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INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE M Srinivas Prasad National Centre for Integrated Pest Management
LBS Building, IARI Campus, New Delhi – 110 012 Directorate of Plant Protection,
National Institute of Plant Health
Quarantine & Storage (DPPQ&S)
CGO Complex, NH IV, Faridabad DAC, Min of Agri., Rajendranagar, Hyderabad- 500030 2014 Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage CGO Complex, NH IV, Faridabad- 121001 : Anand Prakash, J S Bentur, M Srinivas Prasad, R K Tanwar, O P Sharma, Someshwar Bhagat, Mukesh Sehgal, S P Singh, Monika Singh, C Chattopadhyay, S N Sushil, A K Sinha, Ram Asre, K S Kapoor, K Satyagopal, and P Jeyakumar. 2014. Integrated Pest Management for Rice. p. 43 Cover picture
: Healthy crop of Rice Compiled by :
Prakash1, J S Bentur2, M Srinivas2 Prasad, R K Tanwar, O P Sharma, Someshwar Bhagat, Mukesh Sehgal, S P Singh, Monika Singh, C Chattopadhyay, S N Sushil3, A K Sinha3, Ram Asre3, K S Kapoor3, K Satyagopal4, and P Jeyakumar4.
National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, LBS Building, IARI Campus, Pusa, New Delhi-110 012 1CRRI, Cuttack 753006 2DRR, Rajendernagar, Hyderabad 500030 3Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage, Faridabad 121 001 4National Institute of Plant Health Management, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030 Published by :
National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, LBS Building, IARI Campus, New Delhi – 110 012 on behalf of Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage, CGO Complex, NH IV, Faridabad, Haryana- 121 001 Year :
Copies :
Printed by:M/s. Royal Offset Printers, A-89/1, Naraina Industrial Area, Phase-I, New Delhi-110028 Pests are major biotic constraints to achieve self sufficiency in ensuring food security. Losses due to pest vary range 10-30% depending upon the genetic constituent of crop, its health and the governing environment. General national estimate of annual crop losses due to pest amounts to areas can result in complete crop failures. In view of inefficacy of chemical pesticides and environmental problems thereof, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) has been accepted as a cardinal principle of Plant Protection in the overall Crop Protection Programme under the National Agricultural Policy of the Govt. of India. IPM being an eco-friendly approach, socially acceptable and economically viable has been widely accepted across the country. The IPM package encompasses various management strategies for pest and disease problems. Pest monitoring is also one of the important components of IPM to take proper decision to manage any pest problem. It can be done through Agro-Ecosystem Analysis (AESA), field scouting, light, pheromone, sticky/yellow pan traps. The economic threshold level (ETL) of important pests and diseases are also given in the package to activate appropriate control measures on standing crops.
The existing package and practices was developed way back in 2001-02 by DPPQ & S, Faridabad catering the need of extension personals in extending IPM tactics to farmers. Though these were useful, there is a need to update them in view of changing climate and its impact on pests and their protection measures. A National Workshop on IPM for harmonization of Package of Practices was organized at the National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi, during 25-26th Feb., 2013 with a view to provide technical knowledge to the extension functionaries and farmers in the States. The IPM package has been developed with the technical inputs from the experts from the PI (AICRIP), Indian Council of Agricultural Research (NCIPM), State Agricultural Universities, and DPPQ & S, Faridabad. It will also be useful in reducing the pesticide residues in exportable agricultural commodities and would also help in the management of pests/diseases/weeds/nematodes, which may get inadvertently introduced in the country. These packages will be useful for the researchers, extension workers and farmers alike who are engaged in the agricultural 2.1. Major Insect Pests: National Significance . 1 2.2. Major Insect Pests: Regional Significance . 1 2.3. Major Diseases of National Significance . 2 2.4. Major Diseases of Regional Significance . 2 2.5. Major Nematodes of National Significance . 2 2.6. Major Nematodes of Regional Significance . 2 2.7. Major Weeds of National Significance . 3 2.8. Major Weeds of Regional Significance . 3 2.9. Major Rodents of Regional Significance . 3 3. Integrated Pest Management Approach . 4 3.1. Pest Monitoring . 5 3.1.1. Agro Eco System Analysis (AESA) . 5 3.1.2. Economic Threshold Levels (ETL) of major pests of . 9 rice crop stage wise 3.5. Biological Control Practices . 14 3.5.1. Augmentation and Conservation . 14 3.5.2. Pest Defender Ratio . 17 3.5.3. Behavioural Control . 17 3.6. Chemical Control Measures . 17 Generic IPM module based on Vegetative Stage Crop Stage/ Pest vis-a-vis IPM Practices 3.7. Nematode Management Practices . 19 3.8. Rat Management Practices . 19 Annexure – I List of recommended pesticides for rice . 26 Annexure – II Commonly Available Formulations of Pesticides for Agricultural Use . 29 Annexure – III Pesticides and their Mode of Action . 30 Annexure – IV Mechanisms of Actions of Major Pesticides . 31 Annexure – V General Guidelines for Management of Resistance . 32 Annexure – VI Pesticides / Formulations banned in India . 33 Annexure – VII Pesticides Restricted for Use in the Country . 34 Annexure – VIII Basic Precautions in Pesticide Usage . 35 Annexure – IX Symptoms of Poisoning and the treatment of poisoning for . 38 different pesticides .
Plate – 1: Symptoms of important diseases of rice . 41 Plate – 2: Important insect pests of rice . 42 Plate – 3: Key parasitoids and predators of rice insect pests . 43 INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Integral India has the largest area under rice cultivation in the world (44.6 million hectares) and ranks second in production (104.31million tonnes in 2011-12). In India, Rice is grown under different agro ecological conditions viz., water logged, deep water, hills, high humidity, high temperatures, salinity, alkalinity and flood prone areas. The cropping intensity differs from one environment to the other with a maximum of three rice growing seasons in a year in the fertile deltaic regions due to availability of continuous irrigation. The rice crop is prone to stress throughout the crop growth period due to onslaught from different pests such as insects, nematodes, diseases, weeds and rats. Adoption of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies is the best solution to tackle the pest problems. Rice IPM provides a framework for integrating knowledge, skills and information on rice pest management. An IPM practice in rice production initiatives includes regular pest monitoring, research on the optimal use of pesticides, complementary weed control strategies, and alternative cultural and biological controls. In this regard, several efforts have been made to develop, verify, demonstrate and document location specific IPM technologies suited to different ecosystems. Since IPM is a dynamic process, therefore, it needs continuous up gradation of the technology as per the changing pest scenario. To achieve the target of increasing the productivity levels to meet the future demand, it requires adoption of modern and intensive agricultural practices by the farmers. However, concomitant with the practice of intensive agriculture, there is aggravation of biotic constraints like insect pests, diseases and weeds. More than 100 species of insects have been recorded as pest of rice, of which about a dozen are of significance in India. The co-ordinated network trials conducted at different centres in India have indicated that controlling of insect pests alone increase yield by around 1 ton /ha. The diseases of rice accounts for about 10% loss in rice production annually or approximately 2.5 million tons. Even if the average loss caused by rice disease in a year were to be only 5% of the total rice production in the country, it would amount to a great deal, and prevention of such a loss should constitute one of the important methods of augmenting our food security.
2. BIOTIC CONSTRAINTS
2.1. Major Insect Pests: National Significance
1. Yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Walker) 2. Brown plant hopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stal) and White backed plant hopper (Sogatella furcifera 3. Leaf folder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée) 4. Gundhi bug (Leptocorisa acuta Thunberg) 5. Gall midge (Orseolia oryzae Wood-Mason) 2.2. Major Insect Pests: Regional Significance
1. Termite (Odontotermes obesus Rambur) - In rainfed upland areas, irrigated rice-wheat system. 2. Swarming caterpillar (Spodoptera mauritia Boisduval) - Odisha, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Punjab. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE 3. Rice Hispa (Dicladispa armigera Oliver) - Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Odisha, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Tripura, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. 4. Climbing cutworm/Rice Ear Cutting Caterpillar/ Armyworm (Mythimna separata Walker) - In coastal rice growing areas, Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. 5. Caseworm (Nymphula depunctalis Guenée) - In low lying and water logged areas in eastern India. 6. Thrips (Stenchaetothrips biformis Bagnall) - In upland rice in Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Assam and Tamil Nadu. 7. Mealy bug (Brevennia rehi Lindinger) - In upland rice in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Pondicherry and Karnataka. 8. Panicle mite (Steneotarsonemus spinki Smiley)-Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, Gujarat and Western Uttar Pradesh and Leaf mite (Oligonychus oryzae Hirst) –Eastern India and Andhra Pradesh. 9. Root weevil (Echinochemus oryzae Marshall) - Haryana, Punjab and Tamil Nadu. 10. White grub (Holotrichia spp.) - Hill rice. 11. Black bug (Scotinophara coaractata Fabricius) -Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
12. Blue beetle (Leptisma pygmaea Baly) - Kerala, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
2.3. Major Diseases of National Significance
1. Rice blast (Pyricularia oryzae Cavara) 2. Bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv oryzae (Ishiyama Swings et al.)) 3. Sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani J.G. Kühn) 4. False smut (Ustilaginoidea virens (Cooke) Takah) 5. Brown spot (Helminthosporium oryzae Hiroë) 2.4. Major Diseases of Regional Significance
1. Sheath rot (Sarocladium oryzae Sawada, W. Gams & D. Hawksw.) 2. Bakanae (Gibberella fujikuroi Nirenberg ) 3. Stem rot (Sclerotium oryzae Catt., R.A. Krause & R.K. Webster) 4. Rice Tungro Virus 2.5. Major Nematodes of National Significance
1. Root knot nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola Golden & Birchfield) 2. White tip nematode (Aphelehchoides besseyi Christie) 2.6. Major Nematodes of Regional Significance
1. Ufra (Dilylenchus angustus Buther) - West Bengal, Assam and Tripura. 2. Rice root nematode (Hirschmanniella oryzae van brede de Haan) - Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar and INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE 3. Cyst nematode (Heterodera oryzae Luc & Berdon) - in Kerala only. 4. Root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus indicus Das) - Upland and in SRI system, Odisha and Jharkhand. 2.7. Major Weeds of National Significance
1. Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) (Beauv) 2. Cyperus rotundus (L.) 3. Weedy rice (Oryzae spp., wild rice) 2.8. Major Weeds of Regional Significance
1. Commelina bengalensis (L.) 2. Eclipta alba (L.) 3. Ischaemum rugosum (Salisbury) 4. Eleusine indica L.(Gaertn) 5. Amaranthus spinosus (L.) 6. Monochria vaginalis (Burm.f., C.Presl ex Kunth) 7. Digitaria sanguinalis (Scop) 8. Fimbristylis littoralis (Vahl) 9. Leersia hexandra (Sw.) 10. Leptochloa chinenesis (L.) 11. Paspalum spp.
12. Brachiaria spp.
13. Panicum spp.
14. Marsilea quadrifoliata (L.) 15. Oxalis latifolia (Kunth) 2.9. Major Rodents of Regional Significance
1. Smaller bandicoot (Bandicota bengalensis Gray) 2. Soft furred field rat (Millardia meltada Gray) 3. Indian gerbil (Tatera indica Lataste) 4. Field mice (Mus spp.) INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE There are over seventy two (72) definitions of IPM, issued by governments, research organizations, NGOs, and universities (Bajwa and Kogan, 2002). Some assume that IPM will eliminate the use of crop protection products, specially the chemical pesticides, which is most unlikely. Extreme views equating IPM with "pest free" farming will become increasingly marginalised and more balanced views will prevail. There is no reason not to support IPM as defined by the FAO International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides (Article 2): Integrated Pest Management (IPM) means a pest management system that, in the context of the associated environment and the population dynamics of the pest species, utilizes all suitable techniques and methods in a compatible manner as possible and maintains the pest populations at levels below those causing economically unacceptable damage or loss (FAO, 1967). Thus, IPM is the best combination of cultural, biological and chemical measures that provides the most cost-effective, environmentally sound and socially acceptable method of managing diseases, insects, weeds and other pests.
IPM is a knowledge-intensive sustainable approach for managing pests by combining compatible cultural, biological, chemical, and physical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health, and environmental risks with the help of pest scouts. IPM relies heavily on knowledge of pests and crop interaction to choose the best combination of locally available pest management tools (Fig. 1). Therefore, IPM is not a single product that can be stored on shelves like pesticide, and it does not rely on single method to solve all our pest problems. Pests also co-evolve and adapt very quickly to single control tactics through natural selection, and that multiple methods used simultaneously, or an "integrated" approach, is the most effective for long-term, sustainable management programs.
Fig 1. Diagrammatic representation of IPM components.
IPM is neither organic nor it relies solely on biological control to achieve the desired sustainable outcome. It does often try to assist and augment the efficacy of natural enemies by limiting the impact of pesticide on their populations and provide clean and safe niche. It seeks to conserve balance between the crop and the natural environment. The World Bank policy (OP 4.04 - Natural Habitats) also promotes the conservation of natural habitats, and enhancement of the environment for long-term sustainable INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE development. In the IPM concept, use of pesticides involves a trade-off between pest control and the risks of adverse effects on non-target organisms, such as natural enemies, pollinators, wildlife, and plants, contamination of soil and water.
3.1 Pest Monitoring:
a. Survey/Field Scouting

The objective through roving surveys is to monitor the initial development of pests in endemic areas. Therefore, in the beginning of crop season survey routes based upon the endemic areas are required to be identified to undertake roving surveys. Based upon the results of the roving surveys, the state extension functionaries have to concentrate for greater efforts at block and village levels as well as through farmers to initiate field scouting. Therefore, for field scouting farmers should be mobilised to observe the insect pest and disease occurrence at the intervals as stipulated hereunder. The plant protection measures are required to be taken only when insect pests and diseases cross Economic Threshold Level (ETL) as per results of field scouting. 1. Roving survey: - Undertake roving survey at every 10 km distance at 7-10 days intervals (depending
upon pest population). Everyday at least 20 spots should be observed. 2. Field scouting: - Field scouting for pests and bio-control fauna by extension agencies and farmers
once in 3-5 days should be undertaken to workout ETL. b. Pest monitoring through pheromones/light traps etc.
Majority of insects population can be monitored by fixing and positioning of pheromones or light traps at appropriate stage of crop. The State Department of Agriculture can initiate this action at strategic locations at village level as per the following details: 1. Pheromone trap-monitoring - 5 traps per ha may be used to monitor yellow stem borer and moth
2. Light trap - Chinsurah light trap or any other light trap can be operated for two hours in the evening
to observe photo-tropic insect pests. 3. Sweep-nets - water pans - Besides visual observations sweep-nets and water pans may also be used
to assess the population of insect pests, and biocontrol agents to determine the type of pesticides to be recommended or used.
3.1.1. Agro Eco System Analysis (AESA)
IPM has been evolving over the decades to address the deleterious impacts of synthetic chemical pesticides on environment ultimately affecting the interests of the farmers. In modern IPM (FAO, 2002) emphasis is given to Agro Eco System Analysis (AESA) where farmers take decisions based on larger range of field observations. The health of a plant is determined by its environment which includes physical factors (i.e. sun, rain, wind and soil nutrients) and biological factors (i.e. pests, diseases and weeds). All these factors can play a role in the balance which exists between herbivore insects and their natural enemies. Understanding the intricate interactions in an ecosystem can play a critical role in pest management.
It is an approach, which can be gainfully employed by extension functionaries and farmers to analyse field situations with regard to pests, defenders, soil conditions, plant health, the influence of climatic factors and their interrelationship for growing healthy crop. Such a critical analysis of the field situations will help in taking appropriate decision on management practice. The basic components of AESA are INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE 1. Plant health at different stages.
2. Built-in-compensation abilities of the plants. 3. Pest and defender population dynamics.
4. Soil conditions. 5. Climatic factors. 6. Farmers past experience. Field observations on insect pests and diseases are to be initiated after 20 days of transplanting. In each field select five spots randomly as shown in the figure (four in the corner, at least 5 feet inside the border and one in the centre). At each spot select four hills randomly for recording observations (Total 20 hills/field).
Farmers should record data in a notebook and drawing on a chart y Keep records of what has happened y Help us making an analysis and draw conclusions Data to be recorded
y Plant growth (weekly)
ƒ Height of hill ƒ Number of tiller per hill ƒ Number of leaves y Crop situation (e.g. for AESA)
ƒ Plant health: Observe the crop stage and deficiency symptoms etc ƒ Pests, diseases, weeds: Count insect pests at different places on the plant, and identify any visible disease symptoms and severity. Observe weeds in the field and their intensity. For rats, count number of plants affected by rats.
ƒ Natural enemies: Count parasitoids and predators ƒ Soil condition ƒ Weather conditions y Input costs
y Harvest
ƒ Price of produce ( INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Important instructions while taking observations
y While walking in the field, manually collect insects in plastic bags. Use a sweep net to collect additional insects. Collect plant parts with disease symptoms.
y Find a shady place to sit as a group in a small circle for drawing and discussion.
y If needed, kill the insects with some chloroform (if available) on a piece of cotton.
y Each group will first identify the pests, defenders and diseases collected.
y Each group will then analyze the field situation in detail and present their observations and analysis in a drawing (the AESA drawing as shown in MODEL AESA CHART.
y Each drawing will show a plant/hill representing the field situation. The weather condition, water level, disease symptoms, etc. will be shown in the drawing. Pest insects will be drawn on one side. Defenders (beneficial insects) will be drawn on another side. y Write the number next to each insect. Indicate the plant part where the pests and defenders were found. Try to show the interaction between pests and defenders.
y Each group will discuss the situation and make a crop management recommendation.
y The small groups then join each other and a member of each group will now present their analysis in front of all participants.
y The facilitator will facilitate the discussion by asking guiding questions and makes sure that all participants (also shy or illiterate persons) are actively involved in this process.
y Formulate a common conclusion. The whole group should support the decision on what field management is required in the AESA plot.
y Make sure that the required activities (based on the decision) will be carried out.
y Keep the drawing for comparison purpose in the following weeks.
Pest: Defender ratio (P: D ratio):
Identifying the number of pests and beneficial insects helps the farmers to make appropriate pest management decisions. Sweep net, visual counts etc. can be adopted to arrive at the numbers of pests and defenders. The P: D ratio can vary depending on the feeding potential of natural enemy as well as the type of pest. The P: D ratios for yellow stem borer are given below.
Predator :YSB Ratio
Long jawed spider Long horned grass hopper INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Date: . Village: . Farmer:.
Courtsey: NIPHM, Hyderabad Weather condition No. of insect pests No. of natural enemies Diseases types and severity Weeds types and intensity Rodent damage (if any) INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE For the success of Integrated Pest Management pest monitoring, prevention (Cultural and genetic) and timely intervention (Biological or chemical) are the key components.
3.1.2. ECONOMIC THRESHOLD LEVEL (ETL) OF MAJOR PESTS OF RICE CROP STAGE
WISE

Crop stage
Economic Threshold Level (ETLs)
Yellow stem borer Root-knot nematode 1 nematode/g soil BLB: Kresek Phase 2 Fully damaged leaves (FDL) with larva/hill 2 egg-mass/m2 or 10% dead heart or 1 moth/m2 or 25 moths/trap/week 1 gall/m2 or 10% Silver shoot Brown planthopper/WBPH 10-15 hoppers/hill 2 adults or 2 dead leaf /hill Swarming caterpillar 1 damaged tiller/hill or 2 larvae/ m2 2-3 spots/leaf & 2-3 infected plants/ m2 Lesions of 5-6 mm in length & 2-3 infected plants/m2 Lesion length 2-3 mm on sheath & 3-5 infected plants/ m2 2-3 infected leaves/m2 1 Tungro infected plants/m2 & 2 GLH/hill (in fungus endemic areas) Panicle initiation 2 egg-mass/m2 or 1 moth/m2 or 25 moths / trap / week 15-20 hoppers/hill Swarming caterpillar/cut 1 damaged tiller/hill or 2 larvae/ m2 2-5 neck infected plants/m2 5 infected plants/m2 Rice panicle mite 1 If mite appeared in previous season, it requires prophylactic control measures in the current season.
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE 3.2. Cultural Practices
a. Raise pre-crop kharif grow Sesbania or sunhemp and incorporate 45 days old crop in soil during land preparation wherever possible. b. Select suitable resistant or moderately resistant variety. c. Use disease and insect free pure seed. d. Seed treatment (for diseases) with carbendazim 50% WP @ 2 g/kg seed or Trichoderma/Pseudomonas @ 5-10 g/ha of seed for seed or soil borne diseases and carbosulfan 2 g/kg of seed for root nematodes or as per local recommendations. In termites endemic areas, seed treatment with chlorpyriphos 20% EC @ 10000 ml/ha along with 10% solution of gum arabica or imidacloprid 200 SL (20%) @ 0.25 litre/100 kg seed along with 10% solution of gum Arabica in 3.75 litre of water just before sowing.
e. Timely planting/sowing. f. Pre-sowing irrigation: Many weeds can be controlled by applying pre-sowing irrigation to area where nursery or seedlings are to be transplanted. The emerged weeds can be ploughed under. g. Raising of healthy nursery. h. As far as possible rice seedling should be free from weed seedlings at the time of transplanting. i. Destruction of left over nursery, removal of weeds from field and cleaning of bunds. j. Normal spacing with 30-36 hills/ m2 depending on the duration of the variety. k. 30 cm alley formations at every 2.5 to 3 m distance in plant hopper and sheath blight endemic areas. l. Balanced use of fertilizers and micro-nutrients as per local recommendations. Proper water management (alternate wetting and drying to avoid water stagnation) in plant hopper, bacterial blight and stem rot endemic areas. Maintain a thin layer of water on soil surface to minimize weed growth. m. In direct sown rice, the crop should be sown in lines at recommended spacing to facilitate inter- weeding operations. Mechanical methods of weed should be practiced after 2-3 weeks and second time if necessary after 4-6 weeks of sowing. n. Harvest close to ground level to destroy insect pest present in the internodes/stubbles. This will also expose the insects to birds thus help in natural biocontrol of insect pests. o. After harvest, the fields should be thoroughly flooded with water and ploughed with discs or rotators to kill hibernating larvae of stem borer present in the stubbles. Summer ploughing of fields also expose larvae and pupae of rice swarming or ear cutting caterpillar (climbing cutworm) hidden in the soil to birds and weather factors. Important cultural practices reducing insect pests incidence
Insect Pest
Caseworm
Rice fields with wider hill spacing (30 x 20 cm) usually suffers less damage (Nymphula from caseworm.
Early planting may escape the peak caseworm moth activity period.
Draining of fields for 5-7 days kills caseworm larvae.
Use of older seedlings reduces the duration of the susceptible stage of the crop.
Nitrogen fertilizer use at optimal dosages and split applications reduce the rice caseworm's abundance.
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Insect Pest
Whorl maggot
Adult flies are more attracted to standing water. Therefore, by draining the (Hydrellia water at 3-4 days intervals during the first 30 days after transplanting, egg lying Covering the water surface with Azolla and Salvinia molesta prevents rice whorl maggot infestation.
Direct-seeded rice is not as attractive to adults as a transplanted rice crop is.
Fields with higher plant density suffers less damage.
Close planting decreases oviposition and subsequent damage Gall midge
Plowing under the ratoon of previous crops can reduce infestation.
(Orseolia oryzae) Control of grassy weeds and wild rice (alternate hosts) from surrounding areas can reduce gall midge incidence.
Draining of rice fields for 5-7 days affects midge populations.
Planting of early and using early maturing varieties may help to avoid high infestations.
Using only moderate amounts of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers and adopting split applications to reduce population growth rates.
Avoiding staggered planting (complete planting in an area within 3 weeks) to reduce infestation.
Rice hispa
Clipping and destruction of the top three-fourths of the leaves of highly (Dicladispa infested crops with eggs and grubs at the early vegetative stage can suppress Sustained collection of adults by sweep net and destruction suppress populations and reduces damage.
The removal of rice ratoons and volunteer rice during the crop-free season affects the rice hispa's survival and multiplication of over-wintering populations.
In situations of high hispa incidence, skip nitrogen fertilizer top-dressing. Note that top- dressing after the pest is controlled can enhance recovery.
Rice leaf folders
Early planting may help to avoid greater degrees of leaf damage.
(Cnaphalocrocis Wider spacing (22.5 x 20 cm and 30 x 20 cm) and low usage of nitrogenous fertilizers decreases leaf damage.
Highly fertilized plots seem to attract females for oviposition. Therefore, it is advisable to avoid over-fertilization.
Egg predators (crickets) inhabit surrounding grass habitats and move to the field at night for predation. Maintenance of non-rice habitats might be worthwhile.
Higher damages will occur in shaded areas. Therefore, remove the causes of shading within the field.
Yellow stem borer
Clipping the tips of seedlings before transplanting greatly reduces the (Scirpophaga carryover of eggs from the seedbed to the transplanted fields Rice varieties with short stature and shorter growth duration periods suffer less damage than long growth duration varieties.
Rice – rice with shorter growth duration varieties suffer less damage than long duration varieties. This may be because of stem-borer mortality due to harvests occurring twice in the double cropping system.
Community-wide destruction of diapausing larvae (in stubble) through tillage after harvest, followed by flooding, reduces stem borer populations resulting in low incidence in the next crop.
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Insect Pest
Planting or seeding times may be delayed to avoid the peak emergence of moths from the diapausing populations.
Rice seedbeds may be used as a trap crop for moths emerging from diapause.
Green leafhoppers
Reducing the number of rice crops to two per year and synchronized (Nephotettix establishment across farms reduces leafhoppers and other insect vectors of rice virus or phytoplasma diseases.
Transplanting older seedlings (>3 weeks) also reduces viral disease susceptibility transmitted by leafhoppers.
Avoid planting at peak activity (shown by historical records) period to avoid infestation.
Early planting within a given planting period, particularly in the dry season, reduces the risk of insect-vector disease.
Nitrogen should be applied at an optimal level to discourage population build-up and influence plant recovery.
Good weed control in the field and on the bunds removes the preferred grassy hosts and promotes crop vigor.
Crop rotation with a non-rice crop during the dry season decreases disease reservoirs.
Upland rice intercropped with soybean reduces the incidence of leafhoppers on rice compared to rice alone.
High dosages of nitrogenous fertilizers, close spacing, and high relative planthopper
humidity increases planthopper populations.
(Nilaparvata Sensible use of fertilizer by splitting nitrogen applications can also reduce chances of plant hopper outbreaks.
Draining rice fields can be effective in reducing initial infestation levels. The field should be drained for 3 - 4 days when heavy infestations occur.
Growing no more than two crops per year and using early-maturing varieties reduces planthopper abundance and damage.
Synchronous planting (planting neighboring fields within 3 weeks) and maintaining a rice-free period may be effective.
Green stinkbug
Early-maturing varieties can be used as trap crops to protect the late maturing (Nezara viridula) main crop. However, insecticides need to be applied to the trap crop for the stinkbug's control.
The green-manuring crop, Sesbania rostrata, can also be used as a trap crop.
Intercropping of soybean with rice can also be effective.
Adjusting the planting date allows a degree of manipulation of N. viridula numbers 3.3. Genetic management
Insect pest and disease resistant/ tolerant varieties mentioned below should be used: A. Varieties resistant/tolerant to various insect pests and diseases
Insect pests
Ratna, Sasyasree, Vikas, HKR 46, NDGR 21, Pantdhan 6, VLK 39, Prahlad, Birsadhan 201, Bhudeb Ainesh, Matangini, Radha, Sudha, Amulya, Bhagirathi, Jogan, Mandira, Nalini, Sabita, VL16 and VL 206.
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Insect pests
Bhadrakali, Pavitra, Panchami, Triguna, lndursamba, Shiva, Vasundhara, Mahamaya, Ratnagiri 3, Erra Mallelu, Kavya, Oragallu, Sneha, Bhuban, Shaktiman, Abhaya, Divya, Ruchi, Vibhava, Kshira, Lalat, MDU 3, Pothana, Suraksha, Tara, Rashmi, Karna Mahavir, Neela, Rajendradhan 202, Sarsa, Udaya, Pratap, Daya, Dhanya Lakshmi, Kunti, IR 36, Asha, Samalei, Samariddhi, Pusa, Surekha, Phalguna, Vikram, Shakti, Jyoti, Kakatiya, Kanchan and Birsa Dhan 202.
Vijetha, Chaitanay, Krishnaveni, Pratibha, Vajram, Makom, Pavizham, Mansarovar, CO 42, Jyoti, Chandana, Nagarjuna, Sonasali, Rasmi, Neela, Annanga, Daya, Bhadra, Karthika, Aruna, Remya, Kanakam, Bharathidasan, Remya, Triguna, IET 8116, Rajendra Mahsuri-l, Pant dhan 11, Rajshree, Bhudeb and Hanseshwari .
HKR 120, HKR 126, HKR 228, PR 108, Menher, Pant dhan 10, Pant dhan 11, Mahananda and Green leaf hopper Vikramarya, Nidhi, IR 24, Radha, Mahananda and Kunti.
Rasi, Vikas, Krishna Hamsa, Tulasi, IR 64, Aditya, Swarnadhan, Himalaya 1, Himalaya 2, Himalaya 2216, Pant dhan 10, HKR 228 and PNR 519.
Ajaya, IR 36, IR 64, Swarna, Bhumbleshwari, PR 111, PR 113, PR 114, PR 115, PR 116, PR 118, Rajendra Basmati, Pant dhan 11, Govind, Radha, Kamini, Pant dhan 10, Jayshree, Kanchan and improved sambha masouri.
Vikramarya, Nidhi, Amulya, Dinesh, Lakshmi and Nalini.
PR 108, Bhudeb Dinesh, Jogan, Mandira, Nalini, Neeraj and Sabita.
B. Varieties with resistance to more than one pest or disease
Released in
BPH, GM, GLH, RTD and RKN Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, and West Bengal GM, BPK, WBPH and BL Odisha, and West Bengal GM, BPH, WBPH and BL GM, BPH, GLH and BLB Odisha, and Madhya Pradesh GM, BPH, GLH and BL GM, BPH, GLH and BL GM- Gall midge; BPH- Brown plant hopper; WBPH- White backed plant hopper; GLH- Green leafhopper; BL- Blast; RTD- Rice Tungro Disease; RKN- Root-knot nematode; GB-Gundhi bug; BLB- Bacterial leaf blight. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE 3.4. Mechanical Practices
y Collection of egg masses and larvae of pest to be placed in bamboo cages for conservation of biocontrol agents. y Removal and destruction (burn) of diseased/pest infested plant parts. y Clipping of rice seedlings tips at the time of transplanting to minimize carryover of rice hispa, case worm and stem borer infestation from seed bed to the transplanted fields. y Use of coir rope in rice crop for dislodging case worm, cut worm and swarming caterpillar and leaf folder larvae etc. on to kerosinized water (1 L of kerosene mixed on 25 kg soil and broadcast in 1ha).
3.5. Biological Control Practices
The details of biological control practices are given below 3.5.1. Augmentation and Conservation
y Trichogramma japonicum and T chilonis may be released @ 1 lakh/ha on appearance of egg masses / moth of yellow stem borer and leaf folder in the field.
y Natural biocontrol agents such as spiders, drynids, water bugs, mirid bugs, damsel flies, dragonflies, meadow grasshoppers, staphylinid beetles, carabids, coccinellids, Apanteles, Tetrastichus, Telenomus, Trichogramma, Bracon, Platygaster etc. should be conserved. y Collection of egg masses of borers and putting them in a bamboo cage-cum-percher till flowering which will permit the escape of egg parasites and trap and kill the hatching larvae. Besides, these would allow perching of predatory birds. y Habitat management: Protection of natural habitats within the farm boundary may help in conserving natural enemies of pests. Management of farmland and rice bunds with planting of flowering weeds like marigold, sun hemp increases beneficial natural enemy population and also reduce the incidence of root knot nematodes. Provide refuge like straw bundles having charged with spiders to help in build up spider population and to provide perch for birds INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Major parasitoids and predators of insect pests of rice
Natural enemy category
Pest attacked and feeding potential
1. Egg parasitoids
Egg parasitoid of yellow stem borer (YSB) Egg parasitoid of leaf folder, Case worm, YSB etc.
Egg parasitoid of yellow and white stem borer.
At least 3 stem borer eggs are needed for development of each wasp.
Telenomus rowani Egg parasitoid of yellow and white stem borer.
A female parasitizes 20-40 eggs and lives 2-4 days or longer if nectar or sugar solution is provided.
Both Tetrastichus and Telenomus may parasitize the same egg mass but not the same egg.
Egg parasitoid of leaf and plant hoppers.
Parasitize on an average 8 eggs per day.
Anagrus spp.
Egg parasitoids of leaf and plant hoppers.
Parasitizes 15 to 30 eggs/day.
Egg parasitoid of leaf and plant hoppers.
Consume 2 to 8 eggs per day.
Egg parasitoid of leaf folder.
200-300 wasps are produced from a few eggs.
2. Larval parasitoids
Larval parasitoid of yellow and white stem borer.
Adults are medium sized red and black in colour with white band at the abdominal tip.
Larval parasitoid of leaf folder.
Adult wasp has orange brown body, black head, 3 pairs of black spots on forewings.
Ovipositor is black and double the length of its body.
Cotesia flavipes Larval parasitoid of stem borer and semi-looper.
Adult wasps are similar to Cotesia antustibasis except the antenna is short and yellow brown to red marking at the base of hind legs.
Elasmus sp.
Larval parasite of leaf folder.
Wasp emerges from larva or pupa.
Adults are small elongated wasps with pointed abdomen.
Thoracic segment is enlarged and disc shaped. They are black with reddish markings/bands on the abdomen.
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Natural enemy category
Pest attacked and feeding potential
Haplogonatopus sp Haplogonatopus attack leaf hoppers and Pseudogonatopus attack plant hoppers and act as parasites and predators.
Adults of Pseudogonatopus are brown or black in colour.
Females are wingless with pincher like front claws.
Bracon sp.
Larval parsitoid of yellow stem borer and rice hispa.
3. Larval and pupal
Xanthopimpla Larval, pupal parasitoid of stem borer Adult wasp is medium sized yellow orange in colour with black ovipositor and transparent wings.
Brachymeria lasus, B. Larval and pupal parasitoid of Rice skipper, leaf folder and green horned caterpillar.
Adults of Brachymeria iasus are black and have a triangular cheek and yellow markings on tip of femur and ventral half of tibia. Brachymeria excarinata are black with yellow markings on both ends of hind tibia and no cheek.
Opius sp.
Larval pupal parasitoid of whorl maggot larvae. Wasp emerges from whorl maggot pupa.
Adults are small orange brown in colour with long antennae, yellow legs and black ovipositor.
4. Coccinellid beetles
Preying on small hoppers, small larvae and exposed Preying on small hoppers, small larvae and exposed eggs 5. Carabid beetle
Preying leaf folder larvae and planthoppers 6. Rove beetle
Paederus fuscipes Preying leaf and planthoppers, eggs, and small moths 7. Spiders
Pardosa psuedoannulata, Prey stem borer and leaf folder moths, leaf-and plant hoppers, and whorl maggot flies.
Oxyopes javanus, Prey moths of rice pests, adults of whorl maggots, leafhoppers and plant hoppers Tetragnatha maxillosa, Prey stem borer and leaf folder moths, leaf-and plant Long-jawed spider Argiope catenulata, Prey moths/adults of rice pests viz. grasshoppers INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE 3.5.2. Pest defender ratio
Pest defender ratio (P: D) 2:1 may be useful to avoid application of pesticides against plant hoppers. 3.5.3. Behavioural Control
Mass trapping of yellow stem borer male moths by installing pheromone traps @ 20 traps/ha with lures containing 10-15 mg pheromone at 20 days after transplanting.
3.6. Chemical Control Measures
The details of the chemical control measures to be adopted against insect pests and diseases are given in Generic IPM module based on vegetative stage. Resort to chemical as the last choice only after the regular pest and when pest population cross ETL. Generic IPM module based on vegetative stage
CROP STAGE/ PEST VIS-À-VIS IPM PRACTICES
I. INSECTS
Carbofuran 3% CG @ 25000-66600 g/ha or carbosulfan 6% G @ 16700 g/ha or carbosulfan 25% EC @ 800-1000 ml/ha.
Cartap hydrochloride 4% granules @ 18750 g/ha or cartap hydrochloride 50% SP @ 1000 g/ha.
Vegetative stage
Carbofuran 3% CG @ 25000-66600 g/ha or cartap hydrochloride 4% granules @ 18750 g/ha or cartap hydrochloride 50% SP @ 1000 g/ha or monocrotophos 36 % SL @ 625-1250 ml/ha.
Spray cartap hydrochloride 4% granules @ 18750-25000 g/ha or cartap hydrochloride 50% SP @ 1000 g/ha or monocrotophos 36 % SL @ 625-1250 ml/ha or chlorpyrifos 1.5% DP @ 25000 g/ha.
Spray of imidacloprid 70% WG @ 30-35 g/ha or imidacloprid 30.5% m/m SC @ 60-75 ml/ha or ethofenoprox 10% EC @ 500-750 ml/ha or acephate 75% SP @ 666-1000 g/ha or buprofezin 25% SC @800 ml/ha.
Application of carbofuran 3% CG @ 25000-66600 g/ha or fipronil 0.3% GR @16670-25000 g/ha at 20 days after transplanting.
Spray quinalphos 25% gel @ 1000 ml/ha or chlorpyrifos 20% EC @ 1250 ml/ha.
Spray carbaryl 10% DP @ 25000 g/ha.
Panicle initiation to booting
Carbofuran 3% CG @ 25000-66600 g/ha or cartap hydrochloride 4% granules @ 18750-25000 g/ha or cartap hydrochloride 50% SP @ 1000g/ha or monocrotophos 36 % SL @ 625-1250 ml/ha.
Spray cartap hydrochloride 4% granules @ 18750-25000 g/ha or cartap hydrochloride 50% SP @ 1000 g/ha or monocrotophos 36 % SL @ 625-1250 ml/ha or chlorpyrifos 1.5% DP @ 25000 g/ha. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Spray of imidacloprid 70% WG @ 30-35 ml/ha or imidacloprid 30.5% m/m SC @ 60-75 ml/ha or ethofenoprox 10% EC @ 500-750 ml/ha or acephate 75% SP @ 666-1000 g/ha or buprofezin 25% SC @ 800 ml/ha.
Flowering
Spray of imidacloprid 70% WG @ 30-35 ml/ha or imidacloprid 30.5% m/m SC @ 60-75 ml/ha or ethofenoprox 10% EC @ 500-750 ml/ha or acephate 75% SP @ 300-500 g/ha or buprofezin 25% SC @ 800 ml/ha.
II. DISEASES
Spray carbendazim 50% WP @ 250-500 g/ha or isoprothiolan 40% EC @ 750 ml/ha or tricyclozole 75% WP @ 300-400 g/ha or tricyclazole 70% WG @ 300 g/ha.
Spray of streptomycin sulphate 9% + tetracycline hydrochloride 1% SP @ 100-150 ppm.
Spray carbendazim 50% WP @ 250-500 g/ha or isoprothiolan 40% EC @ 750 ml/ha or tricyclozole 75% WP @ 300-400 g/ha or tricyclazole 70% WG @ 300 g/ha.
Bacterial leaf blight Spray streptocycline 100 to 150 ppm solution at early root stage. Second spray, if necessary before grain set. Reduce nitrogen application and apply if needed only small dose of N in more split doses. Chemicals as recommended earlier.
Apply validamycin 3% L @ 2000 g/ha or hexaconazole 5% EC @ 1000 ml/ha or propiconazole 25% EC @750 ml/ha or propiconazole 10.7% + tricyclazole 34.2% SE @ 500 ml/ha. Panicle initiation to booting
Spray carbendazim 50% WP @ 250-500 g/ha or isoprothiolan 40% EC @ 750 ml/ha or tricyclazole 75% WP @ 300-400 g/ha or tricyclazole 70% WG @ 300 gm/ha.
Bacterial leaf blight Reduce nitrogen application and apply if needed only small dose of N in more split doses, chemicals as recommended earlier.
Apply validamycin 3% L @ 2000 ml/ha or hexaconazole 5% EC @ 1000 ml/ha or propiconazole 25% EC @ 750 ml/ha or propiconazole 10.7% + tricyclazole 34.2% SE @ 500 ml/ha.
Flowering
Spray ediphenphos 50% EC @ 500-600 ml/ha or isoprothiolan 40% EC @ 750 ml/ha or tricyclazole 75% WP @ 300-400 g/ha. Apply nitrogen in small dose, if needed. Apply validamycin 3% L @ 200 g/ha or hexaconazole 5% EC @ 1000 ml/ha or propiconazole 25% EC @750 ml/ha or propiconazole 10.7% + tricyclazole 34.2% SE @ 500 ml/ha.
1. Apply cyhalofop-butyl 10% EC @ 0.75-0.80 l/ha @ 18-20 days after sowing in grassy weeds in direct seeded rice followed by one hand weeding given after 4-6 weeks.
2. Apply butachlor 50% EC @ 2.5-4 l/ha or pretilachlor 50% EC @ 1.0-1.5 l/ha or oxadiargyl 80% WP @ 0.125 kg/ha or chlorimuron ethyl 25% WP @ 24 g a.i./ha or metsufluran methyl 20% WG @ 20 gm/l or anilophos 2% G @ 20-25 kg/ha or ethoxysulfuron 15% WDG @ 83.3-100 g/ha or cinmethalin10% EC @ 0.75-1.0 l/ha as pre-emergence within 4-6 days after transplanting.
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE 3. Apply metsulfuron methyl 10% + chlorimuron methyl 10% WP @ 20 g/ha or anilophos 24% + 2, 4-D- ethyl ester 32% EC @ 1-1.5 l/ha at 3-10 days after transplanting. 3.7. Nematode Management Practices
Important nematodes and their management approaches are as under: 1. White tip nematode (Aphalenchoides besseyi)
1.1 Sun drying of seeds for 6 hours for 4 days. 1.2 Pre-sowing of nursery bed treatment with carbofuran 3% CG @ 50000 g/ha, if nematode population crosses the ETL. 2. Root knot nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola)
2.1 Rotation with the crops like sweet potato, sunflower, cowpea, sesamum, and onion. 2.2 Soil application of carbofuran 3% CG @ 50000 g/ha. 3.8. Rat Management Practices
(Working Index (ETL): Fifteen live burrows per hectare) 1. Rat management need to be adopted on community basis.
2. Employment of indigenous traps preferably one month after transplantation. 3. Application of bromodiolone (0.005% a.i) in baits six weeks after transplantation.
4. The residual live burrows may be treated with second application of bromodiolone (0.005%). 5. The above control operations with rodenticides except Zinc phosphide (as rodents develop bait shyness) may be repeated if the rodent population exceeds working index. Important:
i) Optimum period for undertaking control operation is six weeks after transplantation. ii) Zinc phosphide (2.5%) in baits may be applied.
iii) For getting effective control, it is recommended that Zinc Phosphide with ISI mark in 10 g pouches preferably in manufacturers' package should be procured.
4. SAFETY PARAMETERS IN PESTICIDES USAGE Safety parameters inter alia classification of toxicity as per Insecticides Rules, 1971, WHO classification of hazards, colour of toxicity triangle, First aid measures, symptoms of poisoning and treatment of poisoning, the extension functionaries of the State Department of Agriculture have to make use of this information as under:- Basic precautions which are required to be taken as per classification of toxicity as well as hazard criteria by WHO may be seen as per Annexure – VIII & IX.
ii) The extension functionaries are to educate the farmers on safety use of pesticides with the help of colour toxicity triangle as the farming community can follow the colour and corresponding safety precautions.
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE iii) The symptoms of poisoning must be known to the extension functionaries to enable them to extend first aid measures to affected persons to the extent possible.
iv) Basically, the information on first aid measures and treatment of poisoning is required to be passed on by the extension functionaries to the doctors at Primary Health Centres as well as to Private Doctors in the vicinity of spraying of pesticides.
v) Extension functionaries must ensure that names of common pesticides during plant protection measures along with a copy of the leaflet which is an integral part of a pesticide container must be made available to the doctors in the vicinity of plant protection operations.
vi) Extension functionaries are to request the doctors to intervene in procurement of antidotes for different pesticides as cited under "Treatment of poisoning".
Category A: Stationary, crawling pest/ disease
Insecticides and fungicides Lever operated knapsack sprayer (Droplets of big size) 1. For crawling and soil Hollow cone nozzle @ 35 to 40 psi Lever operating speed = 15 to 20 strokes/min 2. For small sucking Motorized knapsack sprayer or mist blower (Droplets of small size) Operating speed: 2/3rd throttle Reproductive stage Insecticides and fungicides Lever operated knapsack sprayer (Droplets of big size) Hollow cone nozzle @ 35 to 40 psi Lever operating speed = 15 to 20 strokes/min Category B: Field flying pest/airborne pest
Insecticides and fungicides Motorized knapsack sprayer or mist blower (Droplets of small size) Reproductive stage Operating speed: 2/3rd throttle Battery operated low volume sprayer (Droplets of small size) spinning disc nozzle Category C: Weeds
Lever operated knapsack sprayer (Droplets of big Flat fan or flood jet nozzle @ 15 to 20 psi Lever operating speed = 7 to 10 strokes/min Trolley mounted low volume sprayer (Droplets of small size) Battery operated low volume sprayer (Droplets of small size) INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Do's and don't's in IPM
Deep ploughing is to be done on bright sunny Do not plant or irrigate the field after ploughing, at least days during the months of May and June. The for 2-3 weeks, to allow desiccation of weed's bulbs and/or field should be kept exposed to sun light at rhizomes of perennial weedsleast for 2-3 weeks Adopt crop rotation Avoid growing monocrop.
Grow only recommended varieties.
Do not grow varieties not suitable for the season or the region Sow early in the season Avoid late sowing as this may lead to reduced yields and incidence of white grubs and diseases.
Always treat the seeds with approved Do not use seeds without seed treatment with biocides/chemicals/bio products for the control of seed chemicals.
borne diseases/pests.
Sow in rows at optimum depths under proper Do not sow seeds beyond 5-7 cm depth.
moisture conditions for better establishment.
Apply only recommended herbicides Pre-emergence as well as soil incorporated herbicides at recommended dose, proper time as should not be applied in dry soils. Do not apply herbicides appropriate spray solution with standard along with irrigation water or by mixing with soil, sand equipment along with flat fan or flat jet or urea.
nozzles.
Maintain optimum and healthy crop stand Crops should not be exposed to moisture deficit stress at which would be capable of competing their critical growth stages.
with weeds at a critical stage of crop weed competition Use the NPK fertilizers as per the soil test Avoid imbalanced use of fertilizers.
Use micronutrient mixture after sowing based Do not apply any micronutrient mixture after sowing on the test recommendations.
Conduct AESA weekly in the morning Take any management decision considering AESA and preferably before 9 a.m. Take decision on P: D ratiomanagement practice based on AESA and P: D ratio only.
Install pheromone traps at appropriate Do not store the pheromone lures at normal room period.
temperature (keep them in refrigerator).
Release egg parasitoids only after noticing Do not apply chemical pesticides within seven days of adult moth catches in the pheromone trap or release of parasitoids.
as pheromone trap or as per field observation Apply short persistent pesticides to avoid Do not apply pesticides during preceding 7 days before pesticide residue in the soil and produce.
Follow the recommended Do not apply long persistent on trap crop, otherwise it procedure of trap crop technology.
may not attract the pests and natural INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Operational, calibration and maintenance guidelines in brief
For application rate and dosage see the label and leaflet of the particular pesticide.
It is advisable to check the output of the sprayer (calibration) before commencement of spraying under guidance of trained person.
Clean and wash the machines and nozzles and store in dry place after use.
It is advisable to use protective clothing, face mask and gloves while preparing and applying pesticides.
Do not apply pesticides without protective clothing and wash clothes immediately after spray application.
Do not apply in hot or windy conditions.
Operator should maintain normal walking speed while undertaking application.
Do not smoke, chew or eat while undertaking the spraying operation Operator should take proper bath with soap after completing spraying Do not blow the nozzle with mouth for any blockages. Clean with water and a soft brush.
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Method for calculation of pesticides for application
(i) Solid formulations such as dust, wettable powder or gr anules, the active ingredient is mixed with
inert material. The concentration is expressed as -
Active ingredient (%) in the total weight of commercial product
Active ingredient (%) in dust, WP. orgranules = Weiqht of a.i. x 100
Total weight of W P , dust, etc.
Example. Carbendazim 50% WP means there are 50 g of carbendazim in every 100 g of commercial
WP (50 % a.i.).
Calculations when recommendation is in kg a.i. per litre
For WP, dust, granules, etc.
Specification required:
1) Area to be sprayed
2) Concentration of a.i in formulation
3) Recommended rate as kg a.i. ha-1.
Formula: kg of WP/dust/granules = Recommended rate x spray area (sq.m)
Example: If Carbendazim 50% WP is used at the rate of 2 kg a.i ha-1, then amount of Carbendazim 50% WP required for 1 ha (10000 m2) is: kg of Carbendazim 50% WP required = 2 x 10000 = 4 k g/ha (ii) Liquid of formulation Here the a.i. is dissolved in a solvent with an emulsifying agent. It is expressed
as in emulsifiable concentrate (EC). The concentration can be expressed in two ways.
Active ingredient (%) in EC = Weight of a.i. x 100 Example: Hexaconazole 5% EC means, 100 mL of commercial product has 5 ml of pure Hexaconazole
For Emulsiflable Concentrates
Specification required:

Area to be treated Recommended rate as kg a.i. ha–1 Concentration of commercial EC as a.i (%) or kg ha-1
When concentration of EC is in a.i. (%)
Formula:

kg of EC required = Recommended rate x area (m2) or ai (%) in commercial EC x 100 INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE = Recommended rate x area (ha) a.i. (%) in commercial EC x 100 Example: Hexaconazole 5% EC to be sprayed at the rate of 2 kg a.i. ha-1 for 10000 m2 and
Hexaconazole 5% EC has 5 % a.i. How much liters of Hexaconazole is required? Liters of 5 % Hexaconazole required = 2 x 10000 = 40 L When concentration expressed is in kg a.t. L-1
Formula:

= Recommended rate in kg a.i. ha-1 x area (ha) Concentration of a.i. in product (kg ha-1) Example: Acetamprid (0.01 kg a.i. L-1 ) is to be applied at t h e rate of 0.05 kg a.i. ha-1
How much will be required for 3 ha?
Liters of Acetamprid required = 0.05 x 3.0 When recommendation is based on a.i (%) in the spray fluid
i) Wettable powders ( when diluted with water)
Specifications required:
1 Spray volume as L ha-1
2 Concentration desired as a.i. (%) in spray
3 Concentration of commercial product as a.i. (%)
Formula :

WP = a.i. (%) desired x spray volume a.i. (%) in commercial WP Example: To control stem borer in a plot. 2000 L of 2% Methyl Parathion DP is to be prepared.
The commercial product to be used is Methyl parathion 50% EC. How much Methyl parathion is
required?
Litre of Methyl Parathion required = 2 x 2000 = 80 liters ii) Emulsifiable concentrates (EC)
Specification required:

1) Spray volume as L ha-12) Concentration as percentage of a.i desired.
3) Concentration of commercial EC as a.i. (%).
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Formula:

Liter of EC = a. i. (%) desired x spray volume a.i. (%) in commercial EC Example : 2000 L of 2 % Methyl Parathion spray is to be prepared. How much commercial 50 % EC
is required?
Liters of Methyl Parathion = 2 x 2000 = 80 L INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE LIST OF RECOMMENDED PESTICIDES FOR RICE (As on 15-10-2013)
Aureofungin 46.15% w/v. SP Acetamiprid 20% SP Carbendazim 50% WP Aluminum Phosphide 56% 3g tab, Azimsulfuron 50% DF Aluminum Phosphide 15%, 12g Carpropamid 27.8% SC Anilophos 24% + 2,4-D- ethyl ester Aluminium Phosphide 77.5% GR Copper Hydroxide 77% WP Anilophos 24% + 2, 4-D- ethyl ester Azadirachtin 0.15%W/Wmin. Neem Copper oxychloride 50% WP seed kernel based EC Bensulfuron Methyl 60% DF Azadirachtin 0.03% min. Neem oil Difenoconazole 25% EC based EC Containing Bispyribac Sodium 10% SC Azadirachtin 5%W/W min. Neem Ediphenphos 50% EC extract concentrate containing Bacillus thuringiensis var. galleriae Flusilazole 40% EC Chlorimuron Ethyl 25% WP Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, Hexaconazole 5% EC serotype H-39, 3B, strain Z-52 Buprofezin 25% SC Hexaconazole 5 % SC Cyhalofop-butyl 10% EC Bifenthrin 10% EC 2,4-D Ethyl Ester 38 % EC (having Bromadiolone 0.25% CB Isoprothiolan 40% EC 2,4-D acid 34 % w/w) 2,4-D Ethyl Ester 4.5 % GR (having Bromadiolone 0.005% RB Kasugamycin 3% SL 2,4-D acid 4 % w/w) Ethoxysulfuron 15% WDG Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 9.3% w/w EC Kresoxim-methyl 44.3% SC Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 6.7% w/w EC Flufenacet 60% DF Pencycuron 22.9% SC MCPA, Amine salt 40% WSC Carbofuran 3% CG Propiconazole 10.7% + tricyclazole 34.2% SE Metsufluran methyl 20% WG Cartap hydrochloride 50% SP Propiconazole 25% EC Metsulfuron Methyl 20% WP Chlorantraniliprole 18.5% SC Metsulfuron methyl 10% + Chlorantraniliprole 0.4% GR Streptomycin sulphate 9% + Chlorimuron methyl 10% WP tetracycline hydrochloride 1% SP Oxadiargyl 80% WP Chlorpyrifos 10% G Tebuconazole 25.9% m/m EC Orthosulfamuron 50% WG Chlorpyrifos 50% EC Thifluzamide 24% SC Chromafenozide 80% WP INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Clothianidin 50% WDG Trichoderma viride 1% WP Oxyflourfen 0.35% GR Chlorpyrifos 1.5% DP Tricyclazole 70% WG Oxyflourfen 23.5% EC Chlorpyrifos 20% EC Tricyclazole 75% WP Pendimethalin 30% EC Deltamethrin 11% W/WEC Pendimethalin 5 % G Deltamethrin 1.8% EC Pretilachlor 37% EW Deltamethrin 2.5% WP Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% WP Paraquat dichloride 24% SL Dichlorvos 76% EC Iprodione 25% + Carbendazim 25% WP Pyrazosulfuron Ethyl 10% WP Dinotefuran 20% SG Propiconazole 13.9% + Difenoconazole 13.9% EC Pretilachlor 50% EC Tebuconazole 50% + Trifloxystrobin 25% WG Bensulfuron methyl 0.6% + * Endosulfan 4% DP Pretilachlor 6% GR Clomazone 20% + 2,4-D EE 30% EC Ethofenoprox 10% EC Ethiprole 40 + Imidacloprid 40% WG Ethylene Dichloride + CarbonTetrachloride 3:1 Fenobucarb (BPMC) 50% EC Fenpropathrin 30% EC Flonicamid 50% WG Flubendiamide 20% WG Flubendiamide 39.35% m/m SC Imidacloprid 30.5% m/m SC Imidacloprid 70% WG Imidacloprid 17.8% SL Imidacloprid 0.3% GR Indoxacarb 15.8% EC Lambda-cyhalothrin 4.9% CS Lambda-cyhalothrin 2.5% EC Lambda-cyhalothrin 5% EC INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Methyl Bromide 98% W/W Monocrotophos 36 % SL Oxydemeton–methyl 25% EC Phenthoate 50% EC Phosphamidon 40% SL Quinalphos 5% granule Quinalphos 20% AF Quinalphos 25% EC Quinalphos 1.5% DP Quinalphos 25% Gel Thiacloprid 21.7% SC Thiamethoxam 25% WG Triazophos 20% EC Triazophos 40% EC Chlorpyrifos 50% + Cypermethrin 5% EC Deltamethrin 0.72% W/W+ Buprofezin 5.65% W/W EC Phosphamidon 40% + Imidacloprid 2% SP Acetamiprid 0.4% + Chlorpyriphos 20% EC * As on now use of Endosulfan has been banned by Supreme Court Orders from 13-05-2011.
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Commonly Available Formulations of Pesticides for Agricultural Use
Ready to use, off shelf available Low percentage of active ingredients, Very fine dry inert carrier made from tale, chalk, clay, or ash Prone to high level of pesticide drift Granule particles are larger and heavier Granule particles are larger and heavier Used for soil treatment and broadcasting to manage nematodes, weeds and insect pests Finely grounded power Finely grounded power Mixed with water for spray application Particles of active ingredients (liquid or dry) surrounded by a plastic Liquid active ingredients, dissolved in petroleum based solvents Easily absorbed through skin Diluted with a liquid solvent before being applied Very high percentage of active ingredient Used before dilution or diluted with small quantities of solvent y Finely grounded solid active ingredients suspended in the liquid with inert y Solid or liquid that releases/vaporized into toxic gasses INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Pesticides and their Mode of Action
Type of pesticide
Mode of action
How it works
Insecticides and Act through cuticle Act upon digestive track Absorbed and translocated to affected portions Penetrates as a into cryptic parts Act through cuticle and translocation Absorbed through soil and translocated to different parts Contact pathogen reproductive propagules Absorbed through roots from soil, leaf and translocated to different parts INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Mechanisms of Actions of Major Pesticides
Type of pesticide
Target tissue or organ
Interfere with electron system of nervous system Inhibit acetyl cholinesterase the enzyme responsible for the regu-lating biological activity Inhibit growth and prevent cuticle formulations Disrupts hormonal metabolic system Disrupts protein synthesis and inhibits germination Prevent photosynthesis Interferes with the mitosis process Affects cell respiration and ATP synthesis Inhibits liquid synthesis affecting cell wall and membrane Inhibits synthesis of essential ribosomal proteins Inhibits mitosis, osmoregulation and mitochondrial respiration INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE General Guidelines for Management of Resistance
The general guidelines if adopted can prevent development of resistance by various pests in most of the agricultural situations. The general approaches to avoid them are as follows: y Maintain good plant health, y Delay the spray of insecticide as far as possible.
y Monitor populations and use economic thresholds y Use all available tactics for management of a particular arthropod (insect or mite) y Limit selection pressure throughout the season and remember spraying for one pest may influences y Limit use of one chemical molecule at a time and rotate chemical molecule and/or modes of action, and Use appropriate rates Fungicides
y Avoid growing large areas of highly susceptible varieties in endemic areas. Resistant varieties should be used to reduce reliance on chemical pesticides.
y Make full use of non-fungicidal control measures e.g., dispose of crop debris and control collateral and alternate host, which harbor disease.
y Monitor crops regularly for disease and treat before the infection becomes established. y Use fungicides only in the unavoidable situations where the risk of disease warrants treatment. Make full use of effective fungicides with different modes of action as alternate sprays. Mixtures of eradicant fungicides with protectants materials offer the most flexibility as well as reducing resistance risk.
y While formulating spray programmes, take into account any earlier use of fungicides groups as seed y Do not exceed the maximum recommended numbers of applications to each crop for any particular fungicide group. Avoid repeated applications of very low doses.
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Pesticides / formulations banned in India (As on 1st Jan, 2014)
Pesticides Banned for manufacture, import and use.
Benzene Hexachloride Copper Acetoarsenite Ethyl Mercury Chloride Ethylene Dibromide Lindane (Gamma-HCH) (Banned vide Gazette Notification No S.O. 637(E) Dated 25/03/2011)-Banned for Manufecture,Import or Formu-late w.e.f. 25th March,2011 and banned for use w.e.f. 25th March,2013.
Maleic Hydrazide Paraquat Dimethyl Sulphate Pentachloro Nitrobenzene Phenyl Mercury Acetate Sodium Methane Arsonate TCA (Trichloro acetic acid) Pesticide formulations banned for import, manufacture and use
Carbofuron 50% SP Methomyl 24% formulation Phosphamidon 85% SL Pesticide / Pesticide formulations banned for use but continued to manufacture for export
Captafol 80% Powder (Withdrawal may become inoperative as soon as required complete data as per the guidelines is generated and sub-mitted by the Pesticides Industry to the Government and accepted by the Registration Committee. (S.O 915(E) dated 15th Jun,2006) Source: www.cibrc.nic.in INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Pesticides Restricted for Use in the Country (As on 1st Jan, 2014)
Name of Pesticides
Details of Restrictions
Aluminium Phosphide The Pest Control Operations with Aluminium Phosphide may be un-dertaken only by Govt./Govt. undertakings / Govt. Organizations / pest control operators under the strict supervision of Govt. Experts or experts whose expertise is approved by the Plant Protection Advisor to Govt. of India except 1. Aluminium Phosphide 15 % 12 g tablet and 2. Aluminum Phosphide 6 % tablet.
The use of Captafol as foliar spray is banned. Captafol shall be used only as seed dresser. The manufacture of Captafol 80 % powder for dry seed treatment (DS) is banned for use in the country except manufacture for export. (S.O.679 (E) dated 17thJuly, 2001) Cypermethrin 3 % Smoke Generator, is to be used only through Pest Con-trol Operators and not allowed to be used by the General Public.
The use of Dazomet is not permitted on Tea.
Diazinon is banned for use in agriculture except for household use.
Dichloro Diphenyl Trichlo- The use of DDT for the domestic Public Health Programme is restricted roethane (DDT) up to 10,000 Metric Tonnes per annum, except in case of any major out-break of epidemic. M/s Hindustan Insecticides Ltd., the sole manufacturer of DDT in the country may manufacture DDT for export to other countries for use in vector control for public health purpose. The export of DDT to Parties and State non-Parties shall be strictly in accordance with the para-graph 2(b) article 3 of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). The use of Fenitrothion is banned in Agriculture except for locust control in scheduled desert area and public health.
The use of Fenthion is banned in Agriculture except for locust control, household and public health.
Methoxy Ethyl Mercuric The use of MEMC is banned completely except for seed treatment of potato Chloride (MEMC) and sugarcane.
Methyl Bromide may be used only by Govt./Govt. undertakings/Govt. Or-ganizations / Pest control operators under the strict supervision of Govt. Experts or Experts whose expertise is approved by the Plant Protection Ad-visor to Govt. of India.
Methyl Parathion 50 % EC and 2% DP formulations are banned for use on fruits and vegetables. Monocrotophos is banned for use on vegetables.
The use of Sodium Cyanide shall be restricted for Fumigation of Cotton bales under expert supervision approved by the Plant Protection Advisor to Govt. of India. Source: www.cibrc.nic.in INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Basic Precautions in Pesticide Usage
A. Purchase
1. Purchase only JUST required quantity e.g. 100, 250, 500 or 1000 g/ml for single application in 2. Do not purchase leaking containers, loose, unsealed or torn bags. 3. Do not purchase pesticides without proper/approved LABELS. B. Storage
1. Avoid storage of pesticides in the house premises. 2. Keep only in original container with intact seal. 3. Do not transfer pesticides to other container. 4. Never keep them together with food or feed/fodder. 5. Keep away from the reach of children and livestock. 6. Do not expose to sun-light or rain water. 7. Do not store weedicides along with other pesticides. C. Handling
1. Never carry/transport pesticides along with food materials. 2. Avoid carrying bulk - pesticides (dusts / granules) on head, shoulders or on the back. D. Precautions for Preparing Spray Solution
1. Use clean water. 2. Always protect your NOSE, EYES, MOUTH, EARS and HANDS. 3. Use hand gloves, face mask and cover your head with cap. 4. Use polyethylene bags as hand gloves, handkerchiefs or piece of clean cloth as mask and a cap or towel to cover the head (Do not use polyethylene bag contaminated with pesticides). 5. Read the label on the container before preparing spray solution. 6. Prepare spray solution as per requirement. 7. Do not mix granules with water. 8. Concentrated pesticides must not fall on hands etc. while opening sealed containers. Do not smell the sprayer tank. 9. Avoid spilling of pesticide solution while filling the sprayer tank. 10. Do not eat, drink, smoke or chew while preparing solution. 11. The operator should protect his bare feet and hands with polyethylene bags. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE E. Equipment
1. Select right kind of equipment. 2. Do not use leaky, defective equipment. 3. Select right kind of nozzle. 4. Don't blow/clean clogged- nozzle with mouth. Use old tooth- brushes tied with the sprayer and clean with water. 5. Do not use same sprayer for weedicide and insecticide. F. Precautions for applying pesticides
1. Apply only at recommended dose and dilution. 2. Do not apply on hot sunny day or strong windy condition. 3. Do not apply just before the rains and also after the rains. 4. Do not apply against the wind direction. 5. Emulsifiable concentrate formulations should not be used for spraying with battery operated ULV 6. Wash the sprayer and bucket etc with soap water after spraying. 7. Containers, buckets etc. used for mixing pesticides should not be used for domestic purposes. 8. Avoid entry of animals and workers in the fields immediately after the spraying. G. Disposal
1. Left over spray solution should not be drained in ponds or water lines etc. Throw it in barren isolated area, if possible. 2. The used/empty containers should be crushed with a stone / stick and burned deep into soil away from water source. 3. Never re-use empty pesticide container for any purpose.
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE te (19% in 10 ml Am les. 1971
Symptoms of poisoning and the treatment of poisoning for different pesticides
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE les. 1971
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE les. 1971
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Symptoms of important diseases of rice
Bacterial leaf blight False smut on rice panicles INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Plate 2:
Important insect pests of rice

White ear head due to YSB Folder leaf with larva BPH adult and nymph (upper) and hopper burn (lower) Gall midge adult (upper) and its damage i.e. silver shoot INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGE FOR RICE Plate 3:
Key parasitoids and predators of rice insect pests

Egg parasitoid emerging from YSB egg mass Egg parasitoid, Trichogramma Cocoons of larval parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes Micraspis hirashimai Meadow grasshopper (Agriocnemis femina femina ) (Conocephalus longipennis) Wolf spider with egg sac Oxyopes sp. (Argiope catenulata) (Hogna aspersa)

Source: http://www.ncipm.org.in/NCIPMPDFs/ipmpackages/Rice%20Bulletin.pdf

usccb.org

The Changing Face of the Unaccompanied Alien Child: A Portrait of Foreign-Born Children in Federal Foster Care and How to Best Meet Their Needs The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Migration and Refugee Services December 2012 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In June 2011, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops/Migration and Refugee Services (USCCB/MRS) began an analysis of children placed in the Unaccompanied Alien Children (UAC) and Unaccompanied Refugee Minor (URM) foster care programs. To explore the changing face of the children coming into care, USCCB/MRS considered children referred for foster care services from the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)/Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) between October 1, 2007, and June 1, 2011. Of the 279 children referred to USCCB/MRS, the sample size for this paper included 98 children from across the study years. The goal of this paper is to inform ORR and other stakeholders about the profile of unaccompanied children entering foster care and how to better serve them and their needs. Through a greater understanding of the changing face of the UAC/URM population, all stakeholders can better shape their organizational capacity development to meet the increasingly complex needs of these children. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the profile of children coming into federal foster care and how that profile has changed over the years. Across all study years, male referrals dominated, accounting for 65 percent, while 35 percent of the referrals were females. However, in fiscal year 2010, the number of female referrals more than doubled compared to previous years. The average age of children arriving in the United States and being referred to foster care was 16.02 for UAC and 16.38 for URM. The majority of children coming into care migrated from Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador. Children from these countries also reported a high incidence of violence in their home country as a reason for migration. Other reported reasons for migrating remained constant over the study years and included escaping violence in their homes, escaping abusive situations, reuniting with family, and seeking better educational and employment opportunities. However, children also have begun presenting with more complex needs and higher incidences of trauma, mental health issues, and substance use histories. Therefore, it was not surprising to find that about 85 percent of children in the study sample reported having some type of traumatic experience prior to entering ORR custody. Although the majority of trauma experiences occurred when children were in their home country, the number of children who experienced trauma, such as kidnapping or sexual or physical assault, during their journey to the United States increased throughout the study period. Consequently, it was not surprising to find that youth are coming into care with higher incidences of mental health and substance abuse problems. Although the specific mental health disorders remained consistent across the study years, the number of children in the sample with a diagnosed mental health disorder steadily increased, from 13 percent in fiscal year 2008 to 38 percent in fiscal year 2011. Interestingly, half the children identified with a mental health disorder at the time of referral came from Honduras; a majority of those children were male. The study also found a steady increase in reported substance use from 17 percent of the study sample in fiscal year 2008 to 33 percent in fiscal year 2011. Children reported using substances to alleviate mental health symptoms such as depression; however, none of the children received a formal diagnosis of substance abuse or dependence. Further, the study found that the average length of stay for youth in ORR-funded facilities decreased from almost eight months in fiscal year 2008 to less than six and a half months in the beginning months of fiscal year 2011.

joelrubinklezmer.com

Di Eybike Mame The Eternal MotherWomen in Yiddish Theater and Popular Song 1905–1929 ausführliche Textversionextended text version SM 16252 (CD WERGO) Di Eybike Mame (The Eternal Mother):Women in Yiddish Theater and Popular Song, 1905–1929 The recordings presented on this anthology represent a cross-section of women's contribution to theYiddish-language popular song culture which began to develop in the urban centers of Eastern Europein the mid-19th century. The first expression of this emerging culture were the broder-zinger, soloperformers and troupes of singer-songwriters who performed songs and skits in the secular sur-roundings of the inns, wine cellars and restaurant gardens of Jewish centers in Austro-Hungary,Romania and Russia. The broder-zinger were generally maskilim, followers of the haskalah, the