stream or river.
A fishery that is consistent with ESD, that is, a fishery that uses, conserves and enhances the community's resources so that ecologicalprocesses, on which life depends, are maintained, and the total quality oflife, now and in the future, can be increased (Dept of Fisheries, 2002b).
Common property, that is, there are no restrictions to accessing the fishresource.
The transfer of aquatic organisms outside their natural distributionalrange.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 APPENDIX 1
STOCK ENHANCEMENT WITHIN AUSTRALIA AND
The Western Australian Experience
The only long-term stock enhancement undertaken in WA was trout in the southern riversystems. Brown trout was first introduced to WA in the late 1870s, but for unknown reasons,these early attempts to stock the rivers failed. Importation of stock did not recommence until1931 when a hatchery established at Pemberton successfully imported brown trout ova andreleased fry into local streams in the Warren catchment area.
Since the late 1930s and early 1940s, hatchery production from the South West FreshwaterResearch and Aquaculture Centre (now the Pemberton Freshwater Research Centre) has beenlargely based on locally produced ova and fry (Department of Fisheries, 2002a). Occasionalimportations of brown and rainbow trout have occurred during this period, however, the lastimports of these species occurred in 1991 and 1972 respectively.
The Acclimatisation Societies established the hatchery, but in 1971, the Department ofFisheries took it over. At the time this occurred, the stock being supplied were small fish usedfor stocking public waters. This supply has since expanded to include stocking of farm damsand commercial trout farms.
Black bream Native to southern Australian rivers and estuaries and easily cultured, black bream appearsperfect for stocking (Fisheries WA, 1999). However, translocation is an issue for waterwaysas genetic populations vary between estuaries.
Prior to the formalisation and acceptance of the government's translocation policy, between1995 and 1997, about 200,000 black bream fingerlings of Swan River stock were sold andreleased into private impoundments throughout south-west WA (Lenanton et al, 1999).
An estuarine stocking trial commenced in March 1995 with the release of 767, 14-month-oldtagged juvenile bream into the upper reaches of the Swan River, which flows through Perth(Lenanton et al in Howell et al, 1999). The area is closed to commercial fishing and is anursery area for the wild fish. By October 1997, there was a 12.6 per cent recovery of releasedfish by recreational anglers. Independent netting surveys during this time indicated that thereleased fish were actually more abundant than wild fish of the same age class.
Further, released fish made up 20% of the total catch of all bream taken by anglers whoreported tagged and wild fish catches, and in some cases, anglers had catches totally made upof tagged fish. Although detailed data allowing comparison of the catchability of hatchery-reared versus wild bream, from the small number of anglers who did provide the information,it appears that hatchery-reared fish may be more accessible to anglers (Lenanton et al inHowell et al, 1999; Dibden et al, 2000).
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 A further release was conducted after the poisoning of waters at Ascot racecourse (mid-late1998). Around 125,000 smaller fish tagged with Terramycin were released. Early samplingafter three weeks recorded 10 out of 17 fish with the dye tag. Lack of funding prevented anyfurther assessment of the success of this release over time (B Ginbey, AquacultureDevelopment Unit, South Metropolitan College of TAFE, pers. comm.).
Further releases of black bream are currently underway in the Blackwood River Estuary aspart of a Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (FRDC) funded project.
The only other stock enhancement in public waters has been small barramundi releases inLake Kununurra.
Trial trapping conducted in the 1991/1992 wet season (Bird, 1992) resulted in 124 fish beingcaught and released into Lake Kununurra. Doupé and Bird (1999) report the fate of manyoccasional and illegal releases of barramundi over the years are not known, however there arerare reports of recaptured fish. In the case of a large scale release, they question how manyfish, of what age class, would stay in the dam. They also raise the possibility that, givenbarramundi currently aggregate below the dam wall, any stocking would result in an increasecatch by commercial catfish fishers rather than by recreational fishers. They further point outthat, as the barramundi need to move downstream to complete their lifecycle, adult fish arelikely to leave the dam, leaving sub-adult fish, many below legal size.
More recently, local recreational fishing groups, under the auspices of the East KimberleyRFAC, released approximately 600 juvenile/adolescent barramundi (ranging from 25-70+ cm)into Lake Kununurra over the 2000 and 2001 wet seasons. These fish were caught by handjust below the Kununurra Diversion Dam (KDD), which means they were effectively from the‘wild' lower Ord River stock. The fish were then measured, tagged and transported for releaseinto Lake Kununurra (i.e. above the KDD). So far about a dozen or so tags have beenrecovered (from the current program), and most, but not all, of these fish have been caughtback below the KDD.
Other species In addition to trout, redfin perch was also introduced into Western Australian waters forrecreational angling. Significantly, this species is considered a pest species (Fisheries WA,1999). A number of other fish, native to the Eastern States, have also been introduced forrecreational fishing and for aquaculture, mainly into farm dams. These are silver perch,golden perch and Murray cod.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 The Australian experience outside WA
In the mid-1960s, Queensland was considering the introduction of Nile perch intoimpoundment fisheries to create recreational fisheries. However, the risks of such anintroduction were considered to outweigh the benefits and the proposal did not proceed(Russell and Rimmer, in press). With the introduction of technology to produce masses offingerlings in Queensland hatcheries, attention moved to creating put and take barramundifisheries in north Queensland impoundments (Russell and Rimmer, in press). This programwas extended in 1990 to open river systems.
The Stocking Impoundment Permit Scheme commenced on 12 July 2000 with the aim ofraising funds for the provision of native fish fingerlings to stock 25 impoundments throughQueensland (QDPI, 2002).
There are 70 stocking groups in Queensland with access to a number of lakes formed by thedamming of rivers. Barramundi has been successfully stocked in Eungella Dam near Mackay,Lake Monduran near Gin Gin, Lake Proserpine and Lake Lenthall between Maryborough andTorbanlea (Corporate and Regional Enterprise Consulting, in draft).
The main two impoundment-fisheries for barramundi are Lake Tinaroo and Lake Awoonga.
The information on these fisheries is drawn from Corporate and Regional EnterpriseConsulting (in draft).
Lake Tinaroo had existing fisheries for red claw and sooty grunter (which still exist), whenfirst stocked for barramundi in 1985-86. Since 1986, 800,000 fingerlings have been released,or approximately 100,000 per year. Two of the three towns around the lake have trebled inpopulation; and the third town is a direct result of the barramundi fishery being established.
Local anecdotal estimates of economic benefit are between $10m to $50m annually.
Lake Awoonga is the main water storage for Gladstone. In the early 1980s, the lake wasstocked with various fish, but stocking failed due to predators. Research showed stockingwith barramundi might be successful due to its rapid growth, high survival potential andcompetitive nature. The first barramundi stocking was December 1996. Since then, 1.8million fingerlings have been released, although the first one million were lost because theywere small and could not withstand predation. Larger fingerlings are now used. Annualstocking is for up to 200,000 fingerlings however stocking during the last two years has beenless than this – 180,000 in 2001, 130,000 in 2000.
More recently, Lake Awoonga has also been stocked with sea mullet, seratoga, and mangrovejack.
After many successful years of stocking impoundment fisheries, there is now communitypressure to enhance wild stocks in catadromous12 and marine fisheries (Cadwalladar, 1999).
Cadwalladar reported on two research projects that were underway in Queensland to assessthe efficacy and cost-benefit of stock enhancement in coastal river systems. The followingdiscussion on these projects includes updated information as referenced.
12 A catadromous fish spawns in salt water but spends most of its life in freshwater.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Barramundi. Barramundi catches on the east coast have declined (although CPUE has not). Both have declined in the Gulf of Carpentaria. Habitat degradation (on the east coast)and overfishing (both) are major factors in these declines. The decline in the Gulf is beingmanaged through tightening commercial management arrangements. On the east coast, a trialstock enhancement was undertaken. Between 1993 and 1996, almost 69,000 markedfingerlings were released in the Johnstone River. Two size classes were released intofreshwater, estuarine and upper tidal habitats. The fish took three years to reach legal size andcomprised between 15 and 19 per cent of barramundi taken in the sampling program. Therewas no significant difference in the numbers recaptured from each size class, and most wererecaptured within three kilometres of their original release site. Recreational and commercialcatch records are being analysed to ascertain if there is any measurable increases in CPUE.
Cadwalladar (1999) also discusses a pilot project conducted in the Maroochy River estuary in Queensland for stock enhancement of a recreational fishery for summer whitingand dusty flathead. Although the results of this study are not presented in the paper, recentdiscussions with Queensland DPI indicated some degree of success (A Butcher, pers.comm.).
Stocking followed two major fish kills due to agricultural pest control in 1993 and 1994.
Flathead and whiting were stocked between 1996 and 1998. Unfortunately, another fish killoccurred in April 1998, which affected the ability to get a true measure of the success of stockenhancement in the estuary. However, some stocked fish did survive and showed up throughcreel sampling so the enhancement may have had some effect had the fish kill not occurred.
Lack of funding prevented further study after 1998 (A Butcher, pers.comm.).
An economic study on the cost benefit of stock enhancement with barrumundi in Queensland(Rutledge et al, 1990) found stockings in the impoundments had significant cost-benefit ratiosfor the two lakes in which ‘before and after' data was available: Lake Tinaroo (1:31) and LakeMorris (1:52). These were based on a 50 per cent harvest rate for stocked fish. Yet in LakeMorris, recovery rate in the years studied was 82 per cent, so the cost-benefit ratio would beeven higher in this case. Although there are a number of assumptions about value of harvestthat may not always remain true, the significant value of this fishery to Queensland meansthat these stockings are economic viable and the cost of developing barramundi aquaculture isjustifiable.
New South Wales The stocking of hatchery reared fry and fingerlings is a major freshwater management tool inNSW, with large recreational fisheries being established and maintained for both introducedand native fish (Rowland 1994).
Fish stocking commenced in NSW in the mid to late 1800s in private waters with Murray cod(prior to 1862) and in public waters with the introduction of brown trout and Atlantic salmon(1888), and then rainbow trout (1894) (Planning NSW, in draft). The early introductions weremade to create recreational fisheries and there was little thought or understanding of adverseeffects. Despite this, some stockings have been considered beneficial and are maintainedtoday, for example, the salmonids (NSW Fisheries, 2002a).
Hatcheries now produce a range of species (mostly native) for stocking rivers, farm dams andimpoundments. Main species produced are golden perch, silver perch, Murray cod, Australianbass, trout, barramundi, yabbies and a variety of aquarium species. In 1990-91 alone, 2.3million golden perch, 1.4 million silver perch and 0.3 million Murray cod were produced in Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 NSW hatcheries for stocking purposes (NSW Fisheries, 2002a). Over the past three years,more than 12 million trout have been stocked into various waters. In the 2000-2001 stockingseason, a total of 4,409,440 trout and salmon were stocked (NSW Fisheries, 2002c).
NSW requires a permit for all fish stockings and has strict controls over what can be stocked,especially where stocking occurs outside the natural range of the species. Proposals to stockmarine or estuarine waters are assessed on a case-by-case basis (NSW Fisheries, 2002b).
Mulloway and snapper have been identified as having potential for marine fish farming andgrow-out, and breeding research programmes are underway for these species. They are alsothe preferred species for possible stock enhancement of estuarine and coastal waters (NSWFisheries, 2002b, Planning NSW, in draft).
Planning NSW (in draft) cites an example of stocking in a coastal lagoon in NSW – 21,600mulloway fingerlings were marked and released into Smiths Lake on three separate occasions.
In addition to the policies and practices in place through NSW Fisheries, Planning NSW hasdrafted guidelines for environmental impact assessment of fish stocking managementstrategies (Planning NSW, in draft). It proposes that draft management strategies (requiredunder NSW fisheries legislation for all major fisheries and certain fishing activities) beassessed in terms of the environmental impact of the proposed fish stocking activity, and ittakes into account biological, biophysical, economic and social issues. It also prescribes thedetail that would be required in each assessment.
Fish releases in Victoria are undertaken by the Department of Natural Resources andEnvironment. Between April and November each year, more than 400,000 salmonoids (troutand salmon) are released into public waterways. Similarly, between November and Aprileach year, around 1,000,000 native fish fingerlings averaging less than 1g each are released.
These fish are mainly golden perch and Murray cod. Silver perch and Trout cod are alsostocked in the north of the State, and Australian bass in selected southern lakes (Dept of NRE,2002).
Brown trout was introduced into Tasmania in 1864, followed by rainbow trout in 1897. TheTasmanian Inland Fisheries Service now operates the trout hatchery and is responsible for themanagement of fish stocking in that State. This is the only fish stocking that occurs inTasmania, and although marine fish farming is undertaken successfully, there is no programfor stock enhancement of estuarine and coastal waters.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 South Australia The only continual stocking within South Australia is by the SA Fly Fishers Association,which runs a licensed hatchery and releases about 200,000 brown trout each year forrecreational fishing. Research was undertaken into enhancement/reseeding of abalone, butthis research has not resulted in a stocking program. No other stock enhancement isundertaken in South Australia (pers. comm. V Neverauskas, A/Director, Fisheries, PrimaryIndustries and Resources SA).
The Northern Territory Government has been stocking Manton Dam (a backup water supplydam) with barramundi for 10 years. This is the only stock enhancement occurring in NT,although there is recent interest in ranching trepang (pers. comm. R Sellers, Director ofFisheries, NT Dept of Business, Industry and Resource Development).
Australian Capital Territory Being at high altitude and with no coastal drainage system, the waterways of the ACT holdvery few species of fish of interest to anglers. Pollution, fishing pressure and naturalenvironmental events have contributed to substantial decline in four of these species - troutcod, Macquarie perch, silver perch and Murray River crayfish (Environment ACT, 2000).
These four species are also classified as threatened at a national level. The main targets ofrecreational fishers in ACT are Murray cod, golden perch, brown trout and rainbow trout.
Some sectors of the community also target redfin and carp (Environment ACT, 2000).
Stocking of natural streams does not occur in the ACT except for exceptional circumstances,such as conservation of a threatened species. Similarly, stocking is not undertaken in the threewater supply reservoirs (Environment ACT, 2000). The majority of stocking occurs in theLakes.
Following the creation of Lake Burley Griffin in 1964, stocking was mainly rainbow trout andbrown trout. However, these did not do well in urban lakes and as commercial quantities ofnative fish (Murray cod and golden perch) became available, the emphasis switched to thesefish (Environment ACT, 2000). Releases of silver perch into Lake Burley Griffin and LakeGinninderra in the late 1970s and 1980s did not take, although stocking of silver perch inLake Googong has been successful. (Environment ACT, 2000). Early experimental releasesof two additional fish species, the native Freshwater Catfish and the introduced Brook Trout,were unsuccessful and have not been continued (Environment ACT, 2000).
Environment ACT stocks approximately 50,000 fish each year in Canberra's lakes, with morethan 1.6 million fish stocked since 1981 (Environment ACT, 2000). Experimental releases oftrout are undertaken occasionally to determine whether environmental conditions havechanged sufficiently to support viable trout fisheries. Of 15,000 rainbow trout released in Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 1995 and 10,000 brown trout released in 1996, none have been caught in 1997 and 1999monitoring programs (Environment ACT, 2000).
The most successful (although considered by most as a problem) fish introduction for ACTwas carp. Carp inhabit large, slow flowing rivers, lakes and permanent wetlands, commonlywith silt bottoms. They tolerate low levels of oxygen, which gives them an advantage instagnant waters. They are considered a pest throughout Australia, as they can damage streamsand native fish populations.
Carp now occur in all of the urban lakes in the ACT, the Murrumbidgee River, the MolongloRiver catchment, the Ginninderra Creek catchment and the Tuggeranong Creek catchment.
They are absent from Googong Dam, the Cotter River above the Cotter Dam, and are notfound in any of the river systems within Namadgi National Park.
Internationally, the practice of stock enhancement is well established, and more than 100species have been released worldwide (Liao, 1999). In many countries, especially Asia, stockenhancement is accompanied by habitat modification, particularly the establishment ofartificial reefs. What follows is only a snapshot of the past and present stock enhancementprojects throughout the world.
Liao (1999) mentions a number of successful stock enhancement programs – salmon, scallop,red sea bream, prawn and flounder in Japan (see also Arnason, 1999); red drum in Texas;striped mullet in Hawaii; artificial reefs off Taiwan; prawn in China. Arnason (1999) alsoreports on salmon in the US and in Iceland. The level of success varied betweenprograms/countries (Liao 1999, Arnason, 1999).
Stock enhancement in Japan has expanded greatly since the 1970s and is very muchgovernment operated. The rationale behind this is social welfare – fishing is a traditionalactivity and the basis of many villages and families. It appears the government regards it hasa responsibility to sustain these activities. The government therefore runs research, hatchingand release, and the fishing industry harvests the grown fish (Arnason, 1999). For inshorefisheries, stock enhancement has been crucial, with it accounting for over 18 per cent ofinshore catch by the late 1980s. Stock enhancement in rivers is insignificant.
Stock enhancement began in the US in the late 19th century with the purpose of enhancingruns of salmon in rivers damaged by logging, railroad, dams etc. However, this was largelyineffective (Arnason, 1999). With advances in stock enhancement methods, enhancing riverstocks is now common. Enhancement of ocean stocks has not been so successful. In the late1960s and 1970s, ocean enhancement of salmon became a commercial venture and a limitednumber of licences were issued in California and Oregon. As a result of environmentalconcern, a moratorium on further licences was issued, and due to economics, most licensedprojects failed and ceased operation (Arnason, 1999).
Government-run ocean enhancement programs in the US have been more successful and haveexpanded throughout the 20th century, mainly targeting valuable species (Arnason, 1999). It isnow large scale – in the early 1990s, up to 2 billion fry were being released each year at a costof about $US 100 million. Private investment is small, mainly due to falling prices and highly Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 variable recovery rates (Arnason, 1999). The exception to this is the Alaskan salmonranching program, which, due to unique social conditions, is successful.
Stock enhancement in Iceland is extremely successful. There is only one species involved –Atlantic salmon – and the conditions are ideal: well endowed salmon rivers, an abundance ofunpolluted fresh water, a biologically productive ocean, and a fisheries managementrestriction that bans ocean fishing for salmon (Arnason, 1999). Enhancement commenced inthe rivers during the early 20th century with the release of young fry, but this meant thatreleased fish did not join the fishery for a number of years. As technology increased, morefish were released close to or at smolt size (enhancement in the oceans). Iceland did allowrelease for immediate recovery in the ocean between the 1960s and 1990s, although economicresults were poor and it ceased. Stock enhancement for fishing of the rivers is madeprofitable by the fact that almost all salmon rivers are privately owned and that the ownerslimit the number of rods in the river. The result is high licence values (Arnason, 1999).
Arnason (1999) suggests private ocean stock enhancement is likely to disappear in the nearfuture unless there is a vast improvement in technology or a substantial rise in the price ofproduct. Government backed enhancement, on the other hand, is likely to increase. Inlooking at why some stock enhancement projects have failed, Liao (1999) observes a numberof barriers to the success – poor coastal zone management, lack of fisheries management orresource conservation, insufficient basic scientific information, inadequate education offishermen, and international disputes.
Blaxter (2000) outlines the history of stock enhancement in a number of countries from thelate 1800s to the late 1990s. One example is the Norwegian efforts to enhance cod stocks,which commenced in 1882 with the founding of a commercial hatchery, and larva releasescontinued until 1967. These releases were controversial, as many doubted the beneficialeffect. Short-term comparisons using 0-group and 1-group recapture at interval after releasewere encouraging, but in the early 1970s, a longer-term view was taken (1920 to 1969) andthe result was different. Recordings of 0-group fish at 17 locations along the coastline in bothrelease and non-release years showed no significant difference. It appeared the release ofeggs or yolk-sac larvae had no beneficial effect.
From the mid 1970s to 1991, Norway turned to the release of juveniles, with serious attemptsat augmentation occurring in 1983 (20,000 juveniles) and 1986 -1991 (660,000 juveniles)(Blaxter 2000, p 19). Field sampling to test the results of these releases continued until 1993and on the basis of results, the experiments ceased. In the two-year-old group, where fishshould be entering the fishery, there was no sign of stock enhancement.
The FAO Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service undertook a review of inlandfishery enhancements throughout the world in an attempt to characterize these enhancements.
It found the most common forms of enhancements were stocking and introductions, and theseoccurred for food production and generation of income (FAO, 1999). Enhancement forrecreational fisheries was of secondary importance. Most significant species for food andincome on a global scale were reported as Mozambique tilapia, common carp, rainbow trout,Nile tilapia and brook/sea trout.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 It found many fisheries in the world were enhanced in one way or another, and new fisheriesare being created where opportunities allow. For example, Chinese reservoirs built for powergeneration are being stocked with fish and contributing significantly to inland fisheriesproduction. Finland uses regular stocking of brown trout as a major contribution to its lakesfisheries management (FAO 1999). Further information on different enhancement methodsand enhanced fisheries for each global region can be found in the FAO review. Similarly,Welcomme and Bartley (1998) provide a thorough overview of the history of fish stockingsand the results of some of them.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 APPENDIX 2
PROPOSED GUIDELINES FOR STOCK
ENHANCEMENT IN WESTERN AUSTRALIAN
Guidelines to be taken into account when proposing to stock fish into public
water bodies where the species naturally occurs
• All stock to be placed into public water bodies should originate from broodstock obtained from that water body or an interconnecting system.
• Large numbers of broodstock should be used to produce the fingerlings or yearlings necessary for the restocking. The use of large numbers of broodstock will assist inpreventing loss of genetic diversity through inbreeding and genetic drift. Anybreeding program should be developed in liaison with a geneticist with expertise infish population genetics, preferably of the species involved.
• No selection process to improve the stock must occur. Unintentional domestication of stock may be unavoidable, but it is possible that it can be minimised by theintroduction of new broodstock from the wild every generation. NB: Differentstocking strategies can be used to improve returns to recreational fishers (i.e. stockingyearling fish as opposed to fry). • Fish to be stocked into a system in which the species already occurs, must be tested for nominated diseases.
• ‘Nominated' diseases must include relevant ‘Notifiable' diseases as listed under the Enzootic Disease Regulations 1970 and any other diseases nominated by the SeniorFish Pathologist of the Department of Fisheries for the particular species to bestocked.
• Government veterinary officers or other authorised officers in laboratories using methods approved by the Senior Fish Pathologist of the Department of Fisheries shallperform health testing and certification.
• Testing standards shall meet the 95 per cent degree of confidence that the fish to be stocked are free of the ‘nominated' diseases.
• A sound scientific monitoring program to evaluate the success and determine the cost benefits of the stocking program must be implemented.
Guidelines to be taken into account when proposing to stock fish into public
water bodies where the species did occur, but is now depleted
• A stock assessment must be conducted to determine the extent of the depletion prior to any stocking program being undertaken. This should include an evaluation to identifythe cause of stock depletion. Remedial action should be taken to improve habitat orregulate recreational or commercial take if that is the cause of the initial depletion andthe effectiveness of the stocking program should be evaluated against othermanagement methods.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 • All stock to be placed into the natural environment should preferably originate from broodstock obtained from that water body or an interconnecting system. If broodstockfrom that system are not readily available as natural stock populations are depleted,then broodstock with a similar adaptive potential should be sourced (i.e. from acommon evolutionary history).
• Large numbers of broodstock should be used to produce the fingerlings or yearlings necessary for the restocking. The use of large numbers of broodstock will assist inpreventing loss of genetic diversity through inbreeding and genetic drift. Anybreeding program should be developed in liaison with a geneticist with expertise infish population genetics, preferably of the species involved.
• Some selection to improve the stock may be permitted to ensure optimum fitness of the stock, and therefore increase the chances of survival in the system.
• Fish to be stocked must be tested for nominated diseases.
• ‘Nominated' diseases must include relevant ‘Notifiable' diseases as listed under the Enzootic Disease Regulations 1970 and any other diseases nominated by the SeniorFish Pathologist of the Department of Fisheries for the particular species to bestocked.
• Government veterinary officers or other authorised officers in laboratories using methods approved by the Senior Fish Pathologist of the Department of Fisheries shallperform health testing and certification.
• Testing standards shall meet the 95 per cent degree of confidence that the fish to be stocked are free of the ‘nominated' diseases.
• A sound scientific monitoring program to evaluate the success and determine the cost benefits of the stocking program must be implemented.
Guidelines to be taken into account when proposing to stock fish into public
water bodies where that species has never occurred
• Proposals to stock fish into public water bodies where that species has never occurred will be assessed on a case by case basis, but will require a full translocationassessment as outlined in accordance with the process outlined in MPG No. 5. Thismay include referral to the EPA. In certain areas, approval from the Department ofEnvironment and Heritage may also be required under the CommonwealthEnvironment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. • Approval to stock particular species of fish into areas where they do not naturally occur is unlikely to be granted unless it can be demonstrated that the activity isunlikely to impact on important biological resources.
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 APPENDIX 3
THE EPA'S PROCESSES FOR ASSESSING
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PAPERS
The Report of the Southern Western Australian Shark Working Group. Chairman P.
The Report of the Fish Farming Legislative Review Committee. Chairman P.Rogers (1986).
Management Measures for the Shark Bay Snapper 1987 Season. P. Millington (1986).
The Esperance Rock Lobster Working Group. Chairman A. Pallot (1986).
The Windy Harbour - Augusta Rock Lobster Working Group. Interim Report by theChairman A. Pallot (1986).
The King George Sound Purse Seine Fishery Working Group. Chairman R. Brown (1986).
Management Measures for the Cockburn Sound Mussel Fishery. H. Brayford (1986).
Report of the Rock Lobster Industry Advisory meeting of 27 January 1987 . Chairman B.
Western Rock Lobster Industry Compensation Study. Arthur Young Services (1987).
Further Options for Management of the Shark Bay Snapper Fishery. P. Millington (1987).
The Shark Bay Scallop Fishery. L. Joll (1987).
Report of the Rock Lobster Industry Advisory Committee to the Hon Minister for Fisheries24 September 1987. (1987) A Development Plan for the South Coast Inshore Trawl Fishery. (1987) Draft Management Plan for the Perth Metropolitan Purse Seine Fishery. P. Millington(1987).
Draft management plan, Control of barramundi gillnet fishing in the Kimberley. R. S.
The South West Trawl Fishery Draft Management Plan. P. Millington (1988).
The final report of the pearling industry review committee . F.J. Malone, D.A. Hancock, B.
Policy for Freshwater Aquaculture in Western Australia. (1988) Sport Fishing for Marron in Western Australia - Management for the Future. (1988) The Offshore Constitutional Settlement, Western Australia 1988.
Commercial fishing licensing in Western Australia. (1989) Economics and marketing of Western Australian pilchards. SCP Fisheries Consultants PtyLtd (1988).
Management of the south-west inshore trawl fishery. N. Moore (1989) Management of the Perth metropolitan purse-seine fishery. N. Moore (1989).
Rock Lobster Industry Advisory Committee report to the Minister for Fisheries November1988. (1989) A report on marron fishing in Western Australia. Chairman Doug Wenn MLC (1989).
A review of the Shark Bay pearling industry. Dr D.A.Hancock, (1989).
Southern demersal gillnet and longline fishery. (1989) Distribution and marketing of Western Australian rock lobster. P. Monaghan (1989).
Foreign investment in the rock lobster industry. (1989) Rock Lobster Industry Advisory Committee report to the Hon Minister for FisheriesSeptember 1989. (1989) Fishing Licences as security for loans. P. Rogers (1989) Guidelines for by-laws for those Abrolhos Islands set aside for fisheries purposes. N. Moore(1989).
The future for recreational fishing - issues for community discussion. Recreational FishingAdvisory Committee (1990).
Future policy for charter fishing operations in Western Australia. P. Millington (1990).
Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Long term management measures for the Cockburn Sound restricted entry fishery. P.
Western rock lobster industry marketing report 1989/90 season. MAREC Pty Ltd (1990).
The economic impact of recreational fishing in Western Australia. R.K. Lindner, P.B.
Establishment of a registry to record charges against fishing licences when used as securityfor loans. P. Rogers. (1991) The future for Recreational Fishing - Forum Proceedings. Recreational Fishing AdvisoryCommittee (1991) The future for Recreational Fishing - The Final Report of the Recreational FishingAdvisory Committee. Recreational Fishing Advisory Committee (1991).
Appendix to the final report of the Recreational Fishing Advisory Committee. (1991) A discussion of options for effort reduction. Southern Gillnet and Demersal Longline FisheryManagement Advisory Committee (1991).
A study into the feasability of establishing a system for the buy-back of salmon fishingauthorisations and related endorsements. (1991) Draft Management Plan, Kimberley Prawn Fishery. (1991) Rock Lobster Industry Advisory Committee, Chairman's report to the Minister (1992) Long term management measures for the Cockburn Sound restricted entry fishery. Summaryof submissions and final recommendations for management. P. Millington (1992).
Pearl oyster fishery policy guidelines (Western Australian Pearling Act 1990). WesternAustralian Fisheries Joint Authority (1992).
Management plan, Kimberley prawn fishery. (1992) Draft management plan, South West beach seine fishery. D.A. Hall (1993).
The west coast shark fishery, draft management plan. D.A. Hall (1993).
Review of bag and size limit proposals for Western Australian recreational fishers. F.B.
Prokop (May 1993).
Rock Lobster Industry Advisory Committee, Chairman's report to the Minister for Fisheries.
(May 1993) Rock Lobster Industry Advisory Committee, Management proposals for 1993/94 and1994/95 western rock lobster season (July 1993).
Rock Lobster Industry Advisory Committee, Chairman's report to the Minister for Fisherieson management proposals for 1993/94 and 1994/95 western rock lobster seasons (September1993).
Review of recreational gill, haul and cast netting in Western Australia. F. B. Prokop(October 1993).
Management arrangements for the southern demersal gillnet and demersal longline fishery1994/95 season. (October 1993).
The introduction and translocation of fish, crustaceans and molluscs in Western Australia.
C. Lawrence (October 1993).
Proceedings of the charter boat management workshop (held as part of the 1st NationalFisheries Manager Conference). A. E. Magee & F. B. Prokop (November 1993).
Bag and size limit information from around Australia (Regulations as at September 1993) F.
B. Prokop (January 1993).
Economic impact study. Commercial fishing in Western Australia Dr P McLeod & CMcGinley (October 1994) Management arrangements for specimen shell collection in Western Australia. J. Barrington,G. Stewart (June 1994) Management of the marine aquarium fish fishery. J. Barrington (June 1994) The Warnbro Sound crab fishery draft management plan. F. Crowe (June 1994) Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 Future management of recreational gill, haul and cast netting in Western Australia andsummary of submissions to the netting review. F.B. Prokop, L.M. Adams (September 1994) Long term management strategies for the Western Rock Lobster Fishery. (4 volumes)Evaluation of management options Volume 1. B. K. Bowen (September 1994) Long term management strategies for the Western Rock Lobster Fishery. (4 volumes)Economic efficiency of alternative input and output based management systems in thewestern rock lobster fishery, Volume 2. R.K. Lindner (September 1994) Long term management strategies for the Western Rock Lobster Fishery. (4 volumes) Amarket-based economic assessment for the western rock lobster industry, Volume 3. MarecPty Ltd (September 1994) Long term management strategies for the Western Rock Lobster Fishery. (4 volumes) Lawenforcement considerations, Volume 4. N. McLaughlan (September 1994) The Rock Lobster Industry Advisory Committee Chairman's Report, October 1994, TheWestern Rock Lobster Fishery - Management proposals for the 1994/95 and 1995/96seasons (November 1994) Shark Bay World Heritage Area draft management plan for fish resources. D. Clayton(November 1994) The bag and size limit review: new regulations and summary of submissions. F. Prokop(May 1995) Report on future management options for the South West trawl limited entry fishery. SouthWest trawl limited entry fishery working group (June 1995) Implications of Native Title legislation for fisheries management and the fishing industry inWestern Australia. P. Summerfield (February 1995) Draft report of the South Coast estuarine fishery working group. South Coast estuarinefishery working group. (February 1995) The Offshore Constitutional Settlement, Western Australia. H. Brayford & G. Lyon (May1995) The Best Available Information - Its Implications for Recreational Fisheries Management.
Workshop at Second National Fisheries Managers Conference, Bribie Island Queensland.
F. Prokop (May 1995) Management of the Northern Demersal Scalefish Fishery. J. Fowler (June 1995) Management arrangements for specimen shell collection in Western Australia, 1995. J.
Barrington & C. Campbell (March 1996) Management Options (Discussion Paper) for the Shark Bay Snapper Limited Entry Fishery.
Shark Bay Snapper Limited Entry Fishery Working Group, Chaired by Doug Bathgate (June1995) The Impact of the New Management Package on Smaller Operators in the Western RockLobster Fishery R. Gould (September 1995) No. 83 Translocation Issues in Western Australia. Proceedings of a Seminar and Workshop held on
26 and 27 September 1994. F. Prokop (July 1995) No. 84 Bag and Size Limit Regulations From Around Australia. Current Information as at 1 July
1995. Third Australasian Fisheries Managers Conference, Rottnest Island. F. Prokop (July1995) No. 85 West Coast Rock Lobster Fishery Management Plan 1995 - Draft for Public Comment.
Edited by M. Moran (August 1995) No. 86 A Review of Ministerial Policy Guidelines for Rock Lobster Processing in Western Australia
from the Working Group appointed by the Minister for Fisheries and chaired by Peter Rich(December 1995) No. 87 Same Fish - Different Rules. Proceedings of the National Fisheries Management Network
Workshop held as part of the Third Australasian Fisheries Managers Conference. F.
Prokop Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 No. 88 Balancing the Scales - Access and Equity in Fisheries Management - Proceedings of the
Third Australasian Fisheries Managers Conference, Rottnest Island, Western Australia 2 - 4August 1995. Edited by P. Summerfield (February 1996) No. 89 Fishermen's views on the future management of the rock lobster fishery. A report. Prepared
on behalf of the Rock Lobster Industry Advisory Committee by The Marketing Centre.
(August 1995) A report on the issues effecting the use of the Dampier Archipelago. Peter Driscoll,Landvision Pty Ltd (March 1996) Shark Bay World Heritage Property - Management Paper for Fish Resources. Kevin AFrancesconi (September 1996) Pearling and Aquaculture in the Dampier Archipelago - Existing and Proposed Operations.
A report for public comment. Compiled by Ben Fraser (September 1996) Shark Bay World Heritage Property - Summary of Public Submissions to the DraftManagement Plan for Fish Resources. Kevin A Francesconi (September 1996) Rock Lobster Industry Advisory Committee Report - Management arrangements for theWestern Rock Lobster Fishery for the 1997/98 season. Frank Prokop (May 1997) No. 95 Australian Salmon and Herring Resource Allocation Committee. P McLeod & F Prokop (in
No. 96 Summary Report of the Freshwater Aquaculture Taskforce (FAT) by Chris Wells (in press)
No. 97 (in press)
No. 98 A Pricing Policy for Fisheries Agencies - Standing Committee on Fisheries and Aquaculture
Management Committee. P Millington (March 1997) No. 99 Management of the South Coast Purse Seine Fishery. J Fowler, R Lenanton, Kevin
Donohue,M Moran & D Gaughan.
No. 100 The Aquaculture of non-endemic species in Western Australia - Redclaw crayfish (Cherax
quadricarinatus). Tina Thorne (June 1997) No. 101 Optimising the worth of the catch - Options and Issues. Marec Pty Ltd (September 1997)
No. 102 Marine farm planning and consultation processes in Western Australia. Dave Everall
No. 103 Future management of the aquatic charter industry in Western Australia by the Tour
Operators Fishing Working Group (September 1997).
No. 104 Management of the Houtman Abrolhos System (draft). Prepared by the Abrolhos Islands
Management Advisory Committee in conjunction with Fisheries Western Australia(October 1997) No. 105 Plan for the Management of the Houtman Abrolhos Fish Habitat Protection Area (draft).
Prepared by the Abrolhos Islands Management Advisory Committee in conjunction withFisheries Western Australia (October 1997) No. 106 The impact of Occupational Safety and Health on the management of Western Australian
Fisheries. Cameron Wilson (in press) No. 107 The Aquaculture of non-endemic species in Western Australia - Silver Perch (Bidyanus
bidyanus). Tina Thorne (June 1997) No. 108 Issues affecting Western Australia's inshore crab fishery - Blue swimmer crab (Portunus
pelagicus), Sand crab (Ovalipes australiensis). Cathy Campbell (September 1997) No. 109 Abalone Aquaculture in Western Australia. Cameron Westaway & Jeff Norriss (October
No. 110 Proposed Voluntary Fishery Adjustment Scheme - South Coast Purse Seine Managed
Fishery Report by Committee of Management (October 1997) No. 111 Management Options for Pilbara Demersal Line Fishing. Gaye Looby (December 1997)
No. 112 Summary of Submissions to Fisheries Management Paper No. 108 - issues affecting
Western Australia's inshore crab fishery. Compiled by Cathy Campbell (April 1998) No. 113 Western Rock Lobster Management - Options and Issues. Prepared by Kevin Donohue on
behalf of the Rock Lobster Industry Advisory Committee. (June 1998) Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 No. 114 A Strategy for the Future Management of the Joint Authority Northern Shark Fishery.
Prepared by Tim Bray and Jo Kennedy. (June 1998) No. 115 Guidelines for granting Aquaculture Leases. Prepared by Fisheries WA, the Aquaculture
Development Council & the Aquaculture Council of WA. (July 1998) No. 116 Future Management of the Aquatic Charter Industry in Western Australia - Final Report.
By the Tour Operators Fishing Working Group (September 1998) Management of the Houtman Abrolhos System. Prepared by the Abrolhos IslandsManagement Advisory Committee in conjunction with Fisheries Western Australia.
(December 1998) No. 118 Plan for the Management of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands Fish Habitat Protection Area
No. 119 Access to Wildstock for Aquaculture Purposes (not published)
No. 120 Draft Management Plan for Sustainable Tourism at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands.
Prepared by LeProvost, Dames and Moore for the Abrolhos Islands Managment AdvisoryCommittee in conjunction with Fisheries WA. (December 1998) No. 121 Future Directions for Tourism at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands - Draft for Public
Comment. Prepared by LeProvost, Dames and Moore for the Abrolhos IslandsManagement Advisory Committee in conjunction with Fisheries WA. (December 1998) No. 122 Opportunities for the Holding/Fattening/Processing and Aquaculture of Western Rock
Lobster (Panulirus cygnus). A discussion paper compiled by Fisheries WA. (November1998) No. 123 Future directions for the Rock Lobster Industry Advisory Committee and the Western Rock
Lobster Managed Fishery. A discussion paper prepared by Kevin Donohue on behalf of theRock Lobster Industry Advisory Committee. (December 1998) No. 124 A Quality Future for Recreational Fishing in the Gascoyne. Proposals for Community
Discussion. A five-year management strategy prepared by the Gascoyne RecreationalFishing Working Group (May 1999).
No. 125 Changes to Offshore Constitutional Settlement Arrangements; North West Slope Trawl
Fishery and Western Deepwater Trawl Fishery. A discussion paper by Fiona Crowe andJane Borg (May 1999)[not published] No. 126 The South Coast Estuarine Fishery. A discussion paper by Rod Pearn and Tony Cappelluti.
No. 127 The Translocation of Barramundi. A discussion paper by Makaira Pty Ltd.[July 1999]
No. 128 Shark Bay Pink Snapper Managed Fisheries in WA
No. 129 Review of the Western Australian Pilchard Fishery 12 - 16 April 1999. Prepared by K.L.
Cochrane, Fisheries Resource Division, Food and Agriculture Division of the UnitedNations (November 1999) No. 130 Developing New Fisheries in Western Australia. A guide to applicants for developing
fisheries Compiled by Lucy Halmarick (November 1999) No. 131 Management Directions for Western Australia's Estuarine and Marine Embayment
Fisheries. A strategic approach to management (November 1999) No. 132 Summary of Submissions to Fisheries Management Paper No. 126 - The South Coast
Estuarine Fishery - A Discussion Paper. Compiled by Rod Pearn (November 1999) No. 133 Abalone Aquaculture in Western Australia, A Policy Guideline (December 1999)
No. 134 Management Directions for WA's Coastal Commercial Finfish Fisheries. Issues and
proposals for community discussion (March 2000) No. 135 Protecting and Sharing Western Australia's Coastal Fish Resources. The path to integrated
management. Issues and proposals for community discussion (March 2000) No. 136 Management Directions for WA's Recreational Fisheries (March 2000)
No. 137 Aquaculture Plan for the Houtman Abrolhos Islands (April 2000)
No. 138 Information on Quota Management of Rock Lobster Fisheries in South Australia, Tasmania
and New Zealand. By Kevin Donohue and Eric Barker (May 2000) Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 No. 139 A Quality Future for Recreational Fishing on the West Coast. Proposals for Community
Discussion. A five-year management strategy prepared by the West Coast RecreationalFishing Working Group (June 1999) No. 140 Aquaculture Plan for the Recherche Archipelago, Western Australia. (June 2000)
No. 141 Fish Protection Measures in Western Australia (June 2001)
No. 142 Fisheries Environmental Management Plan for the Gascoyne Region (June 2002)
No. 143 Western Rock Lobster. Discussion paper for seasons 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 (July 2000)
No. 144 The Translocation of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus
mykiss) into and within Western Australia. Prepared by Jaqueline Chappell, contributionsfrom Simon Hambleton, Dr Howard Gill, Dr David Morgan and Dr Noel Morrissy. (notpublished, superseded by MP 156) No. 145 The Aquaculture of non-endemic species in Western Australia - Silver Perch (Bidyanus
bidyanus). As amended October 2000. Tina Thorne. This replaces Fisheries ManagementPaper No. 107.
No. 146 Sustainable Tourism Plan for the Houtman Abrolhos Islands (February 2001)
No. 147 Draft Bycatch Action Plan for the Shark Bay Prawn Managed Fishery (Full Report) (April
No. 148 Draft Bycatch Action Plan for the Shark Bay Prawn Managed Fishery (Summary Report)
No. 149 Final Plan of Management for the Lancelin Island Lagoon Fish Habitat Protection Area
No. 150 Draft Plan of Management for the Cottesloe Reef Proposed Fish Habitat Protection Area
No. 151 Inventory of the Land Conservation Values of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands (July 2003)
No. 152 Guidelines for the Establishment of Fish Habitat Protection Areas (June 2001)
No. 153 A Five-Year Management Strategy for Recreational Fishing on the West Coast of Western
Australia. Final Report of the West Coast Recreational Fishing Working Group (August2001).
No. 154 A Five-Year Management Strategy for Recreational Fishing in the Gascoyne. Final Report
of the Gascoyne Recreational Fishing Working Group (September 2001) No. 155 Plan of Management for the Cottesloe Reef Fish Habitat Protection Area (September 2001)
No. 156 The Translocation of Brown Trout (Salmo Trutta) and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus
mykiss) into and within Western Australia (June 2002) No. 157 Policy for the Implementation of Ecologically Sustainable Development for Fisheries and
Aquaculture within Western Australia. By W.J. Fletcher (May 2002) No. 158 Draft Plan of Management for the Miaboolya Beach Fish Habitat Protection Area (March
No. 159 The Translocation of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) for Aquaculture and Recreational
Fishery Enhancement in Western Australia. By Tina Thorne.
No. 160 The Introduction and Aquaculture of Non-endemic Species in Western Australia: the
‘Rotund' Yabby Cherax rotundus and the All-male Hybrid Yabby. A Discussion Paper.
(June 2002) No. 161 Plan of Management for the Miaboolya Beach Fish Habitat Protection Area (September
No. 162 Reseeding of grazing gastropods and bivalves into the marine environment in Western
Australia – a discussion paper. By Jane Borg. No. 163 Review of recreational take of coral in Western Australia – a discussion paper October
No. 164 Report of the Mackerel Independent Advisory Panel to the Executive Director, Department
of Fisheries, on criteria for access to, and management arrangements for, the proposedMackerel Fishery (Interim) Management Plan (November 2002) Fisheries Management Paper No. 175 No. 165 Report to the Minister for Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries by the Integrated Fisheries
Management Review Committee (November 2002) No. 166 Fisheries Statutory Management Authority Inquiry. A background paper (February 2003)
No. 167 Draft Fisheries Environmental Management Plan for the Northern Region (in press)
No. 168 Aboriginal Fishing Strategy: Report to the Minister for Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
by the Hon E. M. Franklyn QC, Chairman of the Aboriginal Fishing Strategy WorkingGroup No. 169 Hardy Inlet discussion paper (in press)
No. 170 Management of the proposed Geographe Bay Blue Swimmer and Sand Crab Managed
Fishery. By Jane Borg and Cathy Campbell (August 2003) No. 171 Draft Aquaculture Plan for Shark Bay (in press)
No. 172 Draft Aquaculture Plan for Exmouth Gulf (in press)
No. 173 Draft Plan of Management for the proposed Point Quobba Fish Habitat Protection Area
No. 174 Translocation of Golden Perch, Murray Cod and Australian Bass into and within Western
Australia for the Purposes of Recreational Stocking, Domestic Stocking and Commercialand Non-commercial Aquaculture (December 2003) No. 175 Fish Stock and Fishery Enhancement in Western Australia - a discussion paper. By Jane
Borg (in press) No. 176 Fish Stock and Fishery Enhancement in Western Australia - a summary report. By Jane
Borg (in press) No. 177 Fisheries Environmental Management Plan for the Gascoyne Region (in press)
No. 178 Draft Plan of Management for the Kalbarri Blue Holes Fish Habitat Protection Area (in
No. 179 A Draft Policy for the Translocation of Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) and Rainbow Trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss) into and within Western Australia for the Purposes of RecreationalStocking, Domestic Stocking and Commercial and Non-Commercial Aquaculture (in press)
MASHAV - Israel's Agency for International Development Cooperation The Arava Institute for Environmental Studies invite professionals to participate in the STATE OF ISRAEL International Course: Environmental Management of Nature Parks and Reserves Israel's Agency for International