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ARTHRITIS SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT Is Arthritis Bothering You? by Francisco M. Torres, MD Are you struggling with tenderness, swelling, Who Gets Arthritis? stiffness, or sharp pain around your joints? All genders, races, and ages are susceptible Are you also dealing with other symptoms to arthritis. Sixty percent of those are like fever, swollen glands, fatigue, weight Inflammatory vs. Degenerative women; 40 percent are men. Caucasians are loss, and a generalized physical discomfort? While these are the two most common types of arthritis, diagnosed with the most cases at 36 million. This could be arthritis. one is a much more complicated disease than the other. African –Americans follow at 4.6 million and Find out the differences and what you can do about it. Hispanics at 2.9 million. Two-thirds of adults Arthritis isn't just one disease. It's a term that with arthritis are under the age of 65 with actually describes more than 100 diseases 300,000 being children under the age of 18. that cause the symptoms you may be experiencing. Osteoarthritis is the most Additionally, nearly half (47%) of those common form. With osteoarthritis, the diagnosed with arthritis has at least one cartilage around the joints wears out. The other diagnosed medical condition: cartilage acts as a buffer between your bones. Without the buffer, bones rub Heart disease – 47% together causing inflammation and pain. High blood pressure – 44% We'll go over more signs and symptoms of Diabetes – 47% osteoarthritis on page three. Obesity – 31% How Many Have Arthritis? Your Lifetime Risk Nearly 25 percent (1 in 4) adults in the United Whether it may develop as symptomatic Signs and Symptoms of States have been diagnosed with arthritis, an osteoarthritis in the knees or hips, or a more estimated 52.5 million adults. Two thirds of serious form, your risk of getting arthritis If you've been bothered with stiffness and pain in the those are under the age of 65. As the sometime in your lifetime is nearly 50 joints, especially in the morning and evenings, you could population increases, an estimated 67 million percent. However, we can teach you what be experiencing osteoarthritis. Know the signs and adults are expected to have arthritis you can do to help lower your risk and symptoms by 2030. ultimately treat diagnosed cases. Just follow along with us.
ARTHRITIS SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT Issue #001 Inflammatory vs. Degenerative by Francisco M. Torres, MD Arthritis can be classified as Inflammatory versus degenerative. Inflammatory arthritis is usually referred to as rheumatoid arthritis or RA, while degenerative arthritis is best known as osteoarthritis or OA. Causes of Rheumatoid Arthritis Also known as an autoimmune disease, RA can be much more complicated to treat than other types of arthritis. Despite many years of intensive investigation, the cause of RA remains elusive. A number of potential culprits have been studied, including endocrine, metabolic, and nutritional as well as a multitude of geographic, occupational the causes of OA. This degenerative type of systemic disease.
and psychological variables. While these arthritis is usually found in the knees, hips, factors could influence the course of the feet, hands, and spine. disease, they clearly can't be implicated as an absolute cause responsible for this condition. RA and OA Similarities Symptoms of RA and OA are similar when it Take control of your aging process and prevent Causes of Osteoarthritis comes to stiffness and joint pain. However, the onset of age related disease. Let While OA is known as the non-inflammatory the stiffness with RA tends to last longer ForeverYoung.MD help you improve your type, inflammation may still result in the than it does with OA flare-ups. Discomfort health and body. For a comprehensive health joints. However, this inflammation is a result with OA pain is usually concentrated in the evaluation, contact us. of cartilage breakdown. Joint injury, and affected joint(s), while RA symptoms can everyday activities that strain the joints, are include weakness and fatigue as it's a by Francisco M. Torres, MD Osteoarthritis is sometimes called degenerative joint disease or degenerative cartilage and bone fragments floating in arthritis. Affecting nearly 27 million Americans, it is the most common chronic Spurs or osteophytes developing condition of the joints. Joint fluid (hyaluronan) decreasing You may notice trouble when walking or With osteoarthritis, the cartilage is worn Nearly 44% of adults medically down around the joint where two ends of going up and down stairs, as these diagnosed with arthritis report no bones meet. With this wearing away, the movements place stress upon the affecting leisure time physical activity compared bones are exposed and rub against each joints of the back and lower body. with 36% of adults without arthritis. other. Cartilage deterioration also affects the Osteoarthritis has no single or specific cause. joint's shape and makeup so that it no longer Instead, several factors are involved functions smoothly. including heredity and lifestyle. While it was As cartilage breaks down, other problems once believed as a simple mechanical process may also affect the joint while causing of "wearing out," osteoarthritis is now irritation and pain. Surrounding tissue can declared a disease of the joint. also be damaged, and inflammation may even occur. These problems include:
ARTHRITIS SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT Issue #001 Osteoarthritis is one of the most common causes of back pain in adults. Lumbar Osteoarthritis Wear and tear on the facet joints in the lower spine causes cartilage breakdown which encourages the bony parts of the joints to rub together. This causes lumbar osteoarthritis in the low back which promotes stiffness, inflammation, and pain. Signs and Symptoms of Osteoarthritis by Francisco M. Torres, MD Symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA) vary as it abnormal spine curve due to imbalanced depends on which joints are affected and muscles from spasms how severely. Some patients are debilitated pinching, tingling, or numbing while others have few symptoms in spite of sensations in the arms or legs dramatic joint degeneration shown on x-rays. If skin turns red or feels hot, and joint pain is Osteoarthritis of the Knee Pain may also be intermittent where patients accompanied by a fever and/or rash, OA is can be pain-free for years between Trauma, as well as chronic wear and tear of the joint, probably not the right diagnoses. If you have contributes to loss of the cartilage within the knee. The these symptoms, you may want to check thigh and shin bone that meet at the knee are then As mentioned previously, OA generally with your healthcare provider for rheumatoid exposed with no protection. This causes affects the knees, hips, feet, and lower back. arthritis or some other possible causes. musculoskeletal pain and disability in the knee joint and When those joints are affected, difficulties is the most common type of osteoarthritis. occur with activities such as walking, climbing stairs, and lifting objects. Neck and The knee is the most common area of OA. It fingers are also commonly affected, accounts for nearly 50 percent of all OA diagnoses. Pain usually increases in the knee especially the base of the thumbs. This makes grasping and holding things, such as when moving and may cause warmth and pencils, difficult. swelling of the joint. As OA increases, mobility decreases One in five adults in the United States is diagnosed with Stiffness and pain are usually worse in the which makes walking, arthritis by a medical doctor. mornings. This first movement pain usually using stairs, and getting improves during the day as daily activities are in and out of chairs carried out. The pain may then regenerate during the evenings. Other symptoms of OA Sufferers may also feel or hear crepitus when moving the knees. Two in three overweight or obese persons will develop warmth and swelling of one or more osteoarthritis in their lifetime. joints, particularly during weather OA in the hip often causes FOR MORE INFORMATION localized tenderness where the joint or pain in the hip, back, and affected area is pressed leg. Often times, patients To get the latest facts, check out our blog. Let steady or intermittent achy pain in the with hip OA will have OA us help you set a goal that makes you want to joint which is sometimes aggravated by in other joints as well. This can make it jump out of bed in the morning. difficult to distinguish where the pain is loss of joint flexibility, such as when actually originating. Failed low back bending to pick up something from the decompression is the most common cause of missed diagnosis of hip OA. crepitus which is the crunchy sound and feeling of bones rubbing together when the joint is moved ARTHRITIS SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT Issue #001 Feet, Toes, and Ankles Neck Osteoarthritis Symptoms over Time While each foot has 28 bones and over 30 OA of the neck is also called cervical As mentioned previously, OA has different joints, certain joints are commonly affected osteoarthritis or cervical spondylosis. It variables. For most, OA usually develops over involves changes to the joints, bones, and time. Some may experience achy joints only discs of the neck. Neck pain and stiffness are after exercise or some form of physical work the three foot joints involving the heel the most common signs. with little or no pain in between. However, bone, inner-foot bone, and outer mid- pain does steady over time as the cartilage Hand and Finger Osteoarthritis between bones thin. the joint of the big toe and foot bone OA of the hand occurs more frequently in the joint where the ankle and shinbone After long periods of inactivity, stiffness and pain may also begin to set in. the joint at the thumb base where the The ability to walk, bear weight, or even thumb meets the wrist With progressive or advanced stage OA, a move may be affected as stiffness, swelling, the joint at the end of the finger closest single joint may be affected. However, many tenderness, and pain increases. joints may be affected with further activity. the joint in the middle of the finger While it is less common, severe deformities can occur with OA. However, OA differs from OA of the spine is one of the most common Deep, aching pain may often accompany the inflammatory or systemic types of arthritis as causes of back pain. When the facet or location at the base of the thumb which it only affects joints and not the soft tissue or vertebral joints become inflamed, causes trouble gripping things with any kind organs of the body as RA does. On rare progressive joint degeneration creates more of strength. Turning keys or opening lids may occasions, OA can lead to nerve entrapment frictional pain. In turn, back pain may in the spine or spinal cord of the neck. progress when sitting, standing, and walking. Finding a Diagnosis by Francisco M. Torres, MD Upon a physical examination of the affected However, x-rays aren't joint(s), your doctor may order screen tests. as effective for those This may include blood tests, x-rays, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or arthroscopy. MRI Scans The MRI scan can be helpful in diagnosing Blood tests are more commonly used to arthritis as it produces confirm or rule out rheumatoid arthritis very clear pictures of (RA).Those with RA will have an antibody the human body. It can called rheumatoid factor or RF. However RF reveal joint damage, may also be present in other rheumatoid especially to the spine, disorders. Therefore, a new test for RA may knee, or shoulder. Like be given called the anti-CCP test. It is a more the x-ray, an MRI can specific test that tends to only be elevated in patients with pre-RA or RA. The anti-CCP determine the progression of the disease. test can also predict how severe the RA may get. Most commonly used to diagnose knee and shoulder problems, an arthroscopy may be If you have questions about your health, let used to also diagnose OA. This minor surgical ForeverYoung.MD give you the time you don't get with your Primary Care visits. Get your procedure inserts this tool into the joint questions answered today. through several small incisions to detect how much joint damage there is. Moreover, the We're open Monday through Friday from 9 AM doctor may repair the damage at this time. to 6 PM. Saturdays are by appointment only. This procedure is performed on an outpatient EMAIL OR CALL US AT: 727.432.7188 ARTHRITIS SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT Issue #001 UPCOMING NEWSLETTERS Osteoarthritis Treatment by Ashleigh Gass, MS, CSCS, CCN, CNS Currently, there is no cure for osteoarthritis (OA). However, treatment can help reduce Daily tasks may be difficult with OA. Other symptoms and make it possible to live an than conventional treatments, you may do active and full life. some things that will help alleviate OA: Treatment goals include: maintain a healthy weight and lose if stiffness and pain reduction include aerobic exercise like walking, damage prevention biking, or swimming April 2015 – Nutrition & Natural include strength training such as lifting Supplementation for Arthritis Therapy is based on the severity of Learn how you can manage your arthritis symptoms symptoms, how well other treatments have try acupuncture with nutrition and natural supplements. Find out what worked, and how much damage has already take natural supplements such as foods may provide pain relief and which may actually glucosamine, chondroitin, rose hips, and exacerbate your symptoms as we also uncover the supplements that may benefit you. Types of Therapy rub Voltaren Gel or another strong- smelling mentholated cream on The best treatment for OA is a well-rounded program that may include: try capsaicin cream on affected joints employ electrical energy to painful diet and nutrition weight bearing exercise try chiropractic therapy heat and cold compresses employ an in-home physical therapist assistive devices and orthotics balance and redistribute weight with physical therapy orthotics, splints, braces, and splints or occupational therapy stress management meditate and rest for stress relief adequate rest altering daily activities Though it's not the easiest, the best remedy May 2015 – Treating Your Neck of all these is weight loss. For every pound you lose, that's four pounds less pressure on and Back Pain from Osteoarthritis Advanced Treatment your knees. You may even see your If you're suffering from neck and back pain, or have weakness and pain in the arms and legs, you may have If stiffness and pain doesn't get better from symptoms disappear with losing just 10 to 20 spinal osteoarthritis. Learn the signs and symptoms of OA, your doctor may prescribe the following: pounds. You can lose weight successfully this specific type of arthritis and find out how to receive with a good diet and exercise. Eating nutrient an accurate diagnoses and treatment plan. pain medicine, sometimes including low dense foods will help your body ward off doses of opioids disease, including OA. Exercise will alleviate steroid shots stiffness and pain. Meditation and rest will hyaluronic acid for intra articular relieve stress which lowers cortisol, the stress injections of the osteoarthritic knee hormone that holds onto body fat. If your pain gets too severe, surgery may be And though it's not therapy, learning as performed to replace the joint or keep the much as you can about OA can be joints you have moving well and preventing empowering. It's important to know what OA from getting worse. Some types of you're dealing with and what your limits are. surgery include: Educating yourself, as you're doing now with this newsletter, will provide you with insights you need to prevent arthritis and get treatment. Join us for next month's news on June 2015 – Manage Arthritis & finger or toe surgery nutrition and natural supplementation for Pain with Alternative Treatments osteotomy (knees and hips) joint replacement (knees, hips, or With medical costs on the rise, treating arthritis and pain with alternative measures are on the rise. We'll explore some of these natural options with science proving their benefits so that you can finally get lasting relief. ARTHRITIS SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT Issue #001 About Dr. Torres About Ashleigh Gass Our mission at ForeverYoung.MD is to Ashleigh has been enable our clients to take control of their own specializes in the aging process and to provide them with the physiology field for tools necessary to prevent the onset of age- related disease. ForeverYoung.MD will Providing guidance provide you with the knowledge necessary to spine-related pain to clients along the live with the health, energy, and fitness you age rejuvenation osteoarthritis of path, she develops multiple joints. As a trained age-management physician, he By employing state-of-the-art and works with patients on preventing age- nutrition plans for scientifically-proven medical techniques, we related disease in order to optimize health anyone desiring to strive to improve our clients' standard of and longevity. He lives with his wife and four get healthy and fit. living in the present and for the future. Dr. sons in Safety Harbor. Torres and his team work hard to develop personalized exercise and nutrition plans for our clients in order to guide them along in the rejuvenation process. "There is no Our Commitment We make time to evaluate the whole person challenge too hard and customize our strategy accordingly. We take this responsibility seriously and our specially trained and certified physicians are to overcome." waiting to assist you in making the most out of your life at any age. Arthritis Physician Consultation Have questions about your health but never get enough time during your Primary Care Signs, visits to get your questions answered? Symptoms, ForeverYoung.MD will give you the time you OUR TEAM AT FOREVERYOUNG.MD need and provide you with a quality health Diagnosis, and assessment during our consultation. Many Francisco M. Torres, MD, Board Cert. people have questions about the onset of President and Managing Director age-related disease and how it might be Treatment affected by lifestyle and genetics. But, many Ashleigh Gass, MS, CSCS, CCN, CNS of those people don't understand how the Brilliant Fitness and Nutrition answers to those questions could affect our 483 Mandalay Avenue daily lives. Our Physician Consultations offer Clearwater Beach, FL 33767 a forum to have those and many other Abby Campbell, BSc, SFN, SSN, CPT health questions addressed. Call ForeverYoung.MD to schedule your ForeverYoung.MD Fitness, Inc. completely confidential, one-on-one FOR MORE INFORMATION 3280 McMullen Booth Road Physician Consultation and get the answers you need to maintain your optimal health. Also, please join us for next month's news on Call us at 727.432.7188 Clearwater, FL 33761 nutrition and natural supplementation for
Psicopatología Clínica, Legal y Forense, Vol. 5, 2006, pp 43 - 66. BIOQUÍMICA DE LA AGRESIÓN Jesús Martín Ramírez1 Departamento de Psicobiología. Universidad Complutense de Madrid ResumenCon el creciente conocimiento de la bioquímica, observamos un progreso en las relacionesentre la conducta y los cambios bioquímicos del organismo. En concreto, en el equilibrioentre activación e inhibición de la agresión intervienen distintas sustancias químicas,conocidas como neurorreguladores -neurotransmisores y hormonas-, con importantesimplicaciones prácticas en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la violencia y de otros desórdenespsíquicos. Hoy día se consideran los procesos fisiológicos no solo como posibles causas, sinotambién como eventuales consecuencias de la conducta, en una perspectiva multidireccional,según la cual toda pauta comportamental está modulada por más de una sustancia químicaen compleja interacción mutua. En el presente artículo analizamos cómo interactúa laagresión con dos de los tipos más interesantes de neuroreguladores, a saber: las hormonas,con especial dedicación a las sexuales y a las suprarrenales, y los neurotransmisores, enespecial la serotonina. Concluiremos con unas breves especulaciones sobre hacia dóndetranscurrirá la psicofarmacología de la agresión en el futuro.PALABRAS CLAVE: Agresión, bioquímica, neurotransmisores, hormonas.