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cpg .pain updated 03/2009 New England Pediatric Sickle Cell Consortium
Management of Acute Pain in Pediatric Patients with Sickle Cell Disease (Vaso-Occlusive Episodes) Disclaimer Statement: Hospital clinical pathways are designed to assist clinicians by providing an analytical framework for the diagnosis and treatment of specific medical problems. They may be used for patient education and to assist in planning future care. They are not intended to replace a physician's judgment or to establish a protocol for all patients with a particular condition. The ultimate decision regarding the care of any patient should be made in respect to the individual circumstances presented by the patient. Any specific medications and dosing must always be reviewed carefully for each patient in view of any drug allergy or adverse reactions. This document was based on available research and clinical experience at time of its compilation. The following protocol is a regional guideline, and may be adopted by individual institutions as needed. cpg .pain updated 03/2009 BACKGROUND ▫ Vaso-occlusive pain episodes (VOE) are the hallmark complication of sickle cell disease. ▫ They can be precipitated by exposure to cold, stress, infection, and dehydration. ▫ Maybe ‘rebound' after incomplete resolution of previous VOE episode. ▫ Most VOE symptoms can be managed at home with oral medications. ▫ More severe pain requires management in a dedicated Day Hospital, if available or Emergency Room evaluation with possible hospital admission for parenteral opioids, ▫ Goal of VOE treatment is to minimize pain and to prevent complications, (acute chest syndrome). APPROPRIATE HOME MANAGEMENT ▫Appropriate home care of the child with sickle cell disease is crucial to optimize best health outcomes for the patient. ▫ Pain management begins with avoidance of precipitating factors, importantly, keeping the patient warm, well, hydrated and free from stress ▫ Vasoocclusive pain occurs very frequently in SCD and must be anticipated. The family of a child with SCD should have, at all times, a sickle cell care plan that details how to manage a painful crisis – including which medicines and what doses to use. The patient must have an adequate supply of pain medications in the house at all times and must know how to ask for a refill before the bottle is finished. ▫ Management of an acute painful episode must include adequate oral pain medicines prior to ever giving parenteral narcotics ▫ If the child has not received adequate oral medications there must be a trial of oral medicines prior to parenteral narcotics being given. PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT (ED) EVALUATION: PATIENTS WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASE AND PAIN SHOULD BE ASSIGNED LEVEL 2 TRIAGE CRITERIA, AS DEFINED BY THE EMERGENCY SEVERITY INDEX (ESI CRITERIA). ▫Rapid triage: immediately on presentation to ED clinic. ▫Age appropriate pain assessment at triage and again before and after each intervention. cpg .pain updated 03/2009 ▫Immediate evaluation with brief history and physical: VS, oximetry, pallor, hydration status, cardio-pulmonary status, spleen size, evidence of infection, medication history: character, nature, location, duration severity of pain. ▫Assessment of medication allergies. ▫Complete a brief, initial psychosocial evaluation. ▫Give pain medication ASAP. (See pain management algorithm)) Goal is first dose of pain medication within 30 minutes of arrival to ED. Can complete H&P when patient's pain is better controlled. ▫ If patient is ≥ 6 years of age and has received opioids at home, Actiq (transmucosal Fentanyl) can be provided at a dose of 200 mcg every 30 minutes until IV is placed or other pain management is instituted. ▫Pain medication as per chart below. ▫Oral medications if has not previously received any. ▫Opioid bolus and subsequent doses as recommended below. ▫Anti-inflammatory medication when necessary/appropriate. (See Algorithm) IV fluids Consider bolus only if dehydrated 1.25 maintenance (IV + PO), to be modified based on history of fluid intolerance and signs of dehydration. If concerned for the possibility of an acute chest syndrome (ACS) developing, limit volume to 2/3-3/4 maintenance, to avoid fluid overload. Laboratory tests and possible imaging studies: ▫Complete blood count with differential and reticulocyte count ▫Blood culture if febrile ▫CXR- PA and lateral – for patients with chest pain, hypoxia, respiratory symptoms- but not as a routine. ▫Additional studies based on history, PE, and clinical presentation ▫SAO2 and CVR monitors as necessary ACUTE PAIN MANAGEMENT IN THE ED Ensure adequate oral pain medication prior to parenteral therapy (Oral or IV therapy must be determined by pain score) Start with PO Opioids if pain not > 5/10 or equivalent, on other pain scale or faces measure See treatment algorithm below for details cpg .pain updated 03/2009 MEPERIDINE (DEMEROL) SHOULD NOT BE USED IN SICKLE CELL PATIENTS BECAUSE OF THE INCREASED RISK OF SEIZURES. Disposition Consider discharge home from ED if pain is captured with minimal number of doses (≤ 2) of IV opioids and then controlled with po medication. – see algorithm Consider admission if patient requires multiple boluses of IV opioids without good pain control, or if patient is febrile, or if patient has respiratory symptoms. Start PCA as soon as apparent that patient will not be adequately controlled with oral or bolus pain medicines. INPATIENT MANAGEMENT Medications Continue home medications including penicillin and folic acid when applicable ○ Continue Hydroxyurea if labs are stable (ANC>1500) Opioids ○ Continuous opioid infusion via patient Controlled Analgesia See Pediatric PCA policy of your own institution for guidelines. PCA may not be appropriate for patients < 7 year of age. Most often these patients should be placed on basal rate only. Parent or Nurse controlled PCA should NOT be used. This can result in excessive sedation. ○ Definitions PCA: A technique whereby the patient self- administers opioid medications using a preprogrammed infusion pump. A method of patient-controlled delivery of an opioid which maintains optimal analgesia while minimizing sedation. Bolus dose: a larger dose of opioid given as an initial dose, for persistent or increased pain, before a procedure with an increase in opioid requirement. The goal of a bolus dose is to quickly bring the patient to a therapeutic analgesic blood concentration. PCA dose: Dose of opioid administered when patient activates pump during a "drug available" interval. Lockout interval: Period during which PCA cannot be activated; the number minutes allowed between PCA doses. Basal dose: Low dose continuous infusion of opioid used to maintain constant "background" level of analgesia. One hour limit: Predetermined maximum drug amount that can be delivered during any one hour period. cpg .pain updated 03/2009 ○ SEE INSTITUTIONAL PEDIATRIC PCA POLICY FOR INDIVIDUAL DOSING. (mg/kg/hour) PCA dose (mg/kg) Lockout period (min) Bolus dose (mg/kg) Use lower dose for opioid naïve patients and higher dose for opioid experienced patients 1 hour limit = basal rate + (PCA dose x # of PCA doses per hour) Select patients may have specific opioid dosing guidelines, refer to patient history PCA teaching sheet should be available for reference for anyone not versed in its use. Patients on PCA need frequent assessment regarding pain intensity and sedation level per individual hospital's policy. Dosing adjustment may be necessary: If patient has increased or persistent pain and is using PCA dosing > 3x/hour consider additional bolus of 0.05 mg/kg/dose morphine or 0.008 mg/kg/dose hydromorphone and increase basal dose by 10-20%. Re-evaluate q 1 hour until pain is captured and then q 4-6 hours while on PCA. Every 12-24 hours calculate the total amount of medication given through basal rate vs. total amount of medication given by bolus+ PCA. Adjust the basal rate appropriately so that the PCA and bolus dosing is < 1/3 the total mg received per day. If pain is well controlled and patient is pushing PCA < 3x/hour consider decreasing basal rate by 10-20%, every 12-24 hours as tolerated. If patient on basal rate is over sedated decrease basal rate by 10-20% For somnolence of respiratory depression stop the infusion, stimulate patient, and apply oxygen. Consider naloxone. Switching from IV to PO analgesics Patients should be changed from IV to PO when pain is well controlled on a total IV Morphine dose (basal+PCA+bolus) of approximately 0.025mg/kg/hr (Hydromorphone dose 0.003mg/kg/hr). PO regimen should include a long acting opioid (replaces basal rate) and a short acting opioid (replaces PCA) Give initial dose of oral medication, then discontinue IV medication 1 hour after. For patients who are difficult to transition to po pain medication consider starting long acting opioid, stopping basal rate of PCA, and continuing PCA dose for 12-24 hours. This regimen can provide the patient with a greater sense of control. If pain is well controlled after 12-24 hours, d/c PCA dose and give po short acting opioids as needed for breakthrough pain Calculations: Calculate total mg of parenteral opioid given in previous 24 hours. Use table to convert 24-hour parenteral dose to oral equivalent dose. cpg .pain updated 03/2009 Divide 24-hour daily oral dose into appropriate dose per time interval. If using a long acting po opioid be sure to include a short acting opioid breakthrough pain. When switching from IV to PO opioid , dose reductions should be considered if the patient has stable controlled pain. Effective management may be achieved at 50% of the calculated equianagesic dose because there is not complete cross-tolerance among these drugs. SEE ORAL DOSING GUIDELINES FOR MORE ORAL MEDICATION OPTIONS. Naloxone Must be readily available Dose: Age < 1year- 0.02mg/dose Age 1-12 years- 0.04mg/dose Age ≥ 12 years – 0.08mg/dose Anti- inflammatory medications Ketorolac- 0.5 mg/kg dose IV max dose 30 mg/dose, 120 mg/day. Max treatment duration 72 hours. May switch to PO NSAID at that time. Ibuprofen 10mg/kg/dose PO q 6 hours. Max dose 800mg Choline magnesium trilisate 25mg/kg/dose PO q 12 hours. Max 1500mg/dose. Do not use for patients with aspirin allergy or G6PD deficiency. Celebrex is also an option if platelets are a concern (50-100mg 1-2x daily) cpg .pain updated 03/2009 Side Effect Management Bowel Regimen: mandatory unless medically contraindicated. Ducosate divided into 1-4 doses/24 hours < 3 years: 10-40mg/day 3-6 years: 20-60 mg/day 6-12 years: 40-150 mg/day > 12 years: 50-400 mg/day Add other meds as needed Senna 2.5-10 ml/dose or 1-2 tabs PO QHS or BID. Max 2 tabs BID. Milk of Magnesia 5-15 ml/dose PO BID Lactulose 5-20g/ day divided TID-QID. Patient must be taking PO fluids Bisacodyl 5-10mg/dose PO/PR QD Miralax 0.8 g/kg/day Itching: Diphenhydramine 1mg/kg/dose IV/PO q 6 hours PRN itching Hydroxyzine 0.5- 1mg/dose IV q 4-6 hours; or 2 mg/kg/day PO divided q 6-8 hours PRN itching. Max 600 mg/day Claritin/ Zyrtec: 2-5 years 5mg daily, 6 years and older 10 mg daily GI Discomfort/Nausea Ondansetron (Zofran) < 10 kg give 0.1 mg/dose PO or IV q8 hours ≥ 10 kg give 1 mg/dose PO or IV q8 hour Prochlorperazine if > 2y of age, 0.1mg/kg/dose PO/PR q 6h, max 10mg/dose Promethazine if > 2y of age, 0.25 – 1mg/kg/dose q 4-6h, max 25mg/dose Anxiolytics Can be used in conjunction with opioids, should not replace opioids. Watch for increased respiratory suppression when used in conjunction with opioids. Monitoring Baseline VS: HR, RR, BP, O2 sat (room air), pain, and sedation level. HR, RR, BP, O2 sat (room air), pain, and sedation level every 15 minutes x2 initially and with any dose change. HR, RR, pain level Q 4h RR, sedation level Q 2h Continues SaO2 monitor Patients on PCA must be accompanied by nurse or physician during transport to clinical or non-clinical areas. Oxygen and appropriate BMV must be readily available Fluids IV + PO at 1- 1.25 maintenance. Adjust based on history of fluid intolerance and signs of dehydration. Close monitoring of fluid status including strict I's & O's and weights Consider decreasing IVF after 24 hours. Limit fluid if patient at risk for ACS. cpg .pain updated 03/2009 Labs CBC with diff and retic q 48 – 72 hours or more frequently if clinically indicated Blood cultures with CBC for T>101۫ F Psychiatric, Behavioral, Physical therapy interventions as indicated. Respiratory Incentive spirometry 10x/hour while awake Ambulation at least twice a shift Oxygen to keep SaO2 >95%. Nurse to inform MD immediately if patient has an increasing O2 requirement Consider BiPAP in patients with history of ACS or with chest pain OUTPATIENT MANAGEMENT Patients can be sent home on PO pain medications (NSAID and opioid) if the following criteria are met: Able to hydrate with PO fluids CBC stable (baseline) Pain has been controlled for at least 1 hour after last dose of PO opioid medication Patient and family comfortable with discharge and feel pain can be controlled with PO medications at home. Stable respiratory status Plan for pain treatment at home. Make sure medications are available at home Give meds around the clock for 24-48 hours to make sure pain is captured and the give PRN Provide instructions for pain management in writing Alternate opioid and Non- opioid medications cpg .pain updated 03/2009 Oral Analgesia Dosing Guidelines
Codeine (but beware of its 0.5-1mg/kg/dose PO q4h Tylenol + Codeine Elixir (120 mg pharmacogenetic profile Acetaminophen +12mg codeine/5ml) and its lack of efficacy. Tylenol+Codeine#2(300mg acetaminophen/15mg codeine) Tylenol+Codeine#3 (300mg acetaminophen/30mg codeine) Tylenol+Codeine#4 (300mg acetaminophen/60mg codeine) Codeine Elixir 15mg/5ml Codeine 15, 30, 60mg tablets 0.03-0.08 mg/kg/dose PO Dilaudid 1,2,3,4mg tablets Usual adult dose 2-4 mg 0.2mg/kg/dose PO q4-6h Oral solution 5mg/5ml,10mg/5ml Oral concentrate 10mg/ml 5,10,40 mg Morphine (immediate 0.2-0.5 mg/kg dose PO q3- Oral solution 10mg/5ml, 20mg/5ml Oral concentrate 20mg/ml 15,30 mg tablets Morphine sustained release) 0.3-0.6mg/kg/dose PO q12h MS Contin 15, 30mg tablets Oxycodone (immediate 0.1-0.2 mg/kg/dose Oxycodone 5mg tablets Percocet/Roxicet 9325 mg acetaminophen+5mg oxycodone tablets) Roxicet Non- Opioid Medication 15mg/kg/dose po /PR q 4h Tylenol elixir 160mg/5ml Tylenol drops 80mg/0.8ml Tylenol 325, 750, 100mg tablets Choline magnesium 25mg/kg/dose BID Max Trilisate 500, 750, 1000mg 10mg/kg/dose PO q6h Children's Motrin/Advil Elixir (100mg/5ml) Motrin: 200mg tablets OTC. 400,600,800mg tablets with Rx cpg .pain updated 03/2009 REFERENCES Boston Medical Center, Pain Free Pediatric Reference Card Buchanan ID, Woodward M, Reed GW. 2005 Opioid Selection during Sickle Cell Pain Crisis and its Impact on the Development of Acute Chest Syndrome Ped. Blood Ca; 45: 716-724 Co JPT, Johnson KB, Duggan A, Casella J, Wilson M. Does a Clinical Pathway Improve Quality of Care for Sickle Cell Anemia? 2003 Joint Comm J Quality and Safety; 29 (4): 181-190 Emergency Severity Index: Implementation Handbook, Agency for Health Care Research and Quality Version 4 Frank LS, Treadwell M, Jacob E, Vichinsky E. 2002 Assessment of Sickle Cell Pain in Children and Young Adults using Adolescent Pediatric Pain Tool. J Pain and Symp. Manag.; 23 (2); 114-120 NHLBI. The Management of Sickle Cell Disease. NIH guidelines, 4th edition (NIH Publication 02-2117 Revised. June 2002) Pain in Sickle Cell Diseases. 1997. Pain Clinical Updates from the International Association for the Study of Pain V (2), Pediatric Patient Controlled Analgesia, Boston Medical Center Medication Guidelines Preboth, M. Practice Guidelines Management of Pain in Sickle cell Disease. American Family Physician, 3: 2001 Shulman E, at al. Pathophysiology and Management of Sickle Cell Pain Crisis. 1995 Lancet; 364(8987): 1408-11. Specific Guidelines for the Management of Pain in the Emergency Room THE GOAL OF THE CONSORTIUM MEMBERS IS TO HAVE INITIAL PAIN THERAPY PROVIDED WITHIN 30 MINUTES OF THE PATIENT'S PRESENTATION TO THE EMERGENCY WITH A MAXIMUM TIME ELAPSED BETWEEN PRESENTATION AND FIRST TREATMENT OF 60 MINUTES. Please see below two different options for the initial management of pain in the Emergency Room. cpg .pain updated 03/2009 Guidelines for the
Management of Uncomplicated Vaso-Occlusive Pain
in Children with Sickle Cell Disease in the E.D.
The purpose of these guidelines is to provide an educational resource for clinicians at BMC.
Clinicians are encouraged to follow these guidelines. It is recognized however,
that at times there will be exceptions to the guidelines that make different medical management appropriate.
Oral AnalgesicsIf patient expresses a preference for a given analgesic, please providethat one. If not, provide from the list Basic demographics.
Give oral analgesia (see table).
(immediate release) Complete initial evaluation.
Place Saline Lock (immediate release) Obtain CBC, retic., BB hold Re-evaluate 20 minutes-30 minutes after oral dosing.
If no other issues identified, give oxycodone +/- Long acting Morphine in ER as appropriate, ensure adequate supply pain medication @ home.
Notify Pedi. Hematology & discharge.
Long acting morphine: 0.3-0.6mg/kg/dose Q 120 Give first dose of:IV Morphine (0.1mg/kg) [Max. dose 10mg]orIV Hydromorphone (0.015mg/kg) [Max. dose 1.2mg] Recommended Max. Single Doses & re-evaluate in 30 minutes Morphine max.: 10 mgHydromorphone: 2mg Long acting Morphine: 60mg Short acting Morphine: 60mg Oxycodone: 15mgAcetaminophen: 1gmCodeine: 60mg Hydromorphone: 2mgIbuprofen: 800mg Give 2nd dose of:IV Morphine (0.1mg/kg) [Max. dose 10mg]orIV Hydromorphone (0.015mg/kg) [Max. dose 1.2mg]& First dose of IV Ketorolac (0.5mg/kg) [Max. dose 15mg child/30mg adolescent]& re-evaluate in 30 minutes Call Pedi. Hematology to discuss further management Prepare for admission. If necessary, give bolus dose while PCA being prepared.
See PCA Orders.
12/18/2008 / Version-1 / Dr.Sprinz cpg .pain updated 03/2009
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