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Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research
General Administration of Private and Foreign Higher Education
Alfajr College for Science and Technology
Curriculum of Dentistry Program
The curriculum has passed through tow developmental milestones:
First milestone
A committee of dental educators was entrusted with the task of designing a
dental curriculum for Alfajr College for Science and Technology (ACST). The
committee had a diverse selection of members representing the various
schools, specialties, experiences & approaches. The members communicated
in meetings & electronically. They conducted a situational analysis and a
desktop review of a multitude of documents guided by the community needs
& the philosophy and values of (ACST) conveyed to them by the founders.
The proposed curriculum is the result of the study & deliberations.

Rationale & Approach
Despite the fact that there are a number of schools of dentistry & oral
medicine in Sudan graduating a reasonable number of dentists annually,
there is still need for new schools to contribute towards the filling of the huge
gap that exists between the number of doctors needed & the numbers that
graduate especially that the process of brain drain is continuing. Moreover,
the establishment of new schools that offer programs & opportunities that
produce high quality competent dentists is still a necessity.
The (ACST) curriculum has been designed to meet the challenges of
educating competent dentists for the twenty-first century, including:

Changes in delivery of healthcare. Services are being moved away from
in-patient hospital care towards day-care, out-patient clinics and
community settings. Improved diagnostic techniques and treatment
methods, enhanced community services and government policy have all
contributed to this trend

Changes to the public's expectations of a doctor
Exciting developments in the methods of teaching and learning and in
approaches to assessment
The expectations set out in dental education documents issued by major
professional regulatory bodies & dental education organizations (e.g.
Profile and Competences for the European Dentist of the Association
for Dental Education in Europe, Standards for dental professionals of
the General Dental Council of UK, Competency Standards for Dental

1 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Technology – of the National Association of Dental Laboratories,
Compendium of curriculum guidelines of the American Dental
Education Association)

In summary, the international documents recommend a curriculum which:-
 ensures all graduates meet the recommended outcomes
 comprises a core, complemented by opportunities for students to
exercise choice
 integrates basic and clinical sciences to link theory with practice
 prepares graduates for their responsibilities as provisionally registered
 takes into account modern educational theory and current research
 provides students with a balance of learning opportunities
 takes advantage of new technologies to deliver teaching
 allows students to revisit topics at different stages and levels
 includes early and continuing contact with patients
Key features of the (ACST) curriculum are:-
 an explicit statement of the outcomes expected of students at each stage
 a core curriculum with student-selected components
 the spiral nature of the curriculum, with its three interlocking phases,
allowing topics to be revisited in more depth
 an integrated approach, providing a focus for students' learning
 a framework of a number of core clinical problems to develop reflective
 a range of educational strategies, including elements of task-based and
problem-oriented learning, community-based learning, and approaches
to teaching and learning that encourage the students to take
increasingly more responsibility for their own learning

 an ‘assessment to a standard' approach which emphasizes the overall
outcomes of the curriculum and which uses a range of methods
including computer-based & online examinations, OSCEs (Objective
Structured Clinical Examination) and portfolio assessment

2 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program  Students are encouraged to develop a partnership approach to their
learning for professional practice. Students and staff, as active
stakeholders, have an important role to play in the continuing
development of the curriculum.

3 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Section 1: educational approach
About the Curriculum
The Spiral Curriculum
The (ACST) curriculum draws on constructivist learning theory, where
students gain new knowledge and ideas by expanding and developing what
they already know. The ‘spiral curriculum' means that students are given
opportunities to revisit aspects of learning, making links between concepts
and deepening understanding. The course is split into three phases; as the
student progresses to each new phase in the spiral, new information and skills
are introduced that build on the information and skills from the previous

The Learning Outcomes
Outcome-based Educatio
Learning outcomes are increasingly used as a focus for curriculum planning.
Identifying, defining and communicating the knowledge, skills, attitudes and
professional behaviours doctors should have is fundamentally important for
the curriculum. Staff and students need to be clear what our medical school
training programme is for, and on which issues it will be judged. What sort of
doctors are staff aiming to produce and students aiming to become? What are
the expected learning outcomes for the curriculum? Doctors have a unique
blend of different kinds of abilities that are applied to the practice of medicine.
What is needed or valued at any time depends on the context - at times it may
be a practical intervention, at other times, diagnostic abilities and at other
times a caring attitude and understanding

The intended learning outcomes
The curriculum of the Medical program, (ACST) is an outcome-based
curriculum employing the prescriptive model of curriculum design.
(ACST) has developed and will implement a Dental curriculum that will lead
to the graduation of doctors with the competences grouped in four thematic
attributes. The graduate is expected to be competences grouped in a number
of domains as recommended by the Association for Dental Education in

4 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program The competences, at the graduation, are the basic level of professional
behaviour, knowledge and skills necessary for a graduating dentist to respond
to the full range of circumstances encountered in general professional practice.
This level of performance requires some degree of speed and accuracy
consistent with patient wellbeing. It also requires an awareness of what
constitutes acceptable performance under changing circumstances and a
desire for self-improvement. Competences should support integration and
merging of all disciplines, which should benefit dentists in training and also
patients who are receiving treatment.

The graduating dentist should learn to undertake a holistic approach to the
management of their patients. They should have knowledge of and adhere to
the concept of dental team working in their approach to patient management;
all this should be supported by an ethos of achieving continuing professional
development (CPD) and promoting life-long learning to achieve a continuum
of education from undergraduate to retirement.

The present document is structured from the general to the more specific for
every section.

Seven domains (listed below) have been identified that represent the broad
categories of professional activity and concerns that occur in the general
practice of dentistry. The domains are interdisciplinary in orientation and
must embrace an element of critical thinking; they may apply in differing
ways to patients of all ages, including children, adolescents, adults and the
elderly within a given population:

I Professionalism
II Interpersonal, Communication and Social Skills
III Knowledge Base, Information and Information literacy
IV Clinical Information Gathering
V Diagnosis and Treatment Planning
VI Therapy: Establishing and Maintaining Oral Health
VII Prevention and Health Promotion

Major competences
5 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Within each domain, at least one ‘major competence' is identified as relating
to that domain's activity. A major competence is the ability of a dentist on
graduation to perform or provide a particular, but complex, service or task.
Its complexity suggests that multiple and more specific abilities are required
to support the performance of any major competence.
In this document the following definitions have been applied to the
Be competent at: a dentist should on graduation demonstrate a sound
theoretical knowledge and understanding of the subject together with an
adequate clinical experience to be able to resolve clinical problems
encountered independently or without assistance.
Have knowledge of: a dentist should on graduation demonstrate a sound
theoretical knowledge and understanding of the subject, but may have only
limited clinical/practical experience.
Be familiar with: a dentist should on graduation demonstrate a basic
understanding of the subject but need not have clinical experience or be
expected to carry out procedures independently.
Domain I: professionalism
Major competence: professional attitude and behaviour
On graduation, a dentist must be competent in a wide range of skills,
including investigative, analytical, problem solving, planning, communication,
and presentation skills and should demonstrate a contemporary knowledge
and understanding of the broader issues of dental practice. The dentist should
understand the relevance of these issues, including research, team building
and leadership skills in clinical dental practice.
Major competence: ethics and jurisprudence
On graduation a dentist must display knowledge of the content and have a
thorough understanding of the moral and ethical responsibilities involved in
the provision of care to individual patients, to populations and communities.
The dentist must demonstrate knowledge of contemporary laws applicable to
the practice of dentistry.
Domain II: interpersonal, communication and social skills
Major competence: communication
On graduation a dentist must be competent to communicate effectively,
interactively and reflectively with patients, their families, relatives and carers
and with other health professionals involved in their care, irrespective of age,
social and cultural background.

6 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Domain III: knowledge base, information and information literacy
Major competence: application of basic biological, medical, technical and
clinical sciences
On graduation a dentist must be competent to apply knowledge and
understanding of the basic biological, medical, technical and clinical sciences

conditions/disorders relevant to clinical dental practice and understand the
bases of these.
Major competence: acquiring and using information
On graduation, the dentist must be competent at demonstrating appropriate
information literacy to acquire and use information from library and other
databases and display the ability to use this information in a critical, scientific
and effective manner. A dentist should demonstrate an ability to maintain
their professional knowledge and understanding throughout their
professional life.
Domain IV: clinical information gathering
Major competence: obtaining and recording a complete history of the
patient's medical, oral and dental state
On graduation, a dentist must be competent at obtaining and recording a
complete history of the patient's medical, oral and dental state. This will
include biological, medical, psychological and social information to evaluate
the oral and dental condition in patients. In addition, the dentist will be
competent at performing an appropriate physical examination; interpreting
the findings and organising further investigations when necessary to arrive at
an appropriate diagnosis.
Domain V: diagnosis and treatment planning
Major competence: decision-making, clinical reasoning and judgement
On graduation, a dentist must be competent in decision-making, clinical
reasoning and judgement to develop a differential, provisional or definitive
diagnosis by interpreting and correlating findings from the history, clinical
and radiographic examination and other diagnostic tests, taking into account
the social and cultural background of the patient. A dentist must be
competent at formulating and recording a diagnosis and treatment plan
which meets the needs and demands of patients. For treatments that are
beyond their skills, a dentist should be competent to be able to refer on for an
appropriate specialist opinion a treatment.
Domain VI: therapy: establishing and maintaining oral health

7 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program This domain provides a broad range of major and supporting competences on
establishing and maintaining oral health. In areas where specific
competencies or learning outcomes are not available it is hoped that this PCD
will encourage specialist educators to produce this information. This domain
may relate to patients from different age groups (children, adolescents, adults
and the elderly) or specifically to one particular age group and to those
patients with special needs and requirements. On graduation the dentist
should be aware of their limitations and know when to refer a patient for
specialist dental or medical care.
Major competence: establishing and maintaining oral health
On graduation, the dentist must be competent at:

6.1. Educating patients and managing primary oral health care for
patients at all stages in their life (including children, adolescents, adults
and the ageing population/elderly) appropriately, effectively and safely,
emphasising current concepts of prevention, risk assessment and
treatment of oral disease which supports the maintenance of systemic and
oral health and improves the quality of life for the individual.
6.2. Treating patients whose special needs, desires and requirements (eg
children) may influence their dental care and know when to refer.
6.3. Employing appropriate techniques to manage oro-facial pain,
including TMJ disorders, discomfort and psychological distress.
6.4. Managing periodontal disease.
6.5. Managing caries and other hard tissue tooth loss.
6.6. Managing pulpal and peri-radicular disease and disorders.
6.7. Restoring defective, non-defective and/or missing teeth to acceptable
form, function and aesthetics.
6.8. Planning and performing all common prosthetic procedures,
including tooth preparation and impression taking.
6.9. Understanding and applying the biomechanical principles of fixed
and removable prostheses commonly used to replace missing teeth.
6.10. Treating and managing conditions requiring minor surgical
procedures of the hard and soft tissues, and to apply and/or prescribe
appropriate pharmaceutical agents to support treatment.
6.11. Managing common oral mucosal diseases and disorders.
6.12.Managing minor developmental or acquired dentoalveolar, growth-
related and functional abnormalities of the primary, mixed and
permanent dentition.

8 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 6.13. Preventing and managing the majority of medical and dental
emergency situations encountered in clinical dental practice.

Domain VII: prevention and health promotion
Major competence: improving oral health of individuals, families and groups
in the community.
On graduation a dentist must be competent at promoting and improving the
oral health of individuals, families and groups in the community.

Aim (s)
At graduation students should be able to demonstrate the necessary
knowledge, understanding, competencies, skills and attitudes that will enable
them to make a safe, caring and continuing contribution towards the
preservation and maintenance of oral health based on an appreciation of the
need to keep up to date and to apply relevant advances in oral health care.

The aim of the Dental program is to graduate a Dental Practitioner who

1. Be the custodian of oral health
2. Be competent in the diagnosis and treatment of patients and should
understand the
need for referral to a specialist when so required
3. Practice the principles of risks management and maintain the highest
ethical and legal standard in the delivery of health care
4. Foster improvement in oral health (mainly dental care) through
research and use of
new advances in health sciences and technology
5. Have a social responsibility to the community and profession and try for
improvement in oral health through patient and community education
6. Be able to address and respond to the changing needs of the community
trans-disciplinary approach when necessary
7. Be able to use information and communication technology in improving
and oral health program management
9 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 8. Have the attributes for analytical and critical thinking, creativity and
9. Subscribe to life-long learning as a professional obligation
10. Promote the art and science of dentistry as a noble profession
A. Knowledge and Understanding:-
At the end of the undergraduate course a student should be able to
demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:

1. The process of scientific enquiry.
2. Applications, integration and relevance of the general principles of
medical and
allied sciences, including mental illness and behavioral sciences, to
3. Current terminology used in dentistry and related subjects.
4. Features of common oral disorders and diseases and of those which may
common but have potentially serious consequences, including the
processes that may be involved such as genetic and developmental
infection and
5. Features of oral disorders and diseases which may be relevant to specific
types of

dental practice because of their relationship to age, gender, ethnicity,
geography or

social factors.
6. Inter-relationships between oral disorders and diseases and those
affecting other
parts of the body.
7. Inter-relationships between the effects of medical and dental treatment.
10 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 8. The main ways in which medical, dental and technical specialties are
applied to
oral health care.
9. The medico-legal and ethical considerations affecting the roles of dental
related health care personnel and their responsibilities in respect of
health and
safety legislation.
10. The main principles underlying health promotion and the prevention,
and management of oral disease.
11. The ways in which preventive, operative and therapeutic methods are
and applied to oral diseases in the community and in hospitals.
12. The relevance of social, environmental, economic and health policies
health and the importance of business and risk management in the
delivery of
health care.
B. Skills/ Competencies
At graduation a student should be able to demonstrate the skills necessary

13. Identify individual patients and groups in the population with oral
disorders and diseases through effective history taking, data recording and
the interpretation of clinical findings.

14. Make suitable and effective arrangements and plans for the
investigation, treatment and management of patients.
15. Carry out investigative and operative procedures to the highest possible
standard within his or her competence for the prevention and treatment of
oral disorders and diseases.

16. Promote oral health and prevent oral disorders and diseases.
17. Communicate and work effectively with patients, their families and
caregivers, the dental team, other health professionals and any other
relevant person or group.

11 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 18. Obtain reliable information efficiently, assess it objectively, adopt a
problem-solving approach, set priorities and plan effective solutions.
19. Analyze and interpret the results of experimental and clinical research
in relation to oral health.
20. Adopt practices that are safe for the patient, the dental team and others
who might be affected.
C. Attitudes
At graduation a student should have been stimulated to:-
21. Apply current knowledge of dentistry and related topics in the best
interests of patients and of the community.
22. Participate in continuing professional development, adapt practice to
changing patterns of knowledge possess a capacity for self-audit, be
involved in the peer-review process and maintain an open-minded but
critical approach to new information.

23. Play a part in the scientific investigation of oral health and disease and
be prepared to apply the results of research to health care.
24. Work effectively as a member of the dental team.
25. Seek to improve awareness of, and provide solutions for, general and
oral health problems and needs throughout the community without
prejudice to diversities of background, opportunity, language and culture.

26. Maintain high standards of ethics and conduct in all aspects of
professional life recognize patients' rights and observe the courtesies of
confidentiality and informed consent.

27. Be aware of the dentist's role in society and take personal responsibility
for that role.
28. Recognize his or her own limitations, be ready to seek help as necessary
and develop the capacity to cope with stress, uncertainty and setback.
Private Independent Study (DSL)
This is going to be achieved through the introduction of flexible teaching and
learning approaches that are:

Less time and place dependent than the traditional forms of teaching
12 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program • Expected to increase learners' responsibility for their own learning.
Self-directed learning and small group learning will be introduced as
the main formats for teaching and learning, supported by lectures as

At least one afternoon and two hours during the morning sessions per week
are allocated to private independent study. This encourages students to
develop their time management skills and priorities their life / work
This is time for students, either alone or in small groups, to consider the
course material, prepare for a tutorial or simply to do some background
reading and reflect on the course. This time is for learning and should be used
constructively - it is not time off. It is envisaged that by having study time in
the working day students will have more time in the evenings and at weekends
to enjoy university life in its widest aspects.
Facilities to help students make the most of private study include the library,
the computer suites and the Integrated Teaching Area which are available out
with designated sessions. Small rooms used for tutorials may be used for
individual impromptu group work. The Clinical Skills Centre is also open,
allowing students to book self-revision areas and keep up-to-date with their

Use of Study Guides
Study guides play an important role in facilitating the students' learning
(Phase 2 and Phase 3).
These, together with the curriculum documents, provide for staff and
students a full description of the course including the learning outcomes, the
course content, the learning opportunities available, the timetable and the
assessment procedures.
The guides are designed to encourage independent learning. Some are
problem-based. The guides vary in their style and format for different parts
of the course, and are available electronically.
The guides in general:
Provide some key content information help students to manage their learning
by indicating what they should be learning and the opportunities available
direct the student to meaningful activities through which they can understand
and apply what they have learned.

13 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Throughout the study guide are key issues which are related to the learning
outcomes. A glossary of terms is listed to cover any new terminology which is
to be mastered. A self-assessment section exists to allow students to assess

Learning Opportunities & situations
Because of the diversity of learning styles & preferences of students
documented in the literature, a multitude of learning situations will be
utilized with emphasis on the situations that give the students ownership and
control of the learning situation. Based on the student-centeredness
principles, less didactic & more self-directed learning activities are going to
be adopted. To improve learning & retention problem-based learning &
integration will be encouraged. The learning situations will include:

1. Lectures – (as interactive, short & few as possible)
2. Practical & clinical skills sessions
3. Tutorials (case-based as far as possible- topic-based are also used)
4. Demonstrations and conferences (using real patients, simulated patients

or multimedia recordings)
5. Seminars (case-based or topic-based, interactive, student lead and tutor
6. Clinical sessions (at bedside as far as possible)
7. E-learning (structured and employing the directed self learning "DSL"

approach based on the guided discovery principle).

Teaching/ Learning Methods

A- Lectures
The lecture is a period of uninterrupted talk giving information about a
subject to an audience or a class. It is often supplemented by instructor-
centred discussion sessions and questions. The lecture is best used for
providing factual knowledge or obtaining general background of a topic. It
has an important role motivating students to pursue additional self-directed
learning in the topic.
B- Small Group Discussion / Group Tutorial

14 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program This is teaching and discussion session involving a tutor and a small group of
students (up to14 members) to promote peer interaction, understanding,
thinking and problem solving.
The topic and general direction are given by the tutor; but the organization,
content and direction of the discussion depends on the student group.
C- Problem-Based learning (PBL)
PBL is the application of the problem-solving approach to learning. Students
in small groups are given opportunities to examine bio-socio-medical
problems which are closely related to their course objectives in order to
achieve these study objectives. In PBL programs it represents the main
method of learning the basic sciences. In the integrated curriculum it is used
to supplement learning activities.
D- Case-Study / Clinical Presentations

This involves the use of a detailed description of a situation or clinical
problem that are related to teaching points one wish to make. It is followed by
a group discussion for student to suggest their own solutions or decisions. It is
used for understanding complex interrelationships and for solving problems.
E- Seminar
This is a group discussion, about 20 to 25 members, led by a teacher or
somebody with particular expertise. Very often students in seminars are
responsible for making presentations on specific topics. The main purpose of
the seminar is to identify, explore and share the results of in depth analysis of
problems. It promotes critical thinking and ability to present an argument
and to stimulate thought at all levels.
F- Skills Practice
In the skills lab, the student has an opportunity to perform skills in front of
other learners and receives feedback and has further chance to practice.
Other student can have their turn.
G- Practical
In laboratories and dissection rooms, students gain knowledge and practical
experience from their observation, manual activities and scientific thinking.

H- Demonstration

The demonstration teaching method involves performing a phenomenon or
skill one is trying to teach while the student watches – "showing". Then the
teacher takes the student through performance of what he is demonstrating –

15 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program "coaching". The student then practices the skill with feedback from the
teacher on his performance-"rehearsing"
I- Student Independent learning
Students work on their own to meet their own learning needs, e.g. after a
lecture, preparation for small group work, after a clinical problem analysis,
before formal examinations, in distance learning etc. Time for IL should be
scheduled in the module timetable, and support and resources for the student

Learning Resources
The following learning resources are going to be made available for the
1. A library with the recommended textbooks & periodicals in the various
disciplines of Medicine.
2. A computer lab with a digital library containing books, CDs,
multimedia resources and an internet connection to the relevant online
3. Laboratories including clinical skills labs
4. Teaching hospitals & PHC facilities

Assessment Strategy

Key Principles of Assessment
Student assessment is based on the learning outcomes and the core clinical
As far as possible, assessment is integrated like the teaching and learning, and
oriented towards clinical relevance rather than theoretical aspects.
Assessment informs staff and students, with the aim that students will be fit to
practice as Foundation (undifferentiated) doctors bearing in mind their
responsibilities as interns & medical officers in the Sudanese context. A range
of appropriate assessment instruments are used to enable assessment of the
learning outcomes at the level required at each stage of the curriculum. These
are selected to allow assessment of knowledge, its application, competence and

16 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program It is recognized that assessment inevitably drives learning, and it is both
formative, enabling students to identify their strengths and weaknesses in
terms of the learning outcomes, and summertime, allowing individual
students to demonstrate achievement of the outcomes at a level appropriate
for each year of the course, before being allowed to progress to the next stage.
Formative assessments take place during each module, block of teaching or
clinical attachment, and are the responsibility of the organizer of each module
/ block of teaching. Summative assessment takes place towards the end of
each academic year to enable the students to demonstrate that they have
achieved the appropriate standard for progression / graduation, and is
carried out by both internal and external examiners. All assessments provide
students with feedback on their performance to allow improvement in areas
of weakness.
The assessment process is subject to quality assurance procedures by the
Medical School, the university and external bodies.
Students should be aware that assessment of core material is rigorous.
Students who fail to reach the appropriate assessment standard at the first
diet will be required to participate in further remedial study and re-
assessment. A student failing to reach the appropriate standard on the second
occasion will be deemed to have failed the year.

17 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Range of Assessments used in (ACST)
Evaluation of students
Assessment: Examinations on all domains of learning are conducted
throughout the year employing both formative & summative assessment
types. Although the formative types are meant for diagnosis & feedback, a
percentage not exceeding 20 % of the final mark can be calculated the
students assignments, presentations, tutorials and tests all of which are
considered as a form of continuous assessment.

Student's attendance is for the eligibility of sitting for the exams.
Assessment Tools: used for both types of formative & Summative types
of assessment are:
 MCQs: As single best answer or single correct answer.
 SAQs short answer questions (As structured as possible). Applied
where appropriate
 CCSs: Clinical case scenarios (in the form of modified essay
questions as far as possible)
o OSPE/ Spotters: Where appropriate
o OSCE: Where appropriate.
o CLINICAL: Workplace-based assessment utilizing the Mini CLEX
18 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Section 2: Curriculum Structure & Organization
The curriculum is delivered in 10 semesters spread over five years employing
a blended model with a traditional structure & the gradual integration of the
innovative approaches of the SPICES framework of medical education.
First year
Semester one
Semester two
Educational unit
Educational unit
Religious Studies i
Religious Studies ii
Arabic language ii
Arabic language i
English language i
English language ii
Computer science i
Computer applications
Medical physics
Biochemistry &
General chemistry
Cell & Human biology
Development &
Special Arabic i
Special Arabic
Sudan culture i
language ii
Second year
Semester one
Semester two
Educational unit
Educational unit
Head & neck
Dental morphology
19 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program (anatomy ii)
Microbiology+ Oral
Biochemistry ii
Gen. Pathology i +
Physio.ii Physiology ii
Oral pathology i
Introduction to
Community Dentistry
Introduction to
Third year
Semester one
Semester two
Educational unit
Educational unit
General pathology ii
General pathology ii
Dental material
Paedo & Paediatric dentistry- &
Microbiology+ Oral

Preclin. Conservation

Preclin. Prosth.
Preclin.omf surg.&
Pre Pre. O & mf surgery
diagnostic process
OMF Surgery
Preclin – fixed
Preclinical fixed
O.Path.i Oral pathology i
Fourth year
20 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Semester one
Semester two
Educational unit
Educational unit
OMF Surgery
OMF Surgery
Oral medicine i
Oral Medicine ii
Conservative &
Conservative &
Fixed prosthodontics
Fixed prosthodontics
OMFS Radiology i
OMFS Radiology ii
Comm. Basics of Community
Dentistry Biostatistics
Behavioral Sciences &
& Research
Internal medicine
Internal medicine
General surgery
General surgery
Fifth year
Semester one
Semester two
Educational unit
Educational unit
Comprehensive dental
OMF Surgery
Advanced dental
Conservative & Endo
Research project
R.prosth Removable Prosth.
Fixed Prosthodontics
21 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Peadodonics
22 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Educational Units
Cell & Human Biology
Course No. D 119
Code: CC-1.1.8
Course Title: Cell & human Biology
Credit hour: 3

Conducted during semester 1
By the end of the course the student should:

Understand the basic structure and function of the cell and as the
human is a single cell descendent

know topics and concept of biology relevant to medicine and their
applications in dentistry and health sciences.
The cell and its organelles – structure of the viruses, bacteria, fungi,
vertebrates, biology of arthropod and insect vectors- principles of genetics –
principles of molecular biology- metabolism – reproduction in mammals –the
nervous system- the cardiovascular system – respiratory system – hormones
and the kidney – life cycle of the common parasite
Practical: principles of scientific drawing – structure and function of common
parasites - structure and function of vertebrates .

Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
General Chemistry
Course No. D 112
Code: CC-1.1.7
Course Title: General Chemistry
Credit hour: 3

Objectives :
23 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Provide an appropriate base for those students who wish to pursue further
studies in different branches of dentistry/medicine, as well as laying a secure
foundation for those who continue their studies in related subjects such as
biochemistry & physiology.

Inroduction to chemistry
Chemical properties of materials
Organic chemistry

Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
Practical Examination 20%
Medical Physics
Course No. D 113
Code: Physic
Course Title: Medical Physic
Credit hour: 3

The course is designed to allow the dental student to acquire knowledge
of the basic ideas & concepts of medical physics& mechanics relevant to
dental material and dental mechanics

1. Biological thermodynamics
2. Membrane biophysics & ion channels
3. Molecular biophysics
4. Cell signaling and cell biophysics
5. Single-molecule biophysics
6. Nanobiotechnology and biosensors
7. Modern experimental methods in Biophysics
8. Biomedical Imaging and Medical Physics

Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
24 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program • MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended matching questions and problems 20%
Practical Examination 20%
25 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program English Language
Course No. D 114+ D126
Code: Eng.
Course Title: English Language
Credit hour: 2 +2

By the end of the course the student should be able to:

Translate from Arabic to English.
By the end of the course the student should be able to:
Improve his her linguistic skills relevant to dental sciences in writing,
listening and speaking.
Know some aspects of grammar and phonetics
Translate dental information from and to Arabic language.
Use of library, references and language dictionaries – English grammar
– number – subject and verb – passive voice – connective articles –
relative sentences – relative pronouns.

Improve his her linguistic skills relevant to dental sciences in writing,
listening and speaking.
Use of library, references and language dictionaries – English grammar
– number – subject and verb – passive voice – connective articles –
relative sentences – relative pronouns.

Use of library, references and language dictionaries – English grammar
– number – subject and verb – passive voice – connective articles –
relative sentences – relative pronouns.

Writing and reading skills – conversation skills – discussion and
dialogue skills – translation in dental – English grammar and phonetics.
Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 60%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
26 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Computer
Course No. D 115+ D125
Code: Comp.
Course Title: Computer
Credit hour: 2+2

By the end of the course the student should:
Understand the basics of computer components, soft wares, networks
and computer connectivity.
Use the internet and its applications in medical and health sciences.
Develop an awareness of common computer programmes relevant to
medical and health sciences.
Introduction to computing – computer types – capacity, characteristic,
software – statistical software's – databases and their uses in dental practice
and research – internet – networks

Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 60%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%

Sudanese Culture

Course No. D 116
Code: Sud. Cult.
Course Title: Sudanese Culture
Credit hour: 2

By the end of the course the student should:
Comprehend basic social and geographic acts about Sudan.
Understand the general features of Sudan history.
Enhance his her feelings on unity and solidarity and nation building.
Become aware of the characteristics of the Sudanese personality.
Comprehend the origin and development of the university of Khartoum,
its history, goals, systems, regulations and bylaws that govern the
27 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program tuition scheme and its roles in serving the Sudan enhancement of
national development.


Introduction to Sudan geography and history – Sudan environment,
resources and capitals development – Sudanese community – Sudanese
cultures sources – ethnic formation, Islamic, Arabic and Africans
impact on Sudanese personality, the advantages of diversity and forces
of unity in new world orders (globalization) governmental systems in
Sudan – Sudan boundaries and inter-relationship .

Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 60%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%

Arabic Language

Course No. D 117+ D127
Code: Ar.
Course Title: Arabic Language
Credit hour: 2+2

By the end of the course the student should be able to:
Improve his her linguistic skills relevant to dental sciences in writing,
listening and speaking in accordance with the correct grammar rules
and proper phonetics

acquire linguistic skills relevant to dental sciences in writing, listening
and speaking in accordance with the correct grammar rules and proper

Have sound knowledge on Arabic heritage.
Arabic grammar – Uses of references and language dictionaries –
subject and verb – passive voice – connective articles – relative
sentences – relative pronouns – common mistakes –essays writing –
scientific terminology scientific jargon.

28 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 60%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
Islamic Studies
Course No. D 118 + D128
Code: Isl. St.
Course Title: Islamic Studies
Credit hour: 2 +2


By the end of the course the student should be able to:
Associate religion with different patterns of human behavior.
Acquire the concepts of coherence of the Islamic nation which emerges
from the faith in the only Allah, the creator and the designer of this

Understand the basic concepts of Islamic culture, of science and Islamic
Gain knowledge about belief, values, sociology, politics and economics.
Islamic culture definition
Islamic belief, cults and worship
contemporary religious
Islamic parties and creeds
doubts raised against Islam
introduction to Islamic laws
introduction to holy Koran sciences ,
sunna of the prophet
principles of Islamic jurisprudence
29 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program • Islamic economic and social systems
science and religion
ethics of discussion and arguments
scientific inimitability in holy Koran
Muslim physician jurisprudence
Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 60%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
30 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Introduction to Dentistry
Course No. D 111
Code: Int. Dent.
Course Title: Introduction to Dentistry
Credit hour: 2

Upon completion of the course, the student should:

1- Know history of dentistry
2- .Know dental Profession
3- Know dental Professional Organizations
5- Know dental team
4- Define the Key Terms.
5. Explain the abbreviation BDS .
6- Identify the main specialties of dentistry.
7- Define various discipline in dentistry and describe objectives of each

8- Be familiar with characteristics of target population served by the
9- Discuss preventive aspects of the disciplines in dentistry.
10- Explain the role of health provider in patient management related to

the discipline.
11- Discuss major procedures in the discipline with emphasis on
comprehensive treatment.
12- Have sufficient knowledge on professionalism and professional ethics.
13- Be oriented with the program mission and regulations

1- History of Dentistry
2- Dental profession

a. What is a profession?
b. Definition and characteristics of a profession.
c. Dental profession development.
d. Era of modern dentistry.

3- Dental team
a. Team personals
b. What is team work

31 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program c. Contribution& role of each team partners
4- Common dental& medical terms
5- Description of the different dental degrees and job description
6-The main dental specialties and dental career
7- Introduction to Dental Curriculum and program Regulations

a. The college and program regulation
b. Curriculum objectives
c. Yearly curriculum plan
d. Pre-clinical regulations
d. Clinical regulations

8- Introduction to Diagnostic Sciences
a. Collection of diagnostic information
b. Information analysis

c. Diagnosis & treatment plan
Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
Practical Examination 20%
32 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Dental Morphology
Course No. D 121
Code: D. Morph.
Course Title: Dental Morphology
Credit hour: 3

The aim of this course is intended to introduce the main aspects of human
tooth morphology. Particular attention will be placed on the linking of form
and function and the value of this in dental treatment. Students will have the
opportunity to gain skills in tooth identification and in carving teeth using
I. Tooth Morphology
1. Introduction to tooth morphology:

Human dentition, types of teeth, & functions, Palmer's & Binomial
notation systems, tooth surfaces, their junctions - line angles & point
angles, definition of terms used in dental morphology, geometric
concepts in tooth morphology, contact areas & embrasures - Clinical

2. Morphology of permanent teeth:
Description of individual teeth, along with their endodontic anatomy &
including a note on their chronology of development, differences
between similar class of teeth & identification of individual teeth.

Variations & Anomalies commonly seen in individual teeth.
3. Morphology of Deciduous teeth:
Generalized differences between Deciduous & Permanent teeth.
Description of individual deciduous teeth, including their chronology of
development, endodontic anatomy, differences between similar class of
teeth & identification of individual teeth.

4. Occlusion:
Definition, factors influencing occlusion - basal bone, arch, individual
teeth, external & internal forces & sequence of eruption.
Inclination of individual teeth - compensatory curves.
Centric relation & Centric occlusion - protrusive, retrusive & lateral
Clinical significance of normal occlusion.
Introduction to & Classification of Malocclusion.
33 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program II. Oral Embryology
1. Brief review of development of face, jaws, lip, palate & tongue, with applied
2. Development of teeth

Epithelial mesenchymal interaction, detailed study of different stages of
development of crown, root & supporting tissues of tooth & detailed
study of formation of calcified tissues.

Applied aspects of disorders in development of teeth.
3. Eruption of deciduous & Permanent teeth
Mechanisms in tooth eruption, different theories & histology of
eruption, formation of
Dentogingival junction, role of gubernacular cord in eruption of
permanent teeth.
Clinical or Applied aspects of disorders of eruption.
4. Shedding of teeth
Factors & mechanisms of shedding of deciduous teeth.
Complications of shedding.
III. Oral Histology
1. Detailed microscopic study of Enamel, Dentine, Cementum & Pulp tissue.

Age changes & applied aspects (Clinical and forensic significance) of
histological considerations - Fluoride applications, transparent dentine,
dentine hypersensitivity, reaction of pulp tissue to varying insults to
exposed dentine; Pulp calcifications & Hypercementosis.

2. Detailed microscopic study of Periodontal ligament & alveolar bone, age
changes, histological changes in periodontal ligament & bone in normal &
orthodontic tooth movement, applied aspects of alveolar bone resorption.

3. Detailed microscopic study of Oral Mucosa, variation in structure in
relation to functional requirements, mechanisms of keratinization, clinical
parts of gingiva, Dentogingival & Mucocutaneous junctions & lingual
Age changes & clinical considerations.

4. Salivary Glands:
Detailed microscopic study of acini & ductal system.
Age changes& clinical considerations.
5. TM Joint:
Review of basic anatomical aspects & microscopiuc study & clinical
34 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 6. Maxillary Sinus
Microscopic study, anatomical variations, functions & clinical relevance
of maxillary sinus in dental practice.
7. Processing of Hard & soft tissues for microscopic study
Ground sections, decalcified sections & routine staining procedures.
8. Basic histochemical staining patterns of oral tissues.
IV. Correlation

1- Recognize errors that may cause difficulties or failures in root canal
treatment owing to lack of knowledge of pulp anatomy.
2- List ways that help to determine the type of pulp canal system.
3- Draw common shapes of roots in cross section and common canal

configurations in these roots.
4- Describe the most common root and pulp anatomy of each tooth.
5- List, for each tooth type, the average length, number of roots, and most

common root curvatures.
6- Characterize the more frequent variations in root and pulp anatomy of
each tooth.
7- Explain why standard periapical radiographs do not present the
complete picture of root and pulp anatomy.
8- Draw a representative example of the most common internal and
external anatomy of each tooth and root in the following planes: (1)
sagittal section of mesiodistal and faciolingual planes and (2) cross section
through the cervical, middle, and apical thirds.

9- Suggest methods for determining whether roots and canals are curved as
well as the severity of the curvature.
10- State the tenet of the relationship of pulp-root anatomy.
11- List each tooth and the root(s) that require a search for more than one

12- List and recognize the significance of iatrogenic or pathologic factors
that may cause alterations in pulp anatomy.
13- Define the pulp space and list and describe its major components.
14- Describe variations in the pulp system in the apical third, including the

apical foramen region.
15- Describe how to determine clinically, the distance from the occlusal-
incisal surface to the roof of the chamber.
16- Discuss location, morphology, frequency, and importance of accessory
(lateral) canals.
35 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 17- Describe relationships between anatomic apex, radiographic apex, and
actual location of the apical foramen.
18- Describe common variations in pulp anatomy resulting from
developmental abnormalities and state their significance.
19- Describe why many root curvatures are not apparent on standard
include Dental formula & Tooth annotation systems - line & point angles The
dental arches & tooth surfaces – Detailed description of the external feature
of the deciduous & the permanent dentitions . Tooth dimensions &
proportions - The chronology of human dentitions - Tooth relationships -
Tooth pulp morphology -Tooth inclination & alignment.
Methods of assessment

Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
36 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Course No. D 122
Code: Anat.1
Course Title: Anatomy1
Credit hour: 3

Main Objective:
The main objective of the course is to enable the student to have basic
knowledge about the general gross (macroscopic), general histological and
cytological (microscopic) and embryological basis of the human body.
It assists the student to correlate the structural framework of the human body
to its functional activities
provides information on structures necessary for the practice of safe clinical

1. Gross Anatomy

1. Know the major anatomical structures of the human body and their
primary functions.
2. Be able to recognize important clinical structures and landmarks on
various radiographic images including CT, MR and X-ray images, in all

3. Be able to describe various anatomical structures, both superficial and
deep, that need to be considered during palpation.
4. Be able to make reasonable predictions of the clinical manifestation of
injury or disease to anatomic structures.
5. Be able to relate anatomic structures to clinical diagnostic procedures
and treatment approaches
a- Thoracic Region
Region Objectives:
By the end of this region the student should be able to

1- Identify the different component of the bony thorax
2- The important relations and the anatomical land marks of thoracic cage
3- The respiratory system& pleural sac
4- The mediastenal contents
5- The cardiovascular system& the great vessels

37 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program a-Introduction and terminology related to the anatomy and topographic
b- Surface antomy of the thorax:
c- Thoracic cage and its articulations.
d- Thoracic wall and surface anatomy.
e- Thoracic cavity, plura and lungs.
f-mediastinium ,pericardium
g- middle mediastemum & heart
h- cardiovascular anatomy( great vessels& blood supply of the heart)
i- cardiovascular anatomy( conducting system of the heart)
j- posterior mediastenum contents

b-Applied Gross Anatomy of Abdomen, Pelvis for dental student
Objectives of this regions:
The student should be able to:
1-identify the regional anatomical land mark
2- Deal with these parts of the human body during general body examination
3- Deal with emergencies and patient right refer

a-Anterior abdominal wall and surface anatomy of the internal organs.
b-Clinical application and hernias.
c-Anatomy of the GIT & Porto systemic Anastomosis.
d-The anatomical land marks of bony pelvis & iliac crest
e- Identification of urinary and reproductive systems.

c-Applied Gross anatomy of the Limbs:
The dental student needs this course to
a-relate between the different parts of the body
b-Identify& use correctly the peripheral superficial veins in investigations &

c- Communicate scientifically with medical colleges
d- able to deal with emergencies .

Appendicular skeleton & the names of the joints.
Brachial blexus, shoulder region & axilla.
Cubital fossa and superficial veins variation.
Glutial region and the thigh.

38 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Knee joint , populated fossa& -Leg and foot
Common fractures of the limbs & nerves injures

2-General Embryology,

By the end of this course the student should be able to
1- know about the gametes& gmitogenesis
2- know about normal fertilization& in vertro fertilization
3- know the normal site of implantation & ectopic pregnancy
4- know the derivatives of the germinal layers
5- know the fetal developmental stages& full term baby
6- fetal membranes & placenta

Ovulation & menstruation
Fertilization& implantation
Bilaminar germ disc and extraembryonic membranes
Gastrulation& deravatives of the germinal layers
Fetal period
Fetal membranes
3- general histology
By the end of this course the student should be able to:-

1- know the different parts of the light microscope& how to use the
2- know about the different histological techniques and slide preparations
3- identify the micrscopical picture of the different body tissues
4- identify the functional & histological changes of the tissues under the

1-The Body's Microscopic Organization
2- Cytology, recognize parts of the typical cell and describe their
3- Cell mitosis.& chromosomes
4-Classify tissues and list their functions.
5- The epithelial tissues.
6- Classify the epithelia.
7-Describe types of membranes.

39 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 8-Types of glands.& endocrine system
9-Connective tissues and their functions.
10-The types of connective tissue propers.
11-The supporting connective tissues.
12-The specialized connective tissue B blood.
13- The muscular tissues.
14- The nervous tissues.
15- The lymphoid tissue.
16- The special sense organs
17- Histology of the endocrine glands
18- Histology of the respiratory system
19- Histology of the cardiovascular system
20 - Histology of the digestive systm

Recommended Books:
- Clinical anatomy for medical students. Richard Snell - by regions.
- Last anatomy
- Clinical anatomy – Kiss Moore.
- Human development. – Moore.
- Anatomy for dental student - Moore
- Basic histology.
- Functional histology.
- Gay's anatomy -------( as reference)
Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
Practical Examination 20%

40 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Biochemistry and Nutrition
Course No. D 123
Code: bio.Nut.
Course Title: Biochemistry and Nutrition
Credit hour: 3

At the end of the course the student would be able to acquire a useful core of
information, and should know
1. The structure of cholesterol and why it cannot be carried free in plasma.
2. Why amylase will not hydrolyse cellulose.
3. Haemoglobin is globular and keratin is fibrous.
4. Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation.
Should know more than 90 % of atp is formed by this process.
5. Hydrochloric acid cannot break a peptide bond at room temperature.
6. The steps of glycogenesis.
7. The basis of increase of urea and creatininein blood in renal insufficiency.
8. The structure of insulin. Should know why insulin level in circulation is

normal in most cases of maturity onset diabetes.
9. The structure of atp and energy needs.
10. The mechanism of action of prolylhydroxylase.
11.The structure of vitamin k and basis of bleeding arising due to its

deficiency starvation1.
Chemistry of bioorganic molecules
Carbohydrates: Definition, biological importance and classification.
Monosaccharides - Isomerism, anomerism. Sugar derivatives, Disaccharides.
Polysaccharides. Structures of starch and glycogen.
Lipids: Definition, biological importance and classification. Fats and fatty
acids. Introduction to compound lipids. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups.
Cholesterol. Bile salts. Micelle. Bimolecular leaflet.
Proteins: Biological importance. Amino acids: Classification.
Introduction to peptides.
Proteins : Simple and conjugated; globular and fibrous. Charge properties.
Buffer action . Introduction to protein conformation .
Denaturation. Nucleic acids: Building units . Nucleotides. Outline structure of
DNA and RNA.

41 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 2. High energy compounds: ATP , Phosphorylamidines, Thiolesters, Enol
Energy needs: Basal metabolic rate. Dietary carbohydrates, fibres. Dietary
lipids, essential fatty acids. Nitrogen balance.
Essential amino acids. Protein quality and requirement (methods for
evaluation of protein quality to be excluded).
Protein calorie malnutrition. Balanced diet.
Enzymatic hydrolysis of dietary carbohydrates. Mechanism of uptake of
monosaccharides. Digestion and absorption of triacylglycerols. Enzymatic
hydrolysis of dietary proteins and uptake of amino acids.
3. Micronutrients.
Vitamins: Definition, classification, daily requirement, sources and deficiency
symptoms. Brief account of water-soluble vitamins with biochemical functions.
Vitamins A functions
including visual process. Vitamin D and its role in calcium metabolism.
Vitamin E. Vitamin K and gamma carboxylation.
Introduction to antivitamins and hypervitaminosis.
Minerals :Classification, daily requirement. Calcium and phosphate: sources,
uptake, excretion, function. Serum calcium regulation. Iron: sources, uptake
and transport.
Heme and nonheme iron functions; deficiency. Iodine: Brief introduction to
thyroxine synthesis. General functions of thyroxine. Fluoride: function,
deficiency and excess. Indications of role of other minerals.
4. Energy Metabolism
Overview: Outlines of glycolysis,pyruvate oxidation and citric acid cycle. Beta
oxidation of fatty acids. Electron transport chain and oxidative
phosphyorylation. Ketone body formation and utilisation. Introduction to
glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, fatty acid synthesis, lipogenesis and lipolysis.
Lactate metabolism . Protein utilisation for energy. Glucogenic and ketogenic
amino acids. Integration of metabolism.
5. Special Aspects Of Metabolism
Importance of pentose phosphate pathway. Formation of glucuronic acid.
Outlines of cholesterol synthesis and breakdown. Ammonia metabolism. Urea
Phosphocreatine formation. Transmethylation. Amines.

42 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Introduction to other functions of amino acids including one carbon transfer.
Detoxication : Typical reactions. Examples of toxic compounds.
Oxygen toxicity.
Methods of assessment

Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
Practical Examination 20%
43 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Biochemistry II
Course No. D 235
Code: bio.
Course Title: Biochemistry II
Credit hour: 3

Biochemical genetics and protein synthesis

- Introduction to nucleotides; formation and degradation. DNA as genetic
material. Introduction to replication and transcription.
- Forms and functions of RNA. Genetic code and mutation.
- Outline of translation
process.Antimetabolites and antibiotics
interfering in replication, transcription and translation.
- Introduction to cancer, viruses and oncogenes.
Enzyme and metabolic regulation
- Enzymes: Definition, classification, specificity and active site.
- Cofactors. Effect of pH, temperature and substrate concentration.
- Introduction to enzyme inhibitors, proenzyme and isoenzymes.
Introduction to allosteric regulation, covalent modification and
regulation by induction/repression.

- Overview of hormones. Introduction to second messengers, cyclic AMP,
calcium ion, inositol triphosphate. Mechanism of action of steroid
hormones, epinephrine, glucagon and insulin in brief.

- Acid base regulation.
- Electrolyte balance.
Structural components and blood proteins
- Connective tissue: Collagen and elastin. Glycosaminoglycans.
- Bone structure. Structure of membranes. Membrane associated
processes in brief. Exocytosis and endocytosis. Introduction to

- Myofibril and muscle contraction in brief.
- Haemoglobin: functions. Introduction to heme synthesis and
- Plasma proteins: classification and separation.
- Functions of albumin. A brief account of immunoglobulins.
- Plasma lipoproteins: Formation, function and turnover.
Medical biochemistry
- Regulation of blood glucose.Diabetes mellitus and related disorders.
44 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program - Evaluation of glycemic status.
- Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism: Biochemical evaluation.
- Hyperlipoproteinemias and atherosclerosis, Approaches to treatment.
- Jaundice: Classification and evaluation.
- Liver function tests: Plasma protein pattern, serum enzymes levels.
- Brief introduction to kidney function tests and gastric function tests.
- Acid base imbalance.
- Electrolyte imbalance: evaluation.
- Gout.
- Examples of genetic disorders including lysosomal storage disorders,
glycogen storage disorders, glucose 6- phosphate dehydrogenase
deficiency, hemoglobinopathies, inborn errorsof amino acid metabolism
and muscular dystrophy ( one or two examples with biochemical basis
will be adequate). Serum enzymes in diagnosis.

Text & Reference Books:
1- Concise text book of Biochemistry (3rd edition) 2001, T.N. Pattabiraman
2.Nutritional Biochemistry 1995,S. Ramakrishnan and S.V. Rao
3.Text book of Biochemistrywith clinical correlations 1997, T.N. Devlin
4.Harper's Biochemistry, 1996., R.K. Murray et.al
5.Basic and applied Dental Biochemistry, 1979, R.A.D. Williams & J.C.Elliot

Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
Practical examination 20%
45 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Physiology
Course No. D 124
Code: Physio.1
Course Title: Physiology1
Credit hour: 3

The aim of the course is to provide students with essential knowledge of
bodily functions and homeostasis (with special emphasis on the functions of
oral structures and applied Oral Physiology as a basis for Dental practice)

Introduction to Human physiology
Autonomic nervous system –
Blood groups (Rh & ABO) -
Heart & circulatory system –
Coagulation mechanisms –
Respiration & gaseous exchange
Renal function

Methods of assessment

Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
Practical Examination 20%
Head & Neck

Course No. D 231
Code: H&N Anat,.
Course Title: Head& Neck Anatomy
Credit hour: 3

By the end of this course the student should be able to:
1-Identify the bones of the skull& cervical vertebrae.
2- Locate the cranial& facial exits and describe the structures& function of

the structures passing through
46 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 3-Locate the origin and insertion and describe the action of the muscles of the
head and neck.
4- Describe the venous and arterial blood supply to the structures of the head
and neck.
5. Explain the relationship of the autonomic nervous system to the head and
6. Locate and identify the glandular tissues and associated structures in the
head and neck.
7. Describe the location and function of the lymphatic system of the head and
8. Trace the routes of infection of the orofacial region.
9. Describe the injection penetration sites for dental local anesthesia.
10. Describe the anatomy, functioning& common disorders of the

temporomandibular joint.


- 1-Oestology of the cranium
- 2- Osteolgy of the facial skeleton
- 3.The spine, cervical vertebrae and surface markings.
- 4-Cervical fascia& Fascial spaces .
- 5-Scalp and head injuries.
- 6- cutaneous innervation of the face& distribution of trigeminal nerve
- 7- blood supply of the face & dangerous trigone
- 8- muscles of facial excepression
- 9- posterior triangle of the neck& cervical plexus
- 10- anterior triangle of the neck
- 11- Carotid sheath
- 12- sub-occiptal region& back of the neck
- 13- Median viscera of the neck& thyroid gland
- 14- Infratemoral fossa
- 15- Pterygoplatine fossa
- 16- Crainial cavity& dural sinuses
- 17- Nasal cavity and Para nasal sinuses.
- 18- Oral cavity
- 19- Salivary Glands
- 20- Muscles of mastication TMJ.
- 21-Pharynx
47 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program - 22-Larynx.
- 23-Root of the neck& Prevertebral region
- 24-Orbit.
- 25-Ear
- 26- Lymphatic Drainage of head& neck

Recommended Books:
Clinical anatomy for medical students. Richard Snell - by regions.
Last anatomy
Clinical anatomy – Kiss Moore.
Anatomy for dental student - Moore
Gray's anatomy -------( as reference)
Methods of assessment

Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
48 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Physio.II
Course No. D 233
Code: Physio.II
Course Title: Physiology 2
Credit hour: 3

- Gastrointestinal system - Physiology of the mouth & oral cavity structures -
Speech & Swallowing - - Bone physiology - Endocrinology - Nutrients &
- Nerve & muscle function / Neurophysiology
Text Books:
Guyton; Text book of Physiology, 9th edition.
Ganong; Review of Medical Physiology, 19th edition
Vander; Human physiology, 5th edition
Choudhari; Concise Medical Physiology, 2nd edition
Chaterjee; Human Physiology, 10th edition
A.K. Jain; Human Physiology for BDS students, 1st edition.

Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
49 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Development and Growth
Course No. D 234
Code: Devel.Gro.
Course Title: Development & Growth
Credit hour: 2

Define and understand the basic growth concepts (area relocation, appositionalgrowth,
displacement, remodeling, resorption, deposition, fusion).
Understand the growth and development of the main craniofacial components:cranial
base, maxilla, and mandible, and their interrelationships at different stagesof growth.
Understand the tissues involved in facial growth: bone, cartilage and muscle.
Understand the differences in facial form and patterns.
Understand major deformities of growth.
Understand why and how knowledge of facial and somatic growth and development is
critical to early treatment of malocclusion through prevention,interception, or early
correction of interferences with normal development that lead to malocclusion
Know the basic tissues involved in craniofacial growth, particularly bone and cartilage
(muscles are addressed in a specific course)
.Know the different locations of cartilage in the head. Differentiate and identify the
endochondral and intramembranous modes of bone formation, and the facial bones
involved in each modality
.Know the basic craniofacial growth concepts including area relocation,
bonedisplacement, processes of appositional growth and depositional resorption,
andissues of modeling, remodeling, and the principle
.Know sites and mechanisms of growth of the cranial base, the influence of thisgrowth on
the position of the growing maxilla and mandible, and the factors thatlead to anomalies
of cranial growth.
Know the patterns and mechanisms of maxillary growth in all 3 planes of space, and the
influence of sutural growth on maxillary development.
know the patterns and mechanisms of mandibular growth in all 3 planes of space and
the role of condylar growth in mandibular development.
1. Pharyngeal arches development
2. Development of the oral cavity and orofacial clefts
3. Development of the face, nasal cavity and palate
4. Development and growth of the skull and maxilla
5. Development and growth of the mandible

50 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 6. Craniofacial malformations commonly seen in maldevelopment of the
craniofacial structures
7. Selected Syndromes & clinical considerations
8. Development and growth of the teeth: Crown formation including
Amelogenesis and Dentinogenesis
9. Development of the root and supporting structure
10. Developmental Anomalies of the teeth
11. Tooth movements
Recommended Textbook:
James Avery (Oral development and histology)
3rd edition,2002.
Ten Cate (Oral Histology – development, structure and function)
5th edition, 1998,

Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
Practical Examination 20%

51 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Course No. D 235
Code: Neuro
Course Title: Neuroanatomy
Credit hour: 23

By the end of this course the student should be able to:-
1- know the general organization of the nervous system
2-Identify the different components of the nervous system
3-The pathways and gaits of forth& back messages through the nervous

4-The circulations through& around the nervous system and the clinical
problem correlate to them
3-Correlate between the different connections, anatomical location and
neurological activities of the different parts of the nervous system
4- Identify the main neurological disturbances& the neurological defect lead


1- Introduction to neuroanatomy.
2- topography of the brain& meninges .
3- Cerebral cortex, Lobes and cortical areas .
4-Basal ganglia and thalamus
4- Organization& external feature of the brain stem and its
5- Internal features of brain stem.
6- Topography of the spinal cord and its segmentations
7-Internal features of spinal cord.
9-Limb system.& Reticular formation
10-CSF circulation & ventricular system.
11-Blood supply of the nervous system& dural venous
sinuses .
52 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Recommended Books:
Clinical anatomy for medical students. Richard Snell - Neuroanatomy.
Last anatomy
Gay's anatomy -------( as reference)
Methods of assessment

Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
Practical Examination 20%

53 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program General Pathology
Course No. D 241
Code: G. Path.
Course Title: General Pathology
Credit hour: 3+1

- The course is aimed at enabling the student to know:
- Causes and mechanisms of cell injury, inflammation, immune system
reaction, healing and the various metabolic & morphological changes that
take place in cells .

- Definition of neoplasia; nomenclature; behavioural & morphological
differences between benign & malignant tumours; histological grading
and staging & their importance in predicting clinical behavior

- & prognosis. Tumor factors & their role in diagnosis & classification of
- Etiology of cancer
Cell injury - Inflammation I & II - Healing & repair I & II - Oedema -

Pigmentation & calcification - Tuberculosis I & II - Amyloidosis - Disorder of
growth I & II - Immunopathology - Genetics I & II - Thrombosis + Embolism
- Congestion & infarction - Shock - Haemopoiesis & classifcation of anaemias
- Bleeding disorders I & II + Blood transfusion - Acid base disturbances -
Water & electrolyte balance - Disturbance of CHO metabolism - Disorders of
protein, lipid, calcium and phosphate metabolism - Inborn errors of
metabolism - Malaria; leishmaniasis & schistomiasis - Leprosy & syphilis -
Hepatitis I & II - Leukemias I & II - Malabsorption - AIDS pathology -
Diseases of the blood & lymph vessels - Systemic hypertension - Rheumatic
fever + Infective endocarditis - Ischaemic heart disease - Congenital heart
disease - Musculoskeletal diseases - Renal disease & its oral manifestations -
Salivary glands & oropharyngeal pathology - Gall bladder & pancreatic
pathology - Thyroid gland diseases - CNS I – III - Diseases of the skin I & II
Methods of assessment

Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
54 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program • Practical Examination 20%
55 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Course No. D 242
Code: Micro.
Course Title: Microbiology and Oral Microbiology
Credit hour: 3+1

The course Microbiology for dental student is designed to provide and
facilitate the learning in which the student can make acquaintance, both in a
theoretical and practical context, with microorganisms as agents of human
disease with relevance to dentistry. The major topics covered in this course
will be:

1. Fundamentals of Immunology and Host-parasite relationship
2. Bacteria and Human Diseases caused by them
3. Viruses and Human Diseases caused by them
4. Fungi and their human oral diseases.
5. An introduction to Oral Microbiology

By the end of the course the dental students should:
6. Have a basic understanding of the major pathogenic organisms, related
disease-syndromes ad their modes of spread with particular reference to

7. Have a basic understanding of the host-parasite relationship and the
immune system
8. Have a basic understanding of the oral microbial ecology and
pathogenesis of dental caries and periodontal disease
9. be aware of the major clinical and biological factors to be taken into
consideration for the appropriate use of anti-microbial therapy
10. be familiarized with some of the laboratory procedures including
specimen collection and handling, requesting appropriate tests and
interpretation of laboratory reports.

The role of microbes & parasites in health & disease, with specific reference
to the oral cavity. The characteristics of various classes of microbes and
parasites & their role in pathogenesis of various infections - the role of the
immune system in health & disease - the principles & clinical applications of
sterilization & disinfection - the judicious selection & use of antimicrobial
therapy - the proper utilisation of clinical laboratory support services,

56 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program specimen collection, requests & interpretation of lab test results - the modes
of transmission of infection and infection control mechanisms/parameters
Introduction to the course

morphology, classification & identification of bacteria
Normal flora - Host-parasite relationships - Sterilization & disinfection
Microogansims - Food & water bacteriology - Bacteriology of dental
caries - Hospital cross infection.

The immune system - Innate immunity + Acquired immunity - Antigens –
Vaccinations. Oral immunity. Mucosal immune mechanisms (including
immune function of salivary secretions)

Intestinal protozoa - Amoebae - Intestinal & urogenital flallegates -
Introduction - Viral hepatitis - Herpes viruses & papilloma viruses -
AIDS HIV infections and oral manifestations
Ebstein Barr virus and CMV clinical manifestations & presentation.
Practical session
Microscopy, isolation & identification of bacteria - Sterilization &
disinfection techniques - Gram positive & negative cocci - Enteric
organisms - Anaerobes - Food & water bacteriology - Diagnostic
procedures in clinical bacteriology

Recommended Textbooks:
- McCracken and Cawson, Clinical and Oral Microbiology, McGraw Hill
- Sleigh and Timbury, Notes on Medical bacteriology, Churchill
- Timbury, Notes on medical Virology, Churchill Livingstone
- Kimball Introduction to Immunology, Macmillan
- Oral Microbiology at a Glance. Richard J. Lamont, Howard F.
Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
57 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program • Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
Practical Examination 20%
58 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Dental Material Science
Course No. D 341
Code: D.Mat.
Course Title: Dental Material Science
Credit hour: 2+1

Course Description
This course focuses on the nature, qualities, and composition of modern
dental materials, their manipulation, and how this assists the dental hygienist
in professional duties. The primary goal of this course is to enhance the
student's ability to make clinical judgments regarding the use and care of
dental materials, based on how they react in the oral environment. Topics
include: dental material standards; dental materials properties; direct and
indirect restorative dental materials; preventive dental agents; impression
materials; gypsum products; mouth guards and whitening systems; dental
bases, cements, and liners; temporary restorations; polishing procedures for
dental restorations; fixed and removable dental prostheses; sealants;
implants; adjunct dental materials; and quality assurance for dental

I. Course Introduction; History of Dental Materials; Characteristics of Dental
The students should be able to:

Identify various approval agencies for dental materials.
Define the ADA specifications and acceptance standards.
Describe the history of dental materials
Recognize the factors of the oral environment adverse to dental
Describe characteristics of the ideal material
Recognize features that assure quality assurance in handling dental
Identify the classes of materials used in dentistry
Describe the structure of dental materials
Describe the physical characteristics of dental materials
Describe the mechanical characteristics, including types of forces, stress
59 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program • Discuss chemical properties of dental materials and limitations of dental
Recognize biological considerations
Describe pit and fissure sealants and their use in dentistry
List some resins used in preventive restorations
Identify fluoride-releasing agents
Describe the fabrication and use of mouthguards
II. Impression Materials; Dental Plaster and Stone
The students should be able to:
Identify various impression materials.
Explain the advantages and limitations of various impression materials.
List the uses of impression materials in dentistry
Describe the characteristics of the various materials used
Identify the composition of impression materials
Describe the mixing and handling of impression materials
Demonstrate the method to obtain alginate impressions in the
Describe the manufacture of gypsum and its various forms.
List the uses of plaster and stone in dentistry
Describe the handling of plaster and stone (dispensing, mixing, clean-
Distinguish between the various setting times of plaster and stone
Recognize setting expansion and its causes
Identify the properties (strength and hardness) of plaster and stone
List the types of dental gypsum
Describe the process of pouring and trimming a gypsum cast or model
Demonstrate the fabrication of study models in the laboratory.
Explain the disinfection of study models and casts
III. Intermediary Materials and Cements; Provisional Restoratives
The students should be able to:

Describe dental varnishes and list their uses, types, handling, and
Identify what dental liners are and explain their uses, types, handling,
and characteristics
Identify what dental bases are and explain their uses, types, handling,
and characteristics
60 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program • Identify what dental cements are and explain their uses, types,
handling, and Characteristics
Describe the usual components of bases, liners, and cements.
Demonstrate the procedure to mix each of the above in the laboratory.
Define a temporary restoration.
Describe uses in dentistry for temporary restorations
List and be able to recognize the various types of provisional
Describe the mixing and placing of temporary restorations
Explain the uses for indirect restorative temporary crowns
IV: Direct Restoratives
The students should be able to:
Define a direct restorative material.
Describe esthetic anterior restorations and their historical perspectives
Describe esthetic anterior restorations and their uses in composites and
glass ionomers with their various types and packaging, compositions,
characteristics and properties,handlings and mixings, settingreactions,
finishing and polishing, and clinical performances

Describe the various types of posterior restorations
Describe amalgam restorations and composite resins and their uses,
types and compositions, characteristics and properties, mixings and
handlings, setting reactions, and clinical successes

Describe the use of direct gold as a dental restoration
List the advantages and disadvantages of direct restorative materials.
V: Materials for Inlays, Onlays, Crowns, and Bridges; Materials for Cast
The students should be able to:

Define an indirect restorative material.
Recognize the indications of various indirect restoration.
List the types of materials used in fabricating inlays, onlays, crowns,
and bridges
Describe the basic concepts of metals, including their metallic
structures, deformations, and alloying
List the compositions, properties, and preparations of various metals
used in dentistry, including noble metals, base metal alloys, and the
repair of metals through soldering and welding

61 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program • Describe the basic concepts of ceramics
List the composition, properties, and preparation of various ceramics
used in dentistry, including dental porcelains, cast ceramics, and the
repair of ceramics

List the composition, properties, and preparation of composite
Describe the basic process of casting using the lost-wax technique
List the dental waxes and identify uses in dentistry, types and
Explain die materials and their uses in dentistry, types and
Explain investment materials and their uses in dentistry, types and
List the advantages and disadvantages of various indirect restorative
Attend a local dental laboratory to view the process for fabrication of
indirect restorative materials.
VI. Abrasion and Polishing
The students should be able to:

Describe the rational of polishing restorations.
List the objectives and theory behind polishing dental materials
Explain the various factors affecting polishing, including the polish's
hardness, particle shape and size, pressure used, speed of use, and
lubrication in use.

Describe the instruments used in cutting and abrading, including the
composition of abrasives, prophylaxis pastes, dentifrices, and denture
cleansers used

Outline finishing and polishing procedures for composites, amalgams,
alloys, ceramics and porcelains, and acrylics
VII. Polymers for Prosthetics
The students should be able to:

Define removable prostheses.
Describe the basics of polymeric materials used in dentistry, including
their properties, definitions and uses,chemistries of polymerization,
polymer sizes and effects

62 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program • Describe prosthetic resins use in denture bases, denture liners and
conditioners and other resin systems
Outline the steps used in the production of a heat-processed denture
Explain the construction of an acrylic custom tray
Describe the process of cleaning removable appliances
VIII. Metal Alloys for Orthodontics, Prosthodontics, and Pediatric Dentistry
The students should be able to.

Identify when we use metal alloys in dentistry
List the types of dental alloys – stainless steels, cobalt-chromium,
titanium, nickel-chromium
Describe the differing properties of alloys used in orthodontic wires and
Describe the biocompatibility of the various dental alloys
IX. Sealants
The students should be able to.
Define a sealant

Describe the indications for use of a sealant
Identify the components of sealants
Explain the techniques for placing sealants
Demonstrate the procedure to place a sealant on extracted natural
X. Implants
The students should be able to.

Define an implant and osseous integration.
Describe the metals used in implant fabrication
Describe the various coating available on implants
Describe the various types and shapes of various implants
Summarize the precautions necessary in cleaning and maintaining

Required Text:
Ferracane, J., Materials in Dentistry-Principles and Applications
(2001), 2nd
Edition, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-7817-2733-2

Methods of assessment
63 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program • Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
Practical Examination 20%

Preclinical Prosthodontics
Code: Pre. Prosth. D 343
Course title: Preclinical Prosthodontics
Credit hour: 2+1

At the end of the course, the student should understand and skillfully execute
the following:
1. Diagnosis and treatment planning for patients requiring a restoration.
2. Rationale and criteria for each restoration used.
3. Fabrication of articulated diagnostic casts from preliminary alginate
4. knowledge of the different types of instruments used in the prosthesis labs
5. Knowledge and manipulation of the various materials and technical
procedures necessary to fabricate, fit, finish, polish and deliver cast crowns
and bridges, under clinically simulated conditions.
7. Laboratory communication.
A. Applied anatomy and physiology.

1. Introduction
2. Biomechanics of the edentulous state.
3. Residual ridge resorption.

B. Communicating with the patient
1. Understanding the patients.
Mental attitude.
2. Instructing the patient.

C. Diagnosis and treatment planning for patients-
1. With some teeth remaining.
2. With no teeth remaining:

a) Systemic Status.
64 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program b) Local Factor.
c) The Geriatric Patient.
d) Diagnostic Procedures.

D. Articulators- discussion
E. Principles of retention, support and stability
F. Impressions - detail.

A. Muscles of facial expression.
B. Biologic considerations for maxillary and mandibular impression
including anatomy landmark and their interpretation.
C. Impression objectives.
D. Impression materials.
E. Impression techniques.
F. Maxillary and mandibular impression procedures.

I. Preliminary impressions.
II. Final impressions.

G. Laboratory procedures involved with impression making (beading &
boxing, and cast preparation).
G. Record bases and occlusion rims- in detail.

A. Materials & techniques.
B. Useful guidelines and ideal parameters.
C. Recording and transferring bases and occlusal rims.

H. Biological consideration in jaw relation & jaw movements -
craniomandibular relations.

A. Mandibular movements.
B. Maxillo -mandibular relation including vertical and horizontal jaw
C. Concept of occlusion- discuss in brief.

I. Relating the patient to the articulator.
A. Face bow types & uses– discuss in brief.
B. Face bow transfer procedure - discuss in brief.

J. Recording maxillo mandibular relation.
A. Vertical relations.
B. Centric relation records.
C. Eccentric relation records.
D. Lateral relation records.

K. Tooth selection and arrangement.
A. Anterior teeth.
65 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program B. Posterior teeth.
C. Esthetic and functional harmony.

L. Relating inclination of teeth to concept of occlusion- in brief.
A. Neutrocentric concept.
B. Balanced occlusal concept.

M. Trial dentures.
N. Laboratory procedures.

A. Wax contouring.
B. Investing of dentures.
C. Preparing of mold.
D. Preparing & packing acrylic resin.
E. Processing of dentures.
F. Recovery of dentures.
G. Lab remount procedures.
H. Lab remount procedures.
I. Recovering the complete denture from the cast.
J. Finishing and polishing the complete denture.
K. Plaster cast for clinical denture remount procedure.
Required Text:
Preclinical Dental Prosthetics. H.R.B. Fenn, K.P. Liddlow, A.P.
Practical Full Denture Prosthesis. Joseph Simeon Landa.
Prosthodontic Treatment for Edentulous Patient. George A. Zarb,
Charles L. Bolender.

Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
Practical Examination 20%
66 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Preclinical Paedodontics Course content: (Which is suggested to start on
semester 2 of the 3rd year and continue on the first semester in 4th year)/
Code: Pre. Paedo. D 345
Course title: Preclinical Paedodontics
Credit hour: 2+1

To provide an academic and clinical training in the dental care of
To produce a student who will be able to provide a full range of
preventive, restorative and emergency care for healthy children with
basic dental needs, for healthy children with more complex dental needs
and for those children with complex medical problems(CHILDREN

By the end of these courses the student should become competent in the
formulation of a comprehensive treatment plan for the children that
they will be treated in the dental clinic.

Contents :
1. Demonstration on the morphological differences between the primary &
the permanent dentition with emphasis on the anatomy of each of the
deciduous teeth in comparison with the succedaneous tooth.
2. Prevention : Fluorides &Fissure sealant
1. Explain why pits and fissures have a high susceptibility to caries.
2. Explain the purpose of pit and fissure sealants.

3. Describe types of sealant materials and their relative advantages,
disadvantages, and properties.
4. Discuss considerations in patient and tooth selection.
5. Describe the mechanism by which the sealant attaches to the
6. List conditions that can interfere with bonding of the sealant to
the tooth surface.
7. List and explain different methods used to maintain a dry field.
67 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 8. State the precautions that must be taken with regard to the
a. selection of a polishing agent
b. use of the air syringe in drying the teeth
c. rinsing the etched tooth surface

9. Explain and demonstrate the suggested procedure for application
of various types of pit and fissure sealants.
10. Evaluate the results of pit and fissure application.
11. Discuss current controversies relevant to sealant placement.
12. Describe common errors in the placement of pit and fissure
13. Discuss information that should be relayed to the patient and/or
parent regarding sealant placement and subsequent recall appointments.
3. Principles of Tooth Preparation and Anatomic Considerations
1. State the main considerations with regard to size and shape of the primary
tooth crown when planning caries restorations.
2. State the main considerations with regard to size and shape of the pulp of
primary teeth when planning caries restoration.
3. State the main considerations with regard to the size and shape of the
contact area of primary teeth when planning caries restoration.
Blacks' Classification of Lesions
1. List and describe each of G.V. Black's classification of lesions with
emphasis on new rating and classification of caries in pediatric dentistry.
2. Cavity preparation class 1: occlusal of teeth #75, #74, # 54# 55 (O& Ol )
Class I Cavity Preparation
1. Describe the location and incidence of Class I carious lesions.
2. Describe the cavity preparations for the mandibular left second primary
molar(tooth #75 )and the maxillary right second primary molar(tooth#55).
3. Describe the principles of the Class I cavity preparation in primary teeth.
The discussion should be based on:
3.1 comparison to the Class I cavity preparation for permanent teeth
3.2 The depth and shape of the pulpal wall, the isthmus width, extensions into
grooves and fissures, and orientation of the walls
3.3 pulpal considerations

68 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 4. Class II cavity preparation: O.D of tooth # 84,M.o of tooth # 85
M.O of tooth #65,O.D of tooth #64
In Class II Cavity Preparation
1. Describe the location and incidence of Class II carious lesions.
2. Describe the principle of the Class II cavity preparation in primary teeth.
The description should include:
2.1 comparison to the Class II cavity preparation for permanent teeth
2.2 The size of the isthmus, the location and orientation of all walls, and the
reverse curve
2.3 pulpal considerations
4. Restoration with amalgam of any 2 teeth prepared for class II
Restoration Placement
1. Describe the indications and technique for adapting and removing the T-
band matrix and wedge.
2. Describe the technique used for placement of an amalgam restoration.
3. Describe the indications and contraindications for use of the following
restorative materials in restoration of carious lesions.
3.1 posterior glass ionomer/silver restorations
3.2 posterior composite resin restorations
3.3 preventive resin restorations
5. Class III cavity preparation M of tooth # 51
Class III Cavity Preparation
1. Describe the location and incidence of Class III carious lesions.
2. Describe the principles of the Class III cavity preparations. This
description should include:
2.1 considerations given to the size of the teeth
2.2 considerations given to the thickness of enamel
2.3 considerations given to the size of the pulp
2.4 access when there is open contact
2.5 access when the teeth are in contact
2.6 retention for incipient versus large carious lesions
2.7 use of the dovetail
6. Class IV cavity preparation M of 61

Describe the location and incidence of Class IV carious lesions.
1. Describe the principles of the Class IV cavity preparations. This description
should include:
1 consideration given to the size of the teeth
2 consideration given to the thickness of enamel
3 consideration given to the size of the pulp

69 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 4 access when there is open contact
5 retention for incipient versus large carious lesions
6 use of the dovetail

7. S.S.C preparation & adaptation in tooth #75
List the types of crown available.
List the dimensions considered when selecting a crown.
Describe the correct location of the margin of a crown and the margin
adaptation sought.
Define contouring of a stainless steel crown and give the reasons for
State which pliers are used for this purpose.
Define crimping and give the reasons for crimping a crown. State which
pliers are used for this purpose.
State which plier is used to produce contact.
Describe the reason for establishing contact.
State how a crown is seated and removed.
Describe the technique used for smoothing, finishing and polishing the
surface of a crown.
Describe the technique used for cementation of a stainless steel crown.
8. Pulpotomy in extracted teeth 85
9. Pulpectomy in extracted teeth 75
10. Space maintenance
A. Mixed Dentition
1. State the sequence of eruption of permanent teeth.
2. Compare the size of primary teeth to their succedaneous, individually and
the total sum of each arch.
B. Effect of Premature Loss of Primary Teeth
1. Describe how and why the premature loss of primary teeth can result in
C. Nance's Leeway Space
1. State its average dimension.
2. Describe its significance.
D. Space Management vs. Space Maintenance
1. Describe how and why maintaining space for an individual tooth may not
prevent a malocclusion.

70 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 2. Describe the effect of a premature loss of a primary tooth on the eruption of
its successor.
E. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Different Space Maintainers
1. List advantages and disadvantages of:
1.1 band and loop
1.2 fixed space maintainers
1.3 removable space maintainers
F. Causes of Space Maintainer Failure
1. List defects of fabrication that may cause failure.
2. Describe importance of compliance.

11.Charting &data collection
A. Describe the value of a case history.
1. Describe the commonly used outline in taking a medical history. The
discussion should be based on:
1.1 chief complaint
1.2 present illness
1.3 past medical and dental history
1.4 family history
1.5 personal and social history
1.6 review of systems
2. Describe the influence of the past dental history on your present treatment
plan. Discussion should be based on:
2.1 frequency of visits
2.2 frequency of dental prophylaxis
2.3 past experience during and after anesthesia
2.4 past experience during and after extractions
2.5 dental appliance history
2.6 extent of dental treatment
2.7 behavior
2.8 expectations of the past dental treatment
B. Systematic Soft Tissue Examination
1. State the objective of lip inspection and palpation. Explain the significance
of changes in lip color.
2. Describe the technique for examination of the vestibular and labial buccal
mucosa. Describe the clinical manifestations and etiology of:
2.1 candidieas
2.2 herpes gingivostomatitis

71 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 2.3 aphthous ulcers
2.4 trauma
3. Describe the normal texture, and color of the buccal mucosa. List some
variations according to the different races.
4. Describe the objective of labial and lingual frenum examination. Compare
the location of the labial frenum and its changes with the eruption of the
permanent incisors. Describe the appearance and effect of an abnormal labial
5. List and describe the sequential steps in examining the palate. Discuss the
structures to be included when proceeding to the palate examination.
Describe their normal anatomical appearance.
6. Describe possible pathologic changes associated with hard and soft palate
examination, such as:
6.1 abscess
6.2 salivary gland tumor
6.3 trauma
6.4 cleft palate
7. Describe the method of examination of the tonsillar area. Describe some
abnormal findings that could be present during oropharynx examination.
8. Describe the method of examination of the floor of the mouth. List the
structures that occupy the floor of the mouth and the tongue.
10. List anatomical differences between child and adult gingiva.
C. Describe the method of hard tissue examination.
1. Describe the developmental anomalies of the dentition. Discussion should
be based on the clinical manifestations of:
1.1 anomalies of number
1.2 anomalies of size
1.3 abnormalities of structure
1.4 abnormalities size and shape
1.5 abnormality of color
2. State the normal eruption process.
3. Describe the normal and healthy gingiva. Discussion should be based on:
3.1 color
3.2 form
3.3 density
3.4 level of epithelial attachment
3.5 depth of gingival crevice
3.6 level of epithelial attachment
3.7 mobility of teeth
D. Value of Occlusal Examination
1. State the criteria for an ideal pediatric frontal face pattern. Describe the
proper patient's head position for evaluation of the frontal face.

72 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 2. State the criteria for an ideal pediatric facial profile pattern. Describe the
proper patient's head position for evaluation of the facial profile.
3. Describe the three distinct types of normal molar relationship.
4. Describe the growth and pattern of occlusion. The discussion should be
based on:
4.1 ideal static occlusion pattern
4.2 ideal dental arch pattern
4.3 environmental factors affecting the dental arch status
E. Effect and Treatment of Oral Habits
1. Define the term bruxism.
1.1 state the intraoral findings associated with bruxism
1.2 describe the therapeutic approach to modify the behavior
2. Describe the effect of the sucking habit on the:
2.1 maxillary and mandibular bones
2.2 dental arches
3. State when is the appropriate time to correct this oral habit.
4. Describe the etiology of tongue thrust. State the role of myofunctional
therapy in correction of tongue thrust and swallowing habit.
5. Statethe effect of the use of a pacifier after the age of two.
F. Describe the relationship between diagnosis and treatment planning.
1. Describe in detail the significance of the medical diagnosis on the dental
treatment plan.
2. Describe the relationship between the diagnosis and the etiology of oral
3. Explain the problem of treatment without diagnosis.
4. List the reasons for having an itemized sequential treatment plan.
5. Describe the variables which must be taken into account when considering
the proper treatment sequence.
G. Describe the Importance of a Preventive Treatment Plan
1. State the significance of preventive dental care.
2. State the present fluoride recommendations. Describe the proper fluoride
supplementation requirements, based on the assessed fluoride content of
drinking water.
3. Describe the age-specific home oral hygiene instructions. The discussion
should be based on age categories:
3.1 prenatal counseling
3.2 infants
3.3 toddlers
3.4 preschool
3.5 school age
3.6 adolescents

73 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program
Pre-Clinical Dental Skills
Code: Pre. Cons.

Course No. D 344
Code: Pre. Cons
Course Title: Preclinical Operative Conservative Dentistry
Credit hour: 2 +1

These courses consist of lectures and demonstrations of instruments&
procedures to develop the student skills on the cast, extracted teeth and
phantom heads in operative dentistry, conservatives, prosthodontics and
oral& maxillofacial surgery:
Preclinical Course content:
1. Demonstration on the morphological differences between the primary &
the permanent dentition with emphasis on the anatomy of each of the
deciduous teeth.
A. Principles of Tooth Preparation and Anatomic Considerations

1. State the main considerations with regard to size and shape of the
primary tooth crown when planning caries restorations.
2. State the main considerations with regard to size and shape of the pulp of
primary teeth when planning caries restoration.
3. State the main considerations with regard to the size and shape of the
contact area of primary teeth when planning caries restoration.
1. Identification and study of handcutting instruments chisles, gingival

margin trimmers, excavators, hatchet, carvers and burnishers.
2. Identification and use of rotary cutting instruments in contra angle hand
pieces burs (micro motor)
3. Preparation class i and extended class i and class ii and mod's and class v in
plaster models then in extracted teeth.
4. Exercises on phantom head models which includes cavity preparation base,
liners and varnish application matrix and wedge placement followed by
amalgam restoration and carving.

Class i 5
Class i with extension class ii
Class v and iii for glass ionmers

74 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Class v for amalgam 1
5. Polishing of above restorations.
6. Demonstration of class iii and class v cavity preparation. For composites on

extracted tooth completing the restoration.
7. Polishing and finishing of the restoration of composites.
8. Identification and manipulation of varnish bases like zinc
Phosphate, poly carboxylate, glass ionomers, zinc oxide, euginol cements.
9. Identification and manipulation of various matrices, tooth separators and

materials likecomposites and modified glassionomer cements.

Required Text:

Textbook of Preclinical Conservative Dentistry – Jaypee Digital
Preclinical Manual of Conservative Dentistry – V Gopikrishna
Sturdevant's Art and Science of Operative Dentistry – Theodore
Textbook of Operative Dentistry – Vimal K Sikri – CBS Publishers
Clinical Operative Dentistry – Principles and Practice – Ramya Raghu
Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
Practical Examination 20%

75 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program
Preclinical Oral & Maxillofacial And Diagnostic Process

Code: Pre. OMF. D 236
Course Title: Preclinical Oral & Maxillofacial And Diagnostic Process
Credit hour: 2 +1

Section (A) – Surgery & Anaesthesia
1. anatomy and innervation of the oral cavity
2. Introduction, definition, scope, aims and objectives
3. History taking
4. Clinical examination & Investigations.
5. Principles of infection control and cross-infection control with particular
reference to HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis.
6. Principles of Oral Surgery – Asepsis: Definition, measures to prevent
introduction of infection during surgery.
7. Biologic considerations for maxillary and mandibular impression including
8. Measures to be taken by operator
9. Sterilisation of instruments - various methods of sterilisation etc.
10. Surgery set up.
11. Painless Surgery:
12. Pre- anaesthetic considerations & Pre-medication: purpose, drugs used
13- Simple extraction procedures
Local Anaesthesia:

Introduction, concept of L.A., classification of local anaesthetic agents,
ideal requirements, mode of action, types of local anaesthesia,

Use of Vasoconstrictors in local anaesthetic solution –
Advantages, contra-indications, various vaso constrictors used.
Anaesthesia of the mandible –
Pterygomandibular space - boundaries, contents etc.
Inferior Dental Nerve Block - various techniques
Mental foramen nerve block
Anaesthesia of Maxilla –
Infra - orbital nerve block.
Posterior superior alveolar nerve block
Maxillary nerve block – techniques
76 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Diagnostic Process
(1) Definition and importance of Diagnosis and various types of diagnosis.
(2) Method of clinical examinations.

(a) General Physical examination by inspection.
(b) Oro-facial region by inspection, palpation and other means
(c) To train the students about the importance, role, use of saliva and
techniques of diagnosis of saliva as part of oral disease
(d) Examination of lesions like swellings, ulcers, erosions, sinus, fistula,
growths, pigmented lesions, white and red patches
(e) Examination of lymph nodes
(f) Forensic examination – Procedures for post-mortem dental
examination; maintaining dental records and their use in dental
practice and post-mortem identification; jurisprudence and ethics.

(3) Investigations
(a) Biopsy and exfoliative cytology.
(b) Hematological, Microbiological and other tests and investigations
necessary for diagnosis and prognosis

Section (B) – Diagnosis, Differential Diagnosis
While learning the following chapters, emphasis shall be given only on
diagnostic aspects including differential diagnosis
(1) Teeth: Developmental abnormalities, causes of destruction of teeth and
their sequelae and discoloration of teeth
(2) Diseases of bone and Osteodystrophies: Development disorders:

Anomalies, Exostosis and tori, infantile cortical hyperostosis,
osteogenisis imperfect, Marfanssyndrome, osteopetrosis.
Inflamation – Injury, infection and sperad of infection,fascial space
infections, osteoradionecrosis.
Metabolic disorders – Histiocytosis
Endocrine – Acro-megaly and hyperparathyroidism
Miscellaneous – Paget's disease,Mono and polyostotic fibrous
dysplasia, Cherubism.
Books recommended:
a) Oral Diagnosis, Oral Medicine & Oral Pathology
1. Burkit – Oral Medicine – J.B. Lippincott Company
2. Coleman – Principles of OralDiagnosis – Mosby Year Book
3. Jones – Oral Manifestations of Systemic Diseases – W.B. Saunders

77 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 4. Mitchell – Oral Diagnosis & Oral Medicine
5. Kerr – Oral Diagnosis
6. Miller – Oral Diagnosis & Treatment
7. Hutchinson – clinical Methods
8. Oral Pathology – Shafers
9. Sonis.S.T., Fazio.R.C. and Fang.L - Principles and practice of Oral
Methods of assessment

Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
78 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology
Course No. D 472
Code: OMFR.
Course Title: Oral & Maxilofacial Radiology
Credit hour: 2

By the end of this course the student should be able to
Performe importance, role, use and technics of radiographs and other
imaging methods in diagnosis.
Know the principles of the clinical and radiographic aspects of Forensic
(1) Scope of the subject and history of origin
(2) Physics of radiation:

(a) Nature and types of radiations
(b) Source of radiations
(c) Production of X-rays
(d) Properties of X-rays
(e) Compton effect
(f) Photoelectric effect
(g) Radiation measuring units

(3) Biological effects of radiation
(4) Radiation safety and protection measures
(5) Principles of image production
(6) Radiographic techniques:

(h) Intra-Oral:
(a) Periapical radiographs (Bisecting and parallel technics)
(b) Bite wing radiographs
(c) Occlusal radiographs
(ii) Extra-oral:
(a) Lateral projections of skull and jaw bones and paranasal sinuses
(b) Cephalograms
(c) Orthopantomograph
(d) Projections of temperomandibular joint and condyle of mandible

(e) Projections for Zygomatic arches
(iii) Specialised techniques:
(a) Sialography

79 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program (b) Xeroradiography
(c) Tomography.
(d) MRI
(e) Ultrasounds
(f) C.T. Scan

(7) Factors in production of good radiographs:
(a) K.V.P. and mA.of X-ray machine
(b) Filters
(c) Collimations
(d) Intensifying screens
(e) Grids
(f) X-ray films
(g) Exposure time
(h) Techniques
(i) Dark room
(j) Developer and fixer solutions
(k) Film processing

(8) Radiographic normal anatomical landmarks
(9) Faculty radiographs and artefacts in radiographs
(10) Interpretation of radiographs in various abnormalities of teeth, bones

and other orofacial tissues
(11) Principles of radiotherapy of oro-facial malignancies and complications
of radiotherapy
(12) Cantrast radiography and basic knowledge of radio-active isotopes .
(13) Radiography in Forensic Odontoloy - Radiographic age estimation and

post-mortem radiographic methods
Required Books:
1-Atlas of Dental Radiographic Anatomy (4th Edition) by Myron J. Kasle.
2- Dental Radiography and Techniques. By Laura Jansen
3- Essentials of Dental Radiography and Radiology. By Eric Whaites
Methods of assessment

Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
80 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Course No. D 441
Code: Pharma.
Course Title: Pharmacology
Credit hour: 3

Course Aim:
The aim of this course is to establish the core pharmacological knowledge and
attitude to drug information that will ensure sound and safe dental practice
throughout the dental graduate's career & to increase the student's comfort
level with pharmacological information, to provide them with a background
of knowledge to enable them to make appropriate decisions involving the use
of dental medications in patient care, and instill in them the curiosity that will
encourage them to stay current in this ever changing field.
This course is not meant to be an exhaustive compendium of pharmacology.
Rather, the course focuses primarily on those drugs used by the Dentist –
local anesthetics, antibiotics, and analgesics. These are reviewed in terms of
how they work, their clinical advantages and disadvantages compared to each
other in terms of appropriate usage, adverse side effects, and potential
drug:drug interactions.
We will also review those medications most frequently taken by patients, e.g.,
cardiovascular drugs, discussing them from the perspective of how they work,
and how they might impact dental management of the patient in terms of
special precautions that need to be taken, potential drug;drug interactions
that might require alteration of standard treatment regimens, oral side effects,
Finally, the course will stress the ever changing nature of the pharmacology
knowledge base and the need for the student to keep informed and updated in
terms of not only new drugs becoming available, but new knowledge
regarding older, traditional drugs that may require alterations in how these
drugs are used. By the end of the course the student should have a strong
working vocabulary of pharmacology upon which to build and keep up to
Upon completion of this course students should:
a) Understand the actions of and appropriate therapeutic use of local
anesthetics, sedatives, and analgesic medications. This knowledge is crucial in

81 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program the provision of effective, safe, and pain free care to the calm or anxious
patient both during and after dental treatment
b) understand the rational use of antiinfective agents in dentistry, both in
terms of the management of existing orofacial infections and for prophylaxis
against the development of bacterial endocarditis or other infection post
c) Understand the importance of organ function/disease status in altering the
absorption, distribution, metabolism, and therapeutic action of dentally used
drugs such as antibiotics and local anesthetics. Using this knowledge, the
student should be able to appropriately modify usage and dosing of standard
drugs or substitute alternative medications.
d) Have a basic knowledge of commonly prescribed drugs. Many of the
patients that seek treatment in a dental school environment are significantly
medically compromised. Management of such patient often necessitates
frequent consultation with their physicians as to their medical status at the
time of treatment, need for prophylactic antibiotic treatment, dosage
adjustment, appropriate use of local anesthetic vasoconstrictor containing
preparations, etc. Furthermore, when reviewing a patient's medical history
and the drugs that a patient might be taking, the student should be able to
identify any problematic combinations of medications and advise the patient
to check with their physician regarding their need to be taking such
e) Be informed as to potentially problematic interactions that may arise
between medications the patient may be taking for acute or chronic medical
conditions and therapeutic agents such as local anesthetics or antibiotics that
the dentist needs to utilize for appropriate management of the patient. Upon
recognizing such interactions, the student should be able to substitute
alternative medications
f) Have a sufficient base of pharmacological information upon which to
continue to build in the future via self-education, as well as knowing how to
access new information when the need arises

Absorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion of drugs
Pharmacokinetics. Targets for drug action (receptors, ion channels,
enzymes, transporters and DNA)
The nature of receptors, their superclasses and transduction mechanisms
82 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program • Selectivity, agonism and antagonism, quantitative effects of drugs (dose-
response relationships)
The process and mechanisms involved in neurotransmission with
particular reference to cholinergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission
Adverse reactions to drugs, including immunological hypersensitivity
reactions and with particular regard to anaphylactic shock
Mechanisms of adverse drug interactions
The organisation of clinical trials and interpretation of clinical trial data
The system of post-marketing surveillance of drugs
In addition to knowledge of particular categories of drugs, dental students
should have an understanding of pharmacological principles (included in
List A below). The groups of drugs that should be covered divide into four
categories as outlined below.

(1) Drugs used or prescribed by the dental surgeon, e.g. local anaesthetics.
(2) Drugs prescribed by a patient's medical practitioner that directly impinge
upon dental
treatment, e.g. drugs that affect haemostasis.
(3) Categories of drug that are commonly prescribed to a patient by their
medical practitioner,
some of which may produce oral reactions or adversely interact with a drug
administered or
prescribed by a dental surgeon.
(4) Drugs of abuse.
Those categories of drugs which fall into (1) and (2) should be covered in
detail; that is mode
of action, pharmacokinetic properties, therapeutic uses, adverse effects and
By contrast, for those drugs in categories (3) and (4), emphasis should be
placed on the
actions, and properties that may impinge on dental practice with less
attention given to topics
such as a detailed mode of action. List A below includes drugs in groups (1)
and (2) whilst
List B incorporates drugs in groups (3) and (4).
In order to facilitate effective teaching of pharmacology, it is recommended
that, wherever
possible, pharmacology be taught in an integrated manner with dental
Core knowledge - List A

83 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Absorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion of drugs.
Targets for drug action (receptors, ion channels, enzymes, transporters and
The nature of receptors, their superclasses and transduction mechanisms
Selectivity, agonism and antagonism, quantitative effects of drugs (dose-
The process and mechanisms involved in neurotransmission with particular
reference to
cholinergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission
Adverse reactions to drugs, including immunological hypersensitivity
reactions and with
particular regard to anaphylactic shock.
Mechanisms of adverse drug interactions
The organisation of clinical trials and interpretation of clinical trial data
The system of post-marketing surveillance (the Yellow card system)
Prescribing and the Law
Categories of drugs
Adrenoceptor agonists
Antibacterial agents with particular reference to prophylactic use
Antifungal agents
Antiviral agents
Drugs which affect haemostasis
Local anaesthetics
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, paracetamol and carbamazepine
Steroidal anti-inflammatory agents
Core knowledge - List B
Categories of drug
Anti-asthmatic drugs
Anxiolytics and hypnotics (other than benzodiazepines which are included in
List A)
Cancer chemotherapy (principles of cancer chemotherapy, classification of
anti-cancer drugs, and oral and dental problems associated with cancer
Drugs of abuse (alcohol, opioids, cocaine, cannabis and amfetamine-like
Drugs used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (angiotensin-
converting enzyme

84 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program inhibitors; and angiotensin antagonists; adrenoceptor antagonists; calcium-
channel blocking agents; diuretics; nitrates; antidsyrhythmic drugs not
covered above (including digoxin))
Drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease
General anaesthetics and neuromuscular blocking agents
Inhibitors of gastric acid secretion
Insulin preparations and oral hypoglycaemic drugs
Muscarinic and histamine Hi receptors antagonists
Neuroleptic drugs
Opioid analgesics
Oral contraceptives

Reference Textbook:
- Oral Pharmacology for the Dental Hygienist, 2/E, Mea A. Weinberg,
Cheryl Westphal Theile, and James Burke Fine
- Essentials of Pharmacology for Dentistry, K. D. Tripathi
Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
Practical Examination 20%

85 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Behaviour and Medical ethics
Course No. D 441
Code: Behav.M.E
Course Title: Behaviour and Medical ethics
Credit hour: 2+1

Principles of medical ethics
This educational unit introduces students to the basic constraints and
methods of ethical analysis and moral reasoning, with emphasis on their
application to key ethical issues in health care practice and policy .Special
attention is given to the role of the physician and the opportunities and
challenges to the ethical practice of medicine in today's society.
Upon completion of the Educational unit, learners should be able to:

1. Describe the essential elements of the medical profession, including
moral and ethical principles and legal responsibilities underlying the

2. Define professional values which include excellence, altruism,
responsibility, compassion, empathy, accountability, honesty and
integrity, and a commitment to scientific methods;

3. Apply the principles of moral reasoning and decision making to conflicts
within and between ethical, legal and professional issues including those
raised by economic constraints, commercialization of healthcare, and
scientific advances;

4. Describe the dimensions of professional self-regulation and express the
need for continuous self-improvement admitting personal limitations
including limitations of one's medical knowledge;

5. Explain the need for respect of colleagues and other healthcare
professionals and the positive collaborative relationship with them;
6. Express the moral obligation to provide end-of-life care, including
palliation of symptoms; recognition of ethical and medical issues in
patient documentation, plagiarism, confidentiality and ownership of
intellectual property;

7. Explain the ways and means of planning effectively and managing
efficiently one's own time and activities to cope with uncertainty, adapt
to change; and take personal responsibility for the care of individual

86 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 8. Describe the theories and principles that govern ethical decision making,
and of the major ethical dilemmas in medicine, particularly those that
arise at the beginning and end of life and those that arise from the rapid
expansion of knowledge of genetics.

9. Explain the threats to medical professionalism posed by the conflicts of
interest inherent in various financial and organizational arrangements
for the practice of medicine.

10. Make a self evaluation of his limitations in knowledge and clinical skills,
and show a commitment to continuously improve one's knowledge and

11. Define and describe contemporary medical ethics and the main ethical
principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice.
12. Describe the circumstances under which the breaking of confidentiality
can and should occur.
13. Describe and apply in practice the principles of patient consent
including relation of capacity, competence, and respect for autonomy,
criteria for consent to be valid and legal, criteria for ordinate refusal of
consent, implied consent, age of legal capacity, advance directives and
statements and consent for research.

14. Use appropriate approaches for establishing trust with, and showing
respect for, patients and colleagues.
What's special about the physician-patient relationship
Respect and equal treatment
Communication and Consent
Decision-making for incompetent patients
Beginning-of-life issues
End-of-life issues
Recommended Books
- A Casebook of Medical Ethics, Terrence F. Ackerman and Carson
- An Introduction to Medical Ethics: Patient's Interest First, 2nd ed.,
Arthur SM Lim
- Evidence-Based Medical Ethics: Cases for Practice-Based Learning,
Candace C. Gauthier, PhD
87 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program - Dental ethics at chairside : professional principles and practical
applications - David T. Ozar, David J. Sokol. 2nd
- Ethical questions in dentistry - James T. Rule
- Dental ethics - [edited by] Bruce D. Weinstein.

Methods of assessment

Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 30%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 30%

88 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program General Surgery
Course No. D 442
Code: Surg.
Course Title: General Surgery
Credit hour: 3

The course is aimed at enabling the student to have:

knowledge of common surgical diseases
ability to interpret the symptoms & signs of common surgical problems
ability to recognize common surgical emergencies and to manage them,
ability to communicate in an informed manner with other relevant
members of the medical profession
Course content:
Haemorrhage, shock & blood transfusion –
Fluid & electrolyte balance –
Burns - Surgical infections, wound healing & management –
Multiple injuries, chest injuries & abdominal injuries
Head injuries, raised intracranial pressure & spinal injuries –
Fractures & dislocations, principles of diagnosis & management –
Bone infections & tumours –
Principles of cancer management –
ENT problems, tonsillitis, epistaxis, ear infections –
Cervical lymphadenopathy & other neck swellings Salivary gland
Anaesthesia, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, airway obstruction &
Preoperative preparations & postoperative complications –
Thyroid diseases –
Breast diseases –
Gastrointestinal bleeding –
Acute abdominal conditions: acute appendicitis, intestinal obstruction,
acute cholecystitis, peritonitis –
Dysphagia & gastrointestinal tumours –
Vascular diseases, -
Common skin & subcutaneous swellings & ulcers –
Common problems during pregnancy.
89 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program • 1. Common problems affecting the eye;
Principles of management of major ophthalmic emergencies
Main systemic diseases affecting the eye
Effects of local and systemic diseases on patient's vision
and the necessary action required to minimise the sequalae of such

Eye care education for prevention of eye problems
2. Common Urology Problems:
Anatomy of GU tract.
Symptoms of different urological diseases.
Urinary Tract stones (etiology , investigations and management).
Urinary tract infections.
Reference books:
Bailey and Love's Short Practice of Surgery 25th Edition, Norman S.
Williams, Christopher J.K. Bulstrode and P. Ronan O'Connell
Methods of assessment

Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
90 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program General Medicine
Course No. D 451
Code: Med.
Course Title: General Medicine
Credit hour: 3

The aim of this course is to:

Provide an environment for learning clinical and intellectual skills with
emphasis on diagnosing, treatment planning and comprehensive dental

provide clinical experience in the management of the medically
compromised patient

provide training experiences in hospital protocol, management of
inpatients, patient rounds and interaction with other hospital specialties

provide experiences in dealing with and managing acute dental
emergencies and problems

provide training in conscious sedation and to be Advanced Cardiac Life

The importance of teaching general medicine to dental students has
been well recognized in the provision of undergraduate dental
education in Sudan. The nature of medical services in Sudan, the
attitudes of Sudanese patients and the changing pattern of prevalent
diseases, make comprehensive understanding of medical problems a
necessity for all practicing dentists

Introduction to history taking and physical examination
Cardiology- Respiratory medicine - Haematology - Endocrinology
mellitus - Thyrotoxicosis - Hypothyroidism - Ca++
Gastroenterology - Nephrology - Neurology - Infections
Malaria - Visceral leishmaniasis - Meningitis/Encephalitis - HIV/AIDS
Dermatology -Venereology / Genitourinary conditions
Psychiatry& Physiotherapy - Paediatrics & Important childhood diseases
91 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program • Breast cancer
. Colorectal and anal cancer
. Lung cancer and thoracic malignancies
Essential modules – all required for minimum 4 months WTE
. Gynaecological cancer
. Upper GI cancer (including cancers of the liver, pancreas and biliary
. Urological cancers (renal, bladder, prostate)* [will become mandatory
. Leukaemia
. Lymphoma
. Sarcoma (intensive therapies)
. Skin cancer
. Head & neck cancer
. Endocrine system tumours
Clinical training by attending rounds under the supervision of a

Methods of assessment

Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
92 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Oral Pathology
Course no. D 351+ d 361
Code: O. Path i&ii.
Course title: Oral Pathology i+ii
Credit hour: 3+3

At the end of oral pathology & microbiology course, the student should be able
to comprehend

1. The different types of pathological processes, that involve the oral cavity.
2. The manifestations of common diseases, their diagnosis & correlation with

clinical pathological processes.
3. An understanding of the oral manifestations of systemic diseases should
help in correlating with the systemic physical signs & laboratory findings.
4. The student should understand the underlying biological principles
governing treatment of oral diseases.
5. The principles of certain basic aspects of forensic odontology.
Part one:
General principles of oral pathology:

1/ inflammation
2/ regeneration and repair
3/ immunity and allergy

Part two:
Pathology of teeth and jaws

4/developmental disturbances of jaws, dentition and individual teeth
5/lesions of hard dental tissues
6/diseases of the pulp
7/periapical lesions
8/periodontal diseases
9/cysts of the jaws
10/odotogenic tumours of the jaws
11/non-odotogenic tumours of the jaws
12/ diseases of jaws

Part three:

13/ bacterial infections
14/fungal and protozoal diseases

93 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 15/ viral infections
Part four:
Pathology of oral mucosa, tongue and salivary glands

16/surface lesions of the oral mucosa
17/cysts of soft tissues
18/benign tumours and tumours like proliferations of soft tissues
19/malignant tumours of soft tissues
20/lesions of salivary glands

Part five:
Special oral pathology

21/ developmental malformation
22/ oral manifestations of generalized diseases
23/ general manifestations of oral diseases
24/ neurologic disturbances involving oral regions
25/ forensic dentistry (principles of basic forensic odontology (pre-
clinical forensic odontology; introduction, definition, aims & scope.)

Recommended Books:
- Oral and maxillofacialppathology. Editors; neville ,damn ,allen and
- A text book of oral pathology - shafer, hine & levy.
- Oral pathology - clinical pathologic correlations - regezi & sciubba.
- Oral pathology -soames & southam.
Methods of assessment
Continuous assessment ( c.a) 20%
Mcqs ( sba) 20%
Structural short answers (ssa) 20%
Extended matching questions and problems 20%
Ospe /oscape 20%
94 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Community Dentistry
Course No. D 357+ D 367
Code: Com. D. +R.
Course Title: Community Dentistry& Research
Credit hour: 2+2

- The dental student will be able to address the main oral health problems of

his community.
- Suggest therapeutic, preventive and educational solutions for these problems.
- Conduct a basic oral health survey for a target group plan and implement. a

health educational program
- Construct a data base file and prepare a research.
Course Content:
By the end of the course the student will be able to: differentiate various

epidemiological tools for assessment of community problems, list various
research methods & evaluate the strength given by each ,compare various
health educational methods & their advantages & limitations, categorize
the levels of risk to which a person or a community is subjected to oral
disease interpret fluoride use in caries prevention &methods of prevention
of periodontal disease &recognize the oral health problems.

Students are expected to acquire the following knowledge & skills of social,
environmental, behavioural and psychological determinants of health and
oral health

The range of different ways in which health is defined by different groups
in society
Understanding patients' rights, as well as moral and ethical responsibilities
involved in the provision of care to individuals, communities and

Research design & methodology –
Biostatistic –
Epidemiology and Etiology of dental diseases-
Individual & community prevention for common oral diseases –
Introduction to primary health care (PHC) approach & oral health within
PHC principles of dental health education –
Communication & leadership in the health care team –
95 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program • Administration & organization of dental care systems in Sudan & other
countries –
Safety in practice/hospital & hazards in dentistry –
Introduction to law & ethics: statutory controls affecting dental practice
and the legal and ethical obligations of registered dental manpower.
Community Preventive programs.
Oral Health Indices.
Dental Aids to Oral Hygiene.
Diet and Oral Disease.
Prevention levels and basic measures.

Competency Statement:
After completing the course the student should be able to :
1. Address community health problems by means of surveying & measuring

to a moderate competency level.
2. Suggest solutions for these problems on the skills acquisition level.
3. Plan and implement a health educational program on a moderate

competency level.
4. Construct a data base file on a moderate competency level and prepare a
research report on the skill acquisition level since it's the students' first
experience with report writing.

Recommended Books:
1- Essential References
- Burt BA & Elklad SA Dentistry Dental Practice and the Community (1999).
- Jog WA, Community .Dental Health (2004)
- Harris No, Garcia Godoy F .Primary Preventive Dentistry (2004).
- Oral Health Surveys WHO Basic method (1997)
Methods of assessment

Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
Practical Exam 20%

96 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Conservative Dentistry
Course no. D 364+ d 473+ d483+d 592+d 5101+ d5102
Code: cons
Course title: Conservative dentistry& Endodontic
Credit hour: 2+2+3+2+2

- Science and art of providing suitable prevention and treatment of
diseases and injuries of the hard tissues and pulp of the tooth.
- The conservative dentistry curriculum is taught as a horizontally and
vertically integrated theme with teaching crossing year boundaries and
underpinning the clinical teaching that takes place during years 3, 4
and 5 of the BDS programme.

- Students are taught the principles and techniques used in simple and
complex intra-coronal restorations using a variety of restorative
materials. In addition, they are taught how to provide extra-coronal
restorations for anterior and posterior teeth.

- Course content
- Prevention and control of dental caries - control of moisture and
isolation of the working field - liners and cements - dental amalgam
alloy& manipulation - tooth coloured restorative materials&
manipulation - restoration of badly damaged teeth - biological aspects
of operative procedures and occlusal considerations - aesthetics in
conservative dentistry - management of deep carious lesions- local
anaesthesia uses in conservative dentistry, dental pain& pulp therapy -
hazards in conservative dentistry - - acute alveolar abscess management
- tooth isolation and access cavities - biomechanical preparation - root
canal obturation - surgical endodontics - problems in endodontics -
bleaching and restoration of endodontically treated teeth

Introduction :
1.definition aims objectives of conservative dentistry scope and future of

conservative dentistry.
2. Nomenclature of dentition: tooth numbering systems a.d.a.
Zsigmondy palmer and f.d.i. Systems.
3. Principles of cavity preparation : steps and nomenclature of cavity

preparation classification of cavities, nomenclature of floors angles of
cavities refreshment

97 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 4. Dental caries: aetiology, classification clinical features, morphological
features, microscopic features, clinical diagnosis and sequel of dental caries.
5. Treatment planning for operative dentistry: detailed clinical examination,
radiographic examination, tooth vitality tests, diagnosis and treatment
planning, preparation of the case sheet.

Patient and operator position.
6. Gnathological concepts of restoration: physiology of occlusion, normal

occlusion, ideal occlusion, mandibular movements and occlusal analysis.
Occlusalrehabilitation and restoration.

7. Aramamentarium for cavity preparation: general classification of operative
instruments, hand cutting instruments design formula and sharpening of
instruments. Rotarycutting instruments dental bur, mechanism of cutting,
evaluation of hand piece and speed current concepts of rotary cutting
procedures. Sterilisation and maintenance of instruments. Basic instrument
tray set up. Infection control.

8. Control of operating filed: light source sterilisation field of operation
control of moisture, rubberdam in detail, cotton rolls and anti sialogagues
Temporary restorations.

9. Amalgam restoration : indication contraindication, physical and
mechanical properties , clinical behaviour. Cavity preparation for class i ,
ii, v and iii. Step wiseprocedure for cavity preparation and restoration.
Failure of amalgam restoration.

10. Pulp protection : liners, varnishes and bases, zinc phosphate, zinc
polycarboxylate, zinc oxide eugenol and glass inomer cements.
11. Anterior restorations : selection of cases, selection of material, step wise
procedures for using restorations , silicate ( theory only) glass inomers,
composites, including sand witch restorations and bevels of the same with a
note on status of the dentine bonding agents.

12. Direct filling gold restorations: types of direct filling gold indications and
limitations of cohesive gold. Annealing of gold foil cavity preparation and
condensation of gold foils.

13. Direct filling gold restorations: types of direct filling gold indications and
limitations of cohesive gold. Annealing of gold foil cavity preparation and
condensation of gold foils.

14. Preventive measures in restorative practice plaque control : pit and fissure
sealants dietary measures restorative procedure and periodontal health.
98 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Contact and contour of teeth and restorations matrices tooth separation
and wedges.

16. Pin amalgam restoration indication contra indication:
A. advantages
B. Disadvantages of each types of pin. _ x. Failure of pin amalgam

17. Management of deep carious lesions indirect and direct pulp capping.
18. Non carious destruction's tooth structures diagnosis and clinical

19. Hyper sensitive dentine and its management.
20. Recent cavity modification amalgam restoration.
21. Differences between amalgam and inlay cavity preparation with note on

all: the types of bewels used for cast restoration
22. Control of pain during operative procedures.
23. Treatment planning for operative dentistry detailed clinical examination

radiographic examination 1g0.vitality tests, diagnosis and treatment
planning and preparation of case sheet.

24. Endodontics: introduction definition scope and future of endodontics
25. Clinical diagnostic methods
26. Emergency endodontic procedures
27. Pulpal diseases causes, types and treatment .
28. Periapical diseases: acute periapical abscess, acute periodontal abscess

phoeix abscess, chronic alveolar abscess granuloma cysts condensing
osteits, external resorption.

29. Vital pulp therapy: indirect and direct pulp capping pulpotomy different
types and medicaments used.
30. Apexogenisis and apexification or problems of open apex.
31. Rationale of endodontic treatment case selection indication and

contraindications for root canal treatments.
32. Principles of root canal treatment mouth preparation root canal
instruments, hand instruments, power driven instruments, standardisation
color coding principle of using endodontic instruments. Sterilisation of
rootcanal instruments and materials

Rubber dam application.
33. Anatomy of the pulp cavity: rootcanals apical foramen. Anomalies of pulp

cavities access cavity preparation of anterior and premolar teeth.
99 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 34. Preparation of root canal space . Determination of working length,
cleaning and shaping of root canals, irrigating solution chemical aids to

35. Disinfection of root canal space intracanal medicaments, poly antibiotic
paste gross mans paste, mummifying agents. Out line of root canal
treatment, bacteriological examinations, culture methods.

36. Problems during cleaning and shaping of root canal spaces. Perforation
and its management. Broken instruments and its management,
management of single and double curved root canals.

37. Methods of cleaning and shaping like step down, crown down, balanced
forse and conventional methods.
38. Obturation of the root canal system. Requirements of an ideal root canal
filling mater ial obturation methods using gutta percha healing after
endodontic treatment. Failures in endodontics.

39. Root canal sealers. Ideal properties classification. Manipulation of root
canal sealers.
40. Post endodontic restoration fabrication and components of post core
41. Smear layer and its importance in endodontics and conservative
42. Discoloured teeth and its management. Bleaching agents, vital and non
vital bleaching methods.
43. Traumatised teeth classification of fractured teeth. Management of
fractured tooth and root. Luxated teeth and its management.
44. Endodontic surgeries indication contraindications, pre operative
preparation. Pre medication surgical instruments and techniques
apicectomy, retrograde filling, post operative sequaleterphination
hemisection, radiscetomy techniques of tooth reimplantation (both
intentional and accidental) endodontic implants.

45. Root resorption.
46. Emergency endodontic procedures.
47. Dental material and basic equipment management
48. Cosmotic dentistry.
49. Ethics.
50. Evidance base conservstive dentistry.

Recommended Books:
1. Esthetic Guidelines For Restorative Dentistry; Scharer & Others

100 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 2. Esthetics Of Anterior Fixed Prosthodontics; Chiche (Gj) & Pinault (Alain)
3. Esthetic & The Treatment Of Facial Form, Vol 28; Mc Namara (Ja)

Methods of assessment
Continuous assessment (c.a) 20%
Mcqs ( sba) 20%
Structural short answers (ssa) 20%
Extended matching questions and problems 20%
101 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Removable Prosthodontics
Course No. D 365+ D 475+485+594+5101+5102
Code: R. Proth.
Course Title: Removable Prothodontics
Credit hour: 2+2+2+2+2

- These course are provided during years 3, 4 & 5, providing suitable
removable substitutes for lost or missing natural teeth and their
associated tissues to treat the impaired function, appearance, comfort

- and the health of the patient . This includes the treatment planning for
and construction of a range of prosthetic appliances, including complete
and partial dentures, immediate dentures and over dentures.

Complete Dentures
A. Applied Anatomy and Physiology.
1. Introduction
2. Biomechanics of the edentulous state.
3. Residual ridge resorption.
B. Communicating with the patient
1. Understanding the patients. - Mental attitude.
2. Instructing the patient.
C. Diagnosis and treatment planning for patients-
1. With some teeth remaining.
2. With no teeth remaining.
a. Systemic status.
b. Local factor.
c. The geriatric patient.
d. Diagnostic procedures.
D. Articulators- discussion
E. Improving the patient's denture foundation and ridge relation -an
a. Pre-operative examination.
b. Initial hard tissue & soft tissue procedure.
c. Secondary hard & soft tissue procedure.
d. Implant procedure.
e. Congenital deformities.
f. Postoperative procedure.

102 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program F. Principles of Retention, Support and Stability
G. Impressions - detail.
a. Muscles of facial expression.
b. Biologic considerations for maxillary and mandibular impression including
anatomy landmark and their interpretation.
c. Impression objectives.
d. Impression materials.
e. Impression techniques.
f. Maxillary and mandibular impression procedures.
i. Preliminary impressions.
ii. Final impressions.
g. Laboratory procedures involved with impression making (Beading &
Boxing, and cast preparation).
H. Record bases and occlusion rims- in detail.
a. Materials & techniques.
b. Useful guidelines and ideal parameters.
c. Recording and transferring bases and occlusal rims.
I. Biological consideration in jaw relation & jaw movements –
craniomandibular relations.
a. Mandibular movements.
b. Maxillo -mandibular relation including vertical and horizontal jaw
c. Concept of occlusion- discuss in brief.
J. Relating the patient to the articulator.
a. Face bow types & uses– discuss in brief.
b. Face bow transfer procedure - discuss in brief.
K. Recording maxillo mandibular relation.
a. Vertical relations.
b. Centric relation records.
c. Eccentric relation records.
d. Lateral relation records.
L. Tooth selection and arrangement.
a. Anterior teeth.
b. Posterior teeth.
c. Esthetic and functional harmony.
M. Relating inclination of teeth to concept of occlusion- in brief.
a. Neutrocentric concept.

103 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program b. Balanced occlusal concept.
N. Trial dentures.
O. Laboratory procedures.
a. Wax contouring.
b. Investing of dentures.
c. Preparing of mold.
d. Preparing & packing acrylic resin.
e. Processing of dentures.
f. Recovery of dentures.
g. Lab remount procedures.
h. Recovering the complete denture from the cast.
i. Finishing and polishing the complete denture.
j. Plaster cast for clinical denture remount procedure.
P. Denture insertion.
a. Insertion procedures.
b. Clinical errors.
c. Correcting occlussal disharmony.
d. Selective grinding procedures.
R. Treating problems with associated denture use – discuss in brief
(tabulation/flow-chart form).
S. Treating abused tissues - discuss in brief.
T. Relining and rebasing of dentures- discuss in brief.
U. Immediate complete dentures construction procedure- discuss in brief.
V. The single complete denture- discuss in brief.
W. Overdentures denture- discuss in brief.
X. Dental implants in complete denture - discuss in brief.
Y. Copy denture.
Z. Maxillo-facial prosthesis and Obturators:
A1. Stents and splints.
A2. Radiation therapy in prosthesis.
Note- It is suggested that the above mentioned topics be dealt with wherever
appropriate in the following order so as to cover –
1. Definition
2. Diagnosis (of the particular situation /patient selection /treatment planning)
3. Types / Classification
4. Materials
5. Methodology – Lab /Clinical

104 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 6. Advantages & disadvantages
7. Indications, contraindications
8. Maintenance Phase
9. Oral Implantology
10. Ethics.
Removable Partial Dentures
1. Introduction
Terminologies and scope
2. Classification.
3. Examination, Diagnosis & Treatment planning & evaluation of diagnostic
4. Components of a removable partial denture.
Major connectors, Minor connectors, Rest and rest seats.
5. Components of a Removable Partial Denture.
Direct retainers, Indirect retainers, Tooth replacement.
6. Principles of Removable Partial Denture Design.
7. Survey and design – in brief. - Surveyors. - Surveying. - Designing.
8. Mouth preparation and master cast.
9. Impression materials and proceduresfor removable partial dentures.
10. Preliminary jaw relation and esthetic try-infor some anterior replacement
11. Laboratory procedures for framework construction-in brief.
12. Fitting the framework - in brief.
13. Try-in of the partial denture - in brief.
14. Completion of the partial denture - in brief.
15. Inserting the Removable Partial Denture - in brief.
16. Post insertion observations.
17. Temporary Acrylic Partial Dentures.
18. Immediate Removable Partial Denture.
19. Removable Partial Dentures opposing Complete denture
Recommended Books:
1. Syllabus of Complete denture by - Charles M. Heartwell Jr. and Arthur O.

2. Boucher's "Prosthodontic treatment for edentulous patients"
3. Essentials of complete denture prosthodontics by – Sheldon Winkler.
4. Maxillofacial prosthetics by – Willam R.Laney.
5. McCraken's Removable partial prosthodontics

105 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 6. Removable partial prosthdontics by – Ernest L. Miller and Joseph E. Grass.
Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
106 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Fixed Prosthodontic
Course no. D 368+ d 476+d 486+ d595
Code: F. Proth.
Course title: Fixed Prothodontics
Credit hour: 2+2+2+2

- To provide experience in the diagnosis, treatment planning and provision
of advanced restorations including inlays, onlays, anterior & posterior
crowns, post-crowns, adhesive bridges and conventional bridges

- To introduce the fundamental clinical and practical concepts associated
with the design, provision and maintenance of fixed bridges and their
effect on the periodontium

- To acquire knowledge of instruments and materials used and become
competent in basic laboratory techniques as related to fixed

Introduction and general principles - diagnosis and general planning -
occlusion in relation to fixed prosthodontics - impression materials and
techniques - working casts and dies - inlay & onlay techniques - posterior
crowns - anterior crowns - post-crowns - articulation of casts - wax patterns -
investing and casting - finishing and insertion - bridges - principles of bridge
design - types and classification of bridges - clinical procedures for bridges -
laboratory procedures for bridge-work - treatment failure - maintenance and
care - cast restoration - preparation of class ii inlay cavity - fabrication of wax
pattern - sprue for inner attachment investing - investing of wax pattern -
finishing and cementing of class ii inlay in extracted tooth- supra structured
implants. A dentist undertaking implant treatment should have the necessary
skills to:

Clinically assess a patient's suitability for implant therapy and
undertake a risk benefit analysis, including the identification of any
physical or medical conditions the patient has that could make them
unsuitable for implant treatment or could complicate surgery

Communicate well with the patient, to ensure she/he: is fully informed
about other treatment options and their relative indications and contra
indications, is fully informed about the advantages and disadvantages of using
implant anchorage in restoring the appearance and function of their dentition
gives consent prior to implant placement

107 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program that is informed and valid
Undertake appropriate imaging of the mandible and the maxilla, and
interpret the findings to inform treatment
Use aseptic surgical techniques
Harvest hard and soft tissues from oral sites for localised alveolar
Raise mucoperiosteal flaps and suture.
Required Texts:
1. Syllabus Of Complete Denture By - Charles M. Heartwell Jr. And
Arthur O. Rahn.
2. Boucher's "Prosthodontic Treatment For Edentulous Patients"
3. Essentials Of Complete Denture Prosthodontics By - Sheldon
4. Maxillofacial Prosthetics By - Willam R. Laney.
5. Mccraken's Removable Partial Prosthodontics
6. Removable Partial Prosthodontics By - Ernest L. Miller And Joseph
E. Grasso.

Methods of assessment
Continuous assessment ( c.a) 20%
Mcqs ( sba) 20%
Structural short answers (ssa) 20%
Extended matching questions and problems 20%

108 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Course No.D 474+D 484+D 593+D 5101+D 5102
Code: Perio
Course Title: Periodontology
Credit hour: 2+2+2+2+2

- To introduce screening for risk of periodontal diseases
- To teach the common periodontal conditions i.e. gingivitis and
periodontitis and other less common conditions
- To learn the application of charting systems for management
- and monitoring of patients at risk of periodontal disease
- To learn about periodontal armamentarium and basic instrumentation
techniques for supra- and sub-gingival debridement
- Introduction and terminology - Tissues of the periodontium - Aetiology of
gingival and periodontal disease - Immunology & bacteriology of gingival
and periodontal disease - Classification of gingival and periodontal
disease - Diagnosis and measurement of gingival and periodontal disease
- Clinical features, aetiology, pathology and treatment of : Chronic
marginal gingivitis - Chronic periodontitis – Aggressive periodontitis-
Gingival and periodontal abscess - Gingival enlargements

- Acute gingival infections - Juvenile periodontitis - Gingival recession -
Occlusal trauma & tooth mobility - Determination of prognosis -
rationale for periodontal therapy - Treatment of gingival & periodontal
diseases : non- surgical versus surgical therapy – maintenance & care –
oral hygiene techniques - evaluation and

- follow-up of cases
1. Introduction: Definition of Periodontology, Periodontics, Periodontia,
Brief historical background, Scope of Periodontics
2. Development of periodontal tissues, micro-structural anatomy and
biology of periodontal tissues in detail. Gingiva, junctional epithelium,
periodontal ligament Cementum and Alveolar bone.

3. Defensive mechanisms in the oral cavity: Role of epithelium, gingival
crevicular fluid, saliva and other defensive mechanisms in the oral

109 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 4. Age changes in periodontal structures and their significance in Geriatric
dentistry - Age changes in teeth and periodontal structures and their
association with periodontal diseases

5. Classification of periodontal diseases - Need for classification, scientific
basis of classification.
Classification of gingival and periodontal diseases as described in World
Workshop1999 by AAP.
Gingivitis: Plaque associated, ANUG, steroid hormone influenced,
Medication influenced, Desquamative gingivitis, other forms of gingivitis
as in nutritional deficiency, bacterial and viral infections etc.
Periodontitis: Adult periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis (rapidly
progressive periodontitis A&B, Juvenile)
Periodontitis (localized, generalized, and post-juvenile), Prepubertal
periodontitis, Refractory periodontitis

6. Gingival diseases -
Localized and generalized gingivitis, papillary, marginal and diffuse
Etiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, symptoms and management of
i) Plaque associated gingivitis
ii) Systemically aggravated gingivitis (sex hormones, drugs and systemic
iii) ANUG
iv) Desquamative gingivitis-Gingivitis associated with lichen planus,
Pemphigoid, Pemphigus, and other Vesiculobullous lesions
v) Allergic gingivitis
vi) Infective gingivitis-Herpetic, bacterial and candidial.
vii) Pericoronitis
viii) Gingival enlargement (classification and differential diagnosis)

7. Epidemiology of periodontal diseases - Definition of index incidence,
prevalence, epidemiology, endemic, epidemic, and Pandemic
-Classification of indices (Irreversible and reversible)
-Deficiencies of earlier indices used in Periodontics
-Detailed understanding of Silness &Loe Plaque Index, Loe & Silness
Gingival Index, CPITN & CPI.
-Prevalence of periodontal diseases in India and other countries.

110 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program -Public health significance (All these topics are covered at length under
community dentistry. Hence, the topics may be discussed briefly.
However, questions may be asked from the topics for examination

8. Extension of inflammation from gingival - Mechanism of spread o
inflammation from gingival area to deeper periodontal structures Factors
that modify the spread

9. Pocket - Definition, signs and symptoms, classification, pathogenesis,
histopathology, root surface changes and contents of the pocket
10. Etiology - Dental Plaque (Biofilm)
-Definition, New concept of biofilm -Types , composition, bacterial
colonization, growth, maturation & disclosing agents
-Role of dental plaque in periodontal diseases
-Plaque microorganisms in detail and bacteria associated with
periodontal diseases
-Plaque retentive factors
-Materia Alba, Food debris and Calculus
- Calculus -Definition, Types, composition, attachment, theories of
and role of calculus in periodontal disease.
- Food Impaction –Definition, Types, Etiology, Hirschfelds' classification,
Signs, symptoms &sequellae of treatment.
- Trauma from occlusion Definition, Types, histopathological changes,
role in periodontal disease.
-Measures of management in brief Habits, significance ,Bruxism
¶functional habits, tongue thrusting ,lip biting, occupational habits
-Iatrogenic Factors, Conservative Dentistry and Restorations
-Contact point, marginal ridge, surface roughness, overhanging
restorations, interface between restoration and teeth
Prosthodontics –Interrelationship, Bridges and other prosthesis, pontics
(types), surface contour, relationships of margins to the periodontium,
gingival protection theory, muscle action theory & theory of access to
oral hygiene.
-Orthodontics-Interrelationship, removable appliances &fixed appliances,
retention of plaque and bacterial changes.
-Systemic diseases -Diabetes, sex hormones, nutrition (Vit.C &proteins)
-AIDS & periodontium, Hemorrhagic diseases, Leukemia, clotting factor
disorders, PMN disorders.

111 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 11. Risk factors - Definition. Risk factors for periodontal diseases.
12. Host response -Mechanism of initiation and progression of periodontal

diseases -Basic concepts about cells, Mast cells, neutrophils, macrophages,

mechanisms & cytokines in brief
-Stages in gingivitis-Initial, early, established & advanced
-Periodontal disease activity, continuous paradigm, random burst &
asynchronous multiple burst hypothesis
1.Periodontitis - Etiology ,histopathology ,clinical signs & symptoms,
diagnosis and treatment of chronic periodontitis.
-Periodontal abscess; definition, classification, pathogenesis, differential
diagnosis and treatment.
-Furcation involvement, Glickmans' classification, prognosis and
-Aggressive periodontitis: Localized and generalized.
-Periodontitis associated with systemic diseases
-Refractory periodontitis
14. Diagnosis -
- Routine procedures, methods of probing, types of probes,(According to
case history)
-Halitosis: Etiology and treatment. Mention advanced diagnostic aids and
their role in brief.

15. Prognosis - Definition, types, purpose and factors to be taken into
16. Treatment plan - Factors to be considered
17. Periodontal therapy -

- A. General principles of periodontal therapy. Phase I, II, III, IV therapy.
Definition of periodontal regeneration, repair, new attachment and
- B. Plaque control
i. Mechanical tooth brushes, interdental cleaning aids, dentifrices
ii. Chemical; classification and mechanism of action of each & pocket

18. Pocket eradication procedures
- Scaling and root planing- Indications, Aims, objectives and Healing
following root planing.

- Hand instruments, sonic, ultrasonic & piezo-electric scalers
112 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program - Curettage &present concepts – Definition, Indications ,Aims &
objectives, procedures and healing response.

- Flap surgery- Definition Types of flaps, Design of flaps, papilla

- Indications & contraindications - Armamentarium - Surgical
procedure & healing response .

19. Osseous Surgery - Osseous defects in periodontal disease -Definition
And Classification
-Surgery: resective, additive osseous surgery (osseous grafts with
classification of grafts).
-Healing responses
-Other regenerative procedures; root conditioning
-Guided tissue regeneration

20. Mucogingival surgery &periodontal plastic surgeries - Definition
Mucogingival problems: etiology, classification of gingival recession
(P.D.Miller Jr. and Sullivan and Atkins) Indications & objectives
Gingival extension procedures: lateral pedicle graft, frenectomy,
Crown lengthening procedures
Periodontal microsurgery in brief
-Splints- Periodontal splints -Purpose & classification -Principles of
-Hypersensitivity -Causes, Theories & management
-Implants: Definition, types, scope &biomaterials used.
-Periodontal considerations: such as implant-bone interface, implant-
gingiva interface, implant failure, peri-implantitis & management.
-Maintenance phase (SPT): -Aims, objectives, and principles,
Importance Procedures and Maintenance of implants
- Pharmaco-therapy: -Periodontal dressings, Antibiotics & anti-
inflammatory drugs -Local drug delivery systems.
-Periodontal management of medically compromised patients: Topics
concerning periodontal management of medically compromised
- Inter-disciplinary care: -Pulpo-periodontal involvement -Routes of
spread of infection -Simons' classification -Management.
-Systemic effects of periodontal diseases in brief: Cardiovascular
diseases, Low birth weight babies etc.

113 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program -Infection control protocol: Sterilization and various aseptic procedures
-Laser and Periodontics.
-Smoking & periodontal health.

1.History taking and clinical examination of the patients
2.Recording different indices
3.Methods of using various scaling and surgical instruments
4.Polishing the teeth
5.Bacterial smear taking
6.Follow up procedures, post operative care and supervision
7.Surgical procedures- gingivectomy, gingivoplasty, and flap operations
8.Demonstration to patients about different oral hygiene aids

1. Diagnosis, treatment planning, and discussion and total periodontal
treatment- 25 cases
2. Dental scaling, oral hygiene instructions- 50 complete cases/ equivalent
3. Assistance in periodontal surgery- 5 cases
4. A work record should be maintained by all the students and should be

submitted at the time of examination after due certification from the
head of the department. Students should have to complete the work
prescribed by the concerned department from time to time and submit a
certified record for evaluation.

Prescribed Book:
1. Glickman's Clinical Periodontology - Carranza
Recommended Books:
1. Essentials of Periodontology and periodontics- Torquil MacPhee
2. Contemporary periodontics- Cohen
3. Periodontal therapy- Goldman
4. Orbans' periodontics- Orban
5. Oral Health Survey- W.H.O.
6. Preventive Periodontics- Young and Stiffler
7. Public Health Dentistry- Slack
8. Advanced Periodontal Disease- John Prichard
9. Preventive Dentistry- Forrest
10. Clinical Periodontology- Jan Lindhe
11. Periodontics- Baer & Morris.

114 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
115 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Course No. D 367+ D 471+D 481+D 591+D 5101+D 5102
Code: OMFS
Course Title: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Credit hour: 2+3+3+3+3+1

The aim of this course is to guide the student to how to do proper clinical
examination of the oro-facial region.

To provide an integrated approach to basic Oral Surgery
To provide clinical exposure which instructs the students in the
management of patients, the basic principles of surgery and the
importance of carrying out treatment under aseptic conditions with
minimal trauma

To provide an introduction to the attitude, knowledge and skills required
for the provision of Local Anaesthesia, Conscious sedation and General
Anaesthesia for dental treatment

To develop the skill of performing minor oral surgical procedsures
To give students exposure to advanced clinical activities
encompassed by the speciality of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery.
1- Anaesthetic considerations –

a) Local
b) Local with IV sedations
c) Use of general anaesthetic

2- Access:
Intra-oral: Mucoperiosteal flaps, principles, commonly used intra oral
Bone Removal: Methods of bone removal.
Use of Burs: Advantages & precautions
Extra-oral: Skin incisions - principles, various extra-oral incision to
expose facial skeleton.
a. Submandibular & Pre auricular
b. Incision to expose maxilla & orbit
c. Bicoronal incision
d. Control of haemorrhage during surgery Normal Haemostasis Local

measures available to control bleeding Hypotensive anaesthesia etc.
116 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program e. Drainage & Debridement Purpose of drainage in surgical wounds -
Types of drains used
Debridement: purpose, soft tissue & bone debridement.
3- Closure of wounds
Suturing: Principles, suturematerial, classification,body response to
various materials etc.
4. Post operative care - Post operative instructions
Physiology of cold and heat
Control of pain – analgesics
Control of infection – antibiotics
Control of swelling - anti-inflammatory drugs
Long term post operative follow up - significance.
5. Exodontia: General considerations
Ideal Extraction.
Indications for extraction of teeth
Extractions in medically compromised patients.
Methods of extraction –
(a) Forceps or intra-alveolar or closed method.
Principles, types of movement, force etc.
(b) Trans-alveolar, surgical or open method Indications, surgical

Dental elevators: uses, classification, principles in the use of elevators,
commonly used elevators.
Complications of Exodontia –
- Complications during exodontias
- Common to both maxilla and mandible.
- Post-operative complications –
- Prevention and managementof complications.
6. Impacted teeth: Incidence, definition, aetiology.
(a) Impacted mandibular third molar.
Classification, reasons for removal, Assessment - both clinical &

Surgical procedures for removal.
Complications during and after removal, Prevention and management.
(b) Maxillary third molar,
Indications for removal, classification, Surgical procedure for removal.
(c) Impacted maxillary canine

117 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Reasons for canine impaction, Localization, indications for removal,
Methods of management, labial and palatal approach, Surgical exposure,
transplantation, removal etc.

7. Pre-prosthetic Surgery:
Definition, classification of procedures
(a) Corrective procedures: Alveoloplasty, Reduction of maxillary
tuberosities, Frenoctemies and removal of tori.
(b) Ridge extension or Sulcus extension procedures Indications and various

surgical procedures
(c) Ridge augmentation and reconstruction.
Indications, use of bone grafts,
Implants - concept of osseo integration
Knowledge of various types of implants and surgical procedure to place

8. Diseases of the maxillary sinus

Surgical anatomy of the sinus.
Sinusitis both acute and chronic
Surgical approach of sinus- Caldwell-Luc procedure
Removal of root from the sinus.
Oro-antral fistula - aetiology, clinical features and various surgical methods

for closure.
9. Disorders of T.M. Joint

Applied surgical anatomy of the joint.
Dislocation - Types, aetiology, clinical features and management.
Ankylosis - Definition, aetiology, clinical features and management
Myo-facial pain dysfunction syndrome, aetiology, clinical features,
management – Non surgical and surgical.
Internal derangement of the joint.
Arthritis of T.M. Joint.

10. Infections of the Oral cavity
Introduction, factors responsible for infection, course of odontogenic
infections, spread of odontogenic infections through various facial spaces.
Dento-alveolar abscess - aetiology, clinical features and management.
Osteomyelitis of the jaws - definition, aetiology, pre-disposing factors,
classification, clinical features and management.

118 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Ludwigs angina - definition, aetiology, clinical features, management and

11. Benign cystic lesions of the jaws - Definition, classification, pathogenesis.
Diagnosis - Clinical features, radiological, aspiration biopsy, use of
contrast media and histopathology.
Management - Types of surgical procedures, Rationale of the techniques,
indications, procedures, complications etc.

12. Tumours of the Oral cavity - General considerations Non odontogenetic
benign tumours occuring in oral cavity - fibroma, papilloma, lipoma,
ossifying fibroma, myloma etc.
Ameloblastoma - Clinical features, radiological appearance and methods
of management.
Carcinoma of the oral cavity – Biopsy – types
TNM classification.
Outline of management of squamous Cell carcinoma: surgery, radiation
and chemotherapy Role of dental surgeons in the prevention and early
detection of oral cancer.

13. Trauma of the jaws - General considerations, types of fractures, aetiology,
clinical features and generalprinciples of management. mandibular
fractures – Applied anatomy, classification.
Diagnosis - Clinical and radiological
Management - Reduction closed and open Fixation and immobilisation
Outline of rigid and semi-rigid internal fixation.
Fractures of the condyle - aetiology, classification, clinical features,
principles of management.
Fractures of the middle third of the face.
Definition of the mid face, applied surgical anatomy, classification, clinical
features and outline of management.
Alveolar fractures - methods of management
Fractures of the Zygomatic complex
Complications of fractures - delayed union, non-union and malunion.

14. Salivary gland diseases - Diagnosis ofsalivary gland diseases' Sialography,
contrast media, procedure. Infections of the salivary glands
Sialolithiasis - Submandibular duct and gland and parotid duct.
Clinical features, management.
Salivary fistulae

119 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Common tumours of salivary glands like Pleomorphic adenoma including
minor salivary glands.

15. Jaw deformities - Basic forms - Prognathism, Retrognathism and open
Reasons for correction.
Outline of surgical methods carried out on mandible and maxilla.

16. Neurological disorders - Trigeminal neuralgia - definition, aetiology,
clinical features and methods of management including surgical.
Facial paralysis - Aetiology, clinical features.
Nerve injuries - Classification, neurorhaphy etc.

17. Cleft Lip and Palate - Aetiology of the clefts, incidence, classification, role
of dental surgeon in the management of cleft patients.
Outline of the closure procedures.

18. Medical Emergencies in dental practice – Primary care of medical
emergencies in dental practice particularly –
(a) Cardio vascular (b) Respiratory (c) Endocrine
(d) Anaphylactic reaction (e) Epilepsy

19. Emergency drugs & Intra muscular I.V. Injections – Applied anatomy,
Ideal location for giving these injections, techniques etc.
20. Oral Implantology
21. General Anaesthesia – Concept of general anaesthesia.

Indications of general anaesthesia in dentistry.
Pre-anaesthetic evaluation of the patient.
Pre-anaesthetic medication - advantages, drugs used.
Commonly used anaesthetic agents.
Complication during and after G.A.
I.V. sedation with Diazepam and Medozolam.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Indications, mode of action, technique etc.
Use of oxygen and emergency drugs.

Recommended Books:
1. Impacted teeth; Alling John F & etal.
2. Principles of oral and maxillofacial surgery; Vol.1,2 & 3 Peterson LJ & etal.
3. Text book of oral and maxillofacial surgery; Srinivasan B.
4. Handbook of medical emergencies in the dental office, Malamed SF.
5. Killeys Fractures of the mandible; Banks P.

120 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 6. Killeys fractures of the middle 3rd of the facial skeleton; Banks P.
7. The maxillary sinus and its dental implications; McGovanda
8. Killey and Kays outline of oral surgery – Part-1; Seward GR & etal
9. Essentials of safe dentistry for the medically compromised patients; Mc

Carthy FM
10. Oral & maxillofacial surgery, Vol 2; Laskin DM
11. Extraction of teeth;Howe, GL
12. Minor Oral Surgery; Howe.GL
13. Contemporary oral and maxillofacial surgery; Peterson I.J.& EA
14. Oral and maxillofacial infections; Topazian RG & Goldberg MH

Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%

121 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Oral Medicine
Course No. D 482
Code: CO. Med.
Course Title: Oral Medicine
Credit hour: 2 +2

The goal of this course is to enable the graduate students to acquire the
clinical skills required for the diagnosis and management of primary and
secondary diseases affecting the Oral and para-oral structures. These includes:

1. To develop an understanding of the range of disorders and diseases that
affect the teeth, the supporting tissues of the teeth and the surrounding
oro-facial tissues

2. To develop an appreciation that oral disease may be a manifestation of
a generalised disease state
3. To develop an understanding of the relevance of systemic disease in the
management of patients who require routine dental care
4. The ability to obtain and evaluate the patient's dental and medical
history and to perform a complete systemic examination of the oral and
para-oral tissues.

5. The ability to recognize and thoroughly describe the deviations from
normal and to establish a working diagnosis based on a differential

6. The ability to select and use appropriate investigations and
consultations needed to determine the treatment required and to
rationalized different treatment considerations i.e. the need for
emergency dental care, medications, referral and follow-up.

7. The ability to disseminate the clinical knowledge through cases
presentations and encouraging responsiveness to scientific advances &
research engagement.

On successfully completing the course, the students should

Demonstrate an understanding of the etiology, epidemiology and
clinical presentation of the common disorders of oral & Para-oral
structures including salivary glands, TMJ and pain disorders.

Illustrate the diagnostic basis for diseases and conditions in the oral
&Para-oral structures.
122 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program • Define and describe risk factors, prevention and control of common
oral & systemic diseases.
Identify the Signs and symptoms of systemic diseases including
standard treatment emphasizing on diseases causing oral manifestation,
or diseases prone to oral infection, diseases enhancing existing oral
diseases, and diseases affecting dental team. The students should
mention and demonstrate their Oral manifestations and the dental
considerations in management of these patients.

Express the basic knowledge regarding mechanisms of action of
antibiotics and antifungal drugs, and their therapeutic uses particularly
in dental practice.

Learning issues:
History taking + examination of the oral cavity, oro-facial region and
Infections of the oral mucosa and adjacent tissues –
Recurrent oral ulceration –
Oral lesions associated with dermatological & venereal conditions –
Oral manifestations of haematological diseases –
Oral manifestations of gastrointestinal diseases –
Nutritional diseases and their manifestation in the oral cavity –
Functional disorders of the salivary glands –
Influence of oral diseases on general health –
Traumatic conditions of oral tissues –
Psychosomatic aspects of oral diseases –
Differential diagnoses of orofacial pain –
White & red lesions of the oral mucosa –
Premalignant and malignant lesions [integrated with oral pathology] -
Pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa –
Vesiculobullous lesions –
Oral manifestations of hiv infection –
Halitosis - clinical pharmacology and prescribing in oral medicine –
Occupational hazards: blood-borne viruses & transmissible diseases.
Competency Statement:
Oral Medicine is the part of dentistry that is involved in the diagnosis and non
surgical treatment of primary or secondary disease involving the oral and
para-oral structures including Lymph node, salivary gland and TMJ

123 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program disorders ".Also it is concerned with the oral manifestations of systemic
diseases and the oral and dental care of patients with special needs.
The course intended to educate and train students:
1. Who will play a leading role in the promotion of dental health in their
community, and is capable of providing high quality primary dental care to
patients, with special focus on prevention of dental and oral diseases.
2. Who are competent, ethical, compassionate, lifelong learners, who are self-
reflective-always striving to improve themselves and the systems surrounding
them, and who attend equally well to all aspects of the oral health care
continuum, including disease management, prevention, oral health promotion
and maintenance, and palliative care.

Recommended Books:
1- Burket's oral medicine Diagnosis and treatment, 11th edition
2- Essential References differential diagnosis of oral lesions, By Wood

and Goaz 5th edition
3-Principles And Practice Of Oral Medicine, Sonis And Others- Saunders,
Second Edition (1995 )
Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%

124 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Paediatric Dentistry
Course No. D 362+ D 477+D 487+ D596+ 5101
Code: Paedo.
Course Title: Paedodontics
Credit hour: 2+2+2+2+1


Course No. D 362+ D 477+D 487+ D596+ 5101
Code: Paedo.
Credit hour: 2+2+2+2+1

To provide an academic and clinical training in the dental care of
To produce a student who will be able to provide a full range of
preventive, restorative and emergency care for healthy children with
basic dental needs, for healthy children with more complex dental needs
and for those children with complex medical problems(CHILDREN

By the end of these courses the student should become competent in the
formulation of a comprehensive treatment plan for the children that
they will be treated in the dental clinic.


1. Growth& development in general with emphasis on craniofacial growth
and development and chronology of both primary and permanent teeth
2. Child management:

a. Non- pharmacological:
Including, Psychological growth in children, behavioral theories,
variables influencing children's behavior and the different behavior
modification techniques used in pediatric dentistry.
b. Pharmacological:
Conscious sedation, definition, techniques, routes of administration with
example of common used drugs
3. Dental caries

Definition, theories, types and feature of caries in children ,causes and
- Definition.
- Principles & Scope.

125 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program - Types of prevention.
-Home Oral Hygiene for the Child and Adolescent
- Different preventive measures used in Pediatric Dentistry including
pit and fissure sealants, preventive resin restoration and caries vaccine
- Historical background.
- Systemic & Topical fluorides.
- Mechanism of action.
- Toxicity & Management.
- Knowledge of the developmental anomalies of the dentition with
regard to the anomalies of number ,anomalies of size , abnormalities of
structure , abnormalities size and shape ,abnormality of color and
abnormalities of shedding and eruption and their management.
9. Principles of Pediatric Operative Dentistry.
-Morphological differences between the primary & the permanent
-Modifications required for cavity preparation in primary and young
permanent teeth.
- Various Isolation Techniques.
- Restorations of decayed primary, young permanent and permanent
teeth in children using various restorative materials like Glass Ionomer,
Composites & Silver Amalgam. Stainless steel, Polycarbonate & Resin

- The student should be able to describe the value of a case history,
including the chief complaint, present illness, past medical and dental history,
family history, and personal and social history .review of systems.

- Student should know the influence of the past dental history on the
present treatment plan, and the influence of the previous behavior on the
present dental treatment

126 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program - Principles & Diagnosis.
- Definition, Classification, Clinical features & Management
- Classification of Pulpal Pathology in primary, young permanent &
permanent teeth.
- Management of Pulpally involved primary, young permanent &
permanent teeth.
• Pulp capping – direct & indirect.
• Pulpotomy
• Pulpectomy
• Apexogenesis
• Apexification
•Obturation Techniques & material used for primary, young
permanent & Permanent teeth in children.
- Classifications & Importance.
-Assessment &management of primary and permanent dentition
-Sequelae & reaction of teeth to trauma.
- Management of Traumatized teeth
*Treatment of fracture to the hard dental tissues

* Treatment of luxation injuries
*Avulsion &restorative care or orthodontic considerations
- Definitions.
- Problems encountered during primary and mixed dentition phases, the
most common pediatric malocclusions & their management.
- Serial extractions.
17. Space management:
The student will learn the classification, advantages and disadvantages of the
different space Maintainers .How to plan for the space maintainer and Causes
of Space Maintainer Failure
- Definition, Etiology & Classification.
- Clinical features of digit sucking, tongue thrusting, mouth
breathing & various other secondary habits.
- Management of oral habits in children.
-Definition, Aetiology, Classification, Behavioral and Clinical features &
Management of children with:
-Physically handicapping conditions.
-Mentally compromising conditions.
-Medically compromising conditions.
-Genetic disorders.

127 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 19. PEDIATRIC PERIODONTAL INTERFACE
- Knowledge on the normal and healthy gingiva , color ,form ,density , depth
of gingival crevice ,level of epithelial attachment , mobility of teeth in children
in different dentition stages(primary, mixed and permanent dentition).
1. Pediatric Dentistry (Infancy through Adolescences) – Pinkham.
2. Kennedy's Pediatric Operative Dentistry – Kennedy & Curzon.
3.Pediatric Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery – Kaban.
4. Pediatric Medical Emergencies – P. S. whatt.
5. Clinical Pedodontics – Finn.
6. Textbook of Pediatric Dentistry – Braham Morris.
7. Handbook of Clinical Pedodontics – Kenneth. D.
8. Dentistry for the Child and Adolescence – Mc. Donald.
11. Pediatric Dentistry – Mathewson.
11. Traumatic Injuries – andreasen.
17. Hand Book of Pediatric Dentistry ---- CAMERON 4th Edition
Methods of assessment

Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%
128 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Course no. d 478+ d 488+ d597
Code: Ortho
Course title: Orthodontics
Credit hour: 1+2+2+2

Undergraduate program in orthodontics is designed to enable the qualifying
dental surgeon to diagnose, analyze and treat common orthodontic problems
by preventive, interceptive and corrective orthodontic procedures.
The objective of orthodontic course is preparing the new dental practitioner
to recognize orthodontic problems, distinguish between simple and complex
cases and to be able to diagnose, analyze and treat simple orthodontic cases
by preventive, interceptive and corrective orthodontic procedures, and
discussing treatment planning with patients and other health care provider.
Specific objectives:

1. Mastery of preventive and interceptive orthodontic procedures in the
primary and mixed dentitions required to properly manage the
developing occlusion in children.

2. Mastery of multi-phased and growth modification orthodontic procedures
in the growing patient required to properly manage the developing
occlusion and skeletal dysplasia.

3. Mastery of orthodontic procedures in the young permanent dentition
required to manage the occlusion in adolescents to include both extraction
and non-extraction protocols.

4. Mastery of orthodontic procedures in the adult dentition required to
properly manage occlusion considerations in older patients to include
orthognatic surgery, prosthetic dentistry, periodontal disease, and
temporomandibular dysfunction.

5. Ability to educate and guide patients and parents to accept and
practice oral health care with preventive concepts, a foundation of clinical
orthodontic practice.

6. Understanding the physical and chemical properties of dental materials
used in orthodontic treatment and patient responses to these agents.
7. Knowledge of oral pathology and management procedures applicable to
patient care.
129 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 8. Capability to diagnose traumatized and carious primary and permanent
teeth with ability to maintain the teeth, pulp tissues, and periodontium in
a healthy state during orthodontic treatment. (not related to orthodontics)

9. Understanding the growth and development of the stomatognathic system
and the ability to provide treatment aimed at allowing optimal
development of this system.

10. Familiarity with published literature pertinent to orthodontics and the
motivation to remain abreast with and critically evaluate the literature.
11. Commitment to the implementation of community based programs aimed
at educating the public on oral health, dental and orthodontic issues.
12. Preparation for managing a contemporary orthodontic practice relative to
practice administration, efficient auxiliary utilization, and marketing.
13. Coordination of all objectives such that diagnosis, case analysis, treatment
planning, and clinical management of dentofacial occlusion problems that
occur in childhood, adolescence and adulthood are grounded in a sound
application of scientific knowledge which remains a state-of-the-art level
through development of an attitude towards lifelong inquiry and study.

1. Introduction, definition, historical background, aims and objectives of

orthodontics and need for orthodontics care.
2. Growth and development: in general
A. Definition
B. Growth spurts and differential growth
C. Factors influencing growth and development
D. Methods of measuring growth

theories (genetic,
scott's, moss's,petrovics,
F. Genetic and epigenetic factors in growth
G. Cephalocaudal gradient in growth.

3. Morphologic development of craniofacial structures
A. Methods of bone growth
B. Prenatal growth of craniofacial structures
C. Postnatal growth and development of: cranial base, maxilla, mandible,

dental arches and occlusion. (this courses should be teach within the
general anatomy)

4. Functional development of dental arches and occlusion
A. Factors influencing functional development of dental arches and
130 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program occlusion.
B. Forces of occlusion
C. Wolfe's law of transformation of bone
D. Trajectories of forces

5. Clinical application of growth and development (this courses should be
teach within the general or dental anatomy)
6. Malocclusion - in general
A. Concept of normal occlusion
B. Definition of malocclusion
C. Description of different types of dental, skeletal and functional

7. Classification of malocclusion principle, description, advantages and

disadvantages of classification of malocclusion by angle's, simon's, lischer's
and ackermann and proffitt's. Remove

8. Normal and abnormal function of stomatognathic system remove
9. Etiology of malocclusion

A. Definition, importance, classification, local and general etiological
B. Etiology of following different types of malocclusion:
1) Midline diastema
2) Spacing
3) Crowding
4) cross-bite: anterior/posterior
5) Class iii malocclusion
6) Class ii malocclusion
7) Deep bite
8) Open bite
9) Scissor bite
10) Diagnosis and diagnostic aids

A. Definition, importance and classification of diagnostic aids.
B. Importance of case history and clinical examination in

orthodontics .
C. Study models: - importance and uses - preparation and
preservation of study models .
D. Importance of intraoral x-rays in orthodontics .
E. Panoramic radiographs:- (principles, advantages, disad

vantages) and uses .
131 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program F. Cephalometrics: (its advantages, disadvantages) remove:
1. Definition
2. Description and use of cephalostat
3. Description and uses of anatomical landmarks lines and

angles used in cephalometric analysis
4. Analysis- steiner's, down's, tweed's, ricket's-e- line
G. Electromyography and its uses in orthodontics
H. Wrist x-rays and its importance in orthodontics

11. General principles in orthodontic treatment planning of dental and
skeletal malocclusions
12. Anchorage in orthodontics - definition, classification, types and stability of
13. Biomechanical principles in orthodontic tooth movement

A. Different types of tooth movements
B. Tissue response to orthodontic force application
C. Age factor in orthodontic tooth movement

14. Preventive orthodontics
A. Definition
B. Different procedures undertaken in preventive orthodontics and their

15. Interceptive orthodontics
A. Definition
B. Different procedures undertaken in interceptive orthodontics
C. Serial extractions: definition, indications, contra-indication,

technique, advantages and disadvantages.
D. Role of muscle exercises as an interceptive procedure.
16. Corrective orthodontics
A. Definition, factors to be considered during treatment planning
B. Model analysis: pont's, ashley howe's, bolton, careys, moyer's mixed

dentition analysis
C. Methods of gaining space in the arch:- indications, relative merits and
demerits of proximal stripping, arch expansion and Extractions
D. Extractions in orthdodontics - indications and selection of teeth for
17. Orthodontic appliances: general
A. Requisites for orthodontic appliances
B. Classification, indications of removable and functional appliances

132 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program C. Methods of force application
D. Materials used in construction of various orthodontic appliances -

uses of stainless steel, technical considerations in curing of acrylic,
principles of welding and soldering, fluxes and antifluxes.

E. Preliminary knowledge of acid etching and direct bonding
Removable orthodontic appliances :
1. Components of removable appliances
2. Different types of clasps and their uses
3. Different types of labial bows and their uses
4. Different types of springs and their uses
5. Expansion appliances in orthodontics:

I. Principles
II. Indications for arch expansion
III. Description of expansion appliances and different types of

expansion devices and their uses.
IV. Rapid maxillary expansion
Fixed orthodontic appliances:
1. Definition, indications & contraindications
2. Component parts and their uses
3. Basic principles of different techniques: edgewise, begg's, straight wire.

Extraoral appliances
1. Headgears
2. Chincup
3. Reverse pull headgears

Myofunctional appliances
1. Definition and principles
2. Muscle exercises and their uses in orthodontics
3. Functional appliances:

I. Activator, oral screens, frankels function regulator, bionator twin
blocks, lip bumper
II. Inclined planes - upper and lower
18. Orthodontic management of cleft lip and palate
19. Principles of surgical orthodontics brief knowledge of correction of:

A. Mandibular prognathism and retrognathism
B. Maxillary prognathism and retrognathism
C. Anterior open bite and deep bite
D. Cross bite

133 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 20. Principle, differential diagnosis& methods of treatment of:
0.6mm :

1. Midline diastema
2. Cross bite.
3. Open bite
4. Deep bite
5. Spacing
6. Crowding
7. Class ii - division 1, division 2
8. Class iii malocclusion - true and psuedo class iii

21. Retention and relapse definition, need for retention, causes of relapse,
methods of Retention, different types of retention devices, duration of
retention, theories of retention.

22. Clinicals and practicals in orthodontics practical
Training during ii year b.d.s. :
I. Basic wire bending exercises gauge 22 or 0.7mm

1. Straightening of wires (4 nos.)
2. Bending of a equilateral triangle
3. Bending of a rectangle
4. Bending of a square
5. Bending of a circle
6. Bending of u.v.

II. Construction of clasps (both sides upper/lower) gauge 22 or 0.7mm:
1. 3/4 clasp (c-clasp)
2. Full clasp (jackson's crib)
3. Adam's clasp
4. Triangular clasp

III. Construction of springs (on upper both sides) gauge 24 or 0.5mm:
1. Finger spring
2. Single cantelever spring
3. Double cantelever spring (z-spring)
4. T-springs on premolars

IV. Construction of canine retractors gauge 23 or
1. U - loop canine retractor (both sides on upper & lower)
2. Helical canine retractor (both sides on upper & lower)
3. Buccal canine retractor: - self supported buccal canine retractor with
a) sleeve - 5mm wire or 24 gauge b) sleeve - 19 gauge needle on any one

134 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program side. (not requird)
4. Palatal canine retractor on upperboth sides gauge 23 or 0.6mm
5. Labial bow gauge 22 or 0.7mm one on both upper and lower

Clinical training during iii year b.d.s:
No. Exercise

01 making upper alginate impression
02 making lower alginate impression
03 study model preparation
04 model analysis:

A. Pont's analysis
B. Ashley howe's analysis
C. Carey's analysis
D. Bolton's analysis
E. Moyer's mixed dentition analysis

Clinical training duringfinal year b.d.s.
No. Exercise

01 case history taking
02 case discussion
03 discussion on the given topic
04 cephalometric tracings

A. Down's analysis
B. Steiner's analysis
C. Tweed's analysis

Practical training during final year b.d.
Student should be able to design and construct simple removable appliance
for correction of different types of malocclusion

1. Adam's clasp on anterior teeth gauge 0.7mm (not required)
2. Modified adam's clasp on upper arch gauge 0.7mm (not required)
3. Modified adam's clasp on upper arch gauge 0.7mm (gauge of labial bow -

0.9mm, apron spring - 0.3mm) (not required)
4. Coffin spring on upper arch gauge 1mm appliance construction in
acrylic(not required):
1. Upper & lower hawley's appliance
2. Upper hawley's with anterior bite plane
3. Upper habit breaking appliance
4. Upper hawley's with posterior bite plane with z' spring
5. Construction of activator(not required)

135 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program 6. Lower inclined plane/catalan's appliance (not required)
7. Upper expansion plate with expansion screw

Required books:
1. Contemporary orthodontics william r. Proffit
2. Orthodontics for dental students white and
3. Handbook of orthodontics moyers
4. Orthodontics - principles and practice graber
5. Design, construction and use of removable
6. Orthodontic appliances c. Philip adams
7. Clinical orthodontics: vol 1 & 2 salzmann

Methods of assessment
Continuous Assessment ( C.A) 20%
MCQs ( SBA) 20%
Structural Short Answers (SSA) 20%
Extended Matching Questions and Problems 20%

136 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program Examination Regulations

These regulations supplement the General Examination for entry to any

1- The student must satisfy the attendance requirement of at least 75% of
the course or training rotation to be examined.
2- Assessment or year work requirements must be satisfied.
3- Students are allowed to sit as external students once at the end of the

first or second year.
4- At the discretion of the Faculty Board, a student may be allowed to sit
as an external student once at the end of the third year.
Examination Time tables:
5- All examination time-tables shall be approved by Faculty Board on the
recommendation of the examinations committee or by the Dean on
behalf of Faculty Board.

6- Continuous assessment shall be scheduled at least two weeks before the
final examination.
7- Examination time-tables shall be published at least four weeks before
the dates of the examination.
The Examiners:
8- For each course there shall be one external examiner & one or more
internal examiners.
9- The status of the external examiner should not be less than associate
Professor in the basic sciences. In clinical subjects the external
examiner shall have no less than seven years experience in the clinical
discipline of the examination.

10- All examiners shall be approved by Faculty Board at least two months
before the examination or by the Dean on behalf of Faculty Board.
Examinations shall be held at the end of each semester.
End of semester examinations are considered final for completed
courses & counted as part of the continuous assessment for
longitudinal courses.

To be promoted to the following level (year), all the final
examinations of courses of both semesters must be passed.
Supplementary & substitute examinations:
137 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program All supplementary examinations shall be held at the end of the
year at least one month after the second semester of each year.
To be eligible for entry to the supplementary examination a
student must have passed at least one third of the courses of that year.
Substitute examinations will be held once at the end of each year
two weeks after the final examinations.
A student who absents himself / herself from taking part or all of
an examination, without prior notification of acceptable reasons, will
be considered as a failure in that examination.

Students must pass all supplementary & substitute examinations
before promotion to the next year.
A first year student who fails in 75% or more of the combined
semester 1 & II courses will be advised to discontinue.
A student who fails in more than two thirds of the courses of a
given year repeats that year and sits for all the completed courses of
both semesters.

A student who repeats the year after having passed one or more
courses, will be reassessed in these courses, giving due consideration to
his previous results in each course.

A student who fails in a supplementary examination repeats the
year unless it is otherwise decided by the faculty board for a given

A student will not be allowed to repeat a year more than once in
the four years.
The Final examination for the BDS degree
The Final examination for the BDS degree will be held in two
parts at the end of semester IX & X of year 5
Candidates should satisfy the examiners in the theory & clinical
parts of the examination independently.
The scoring & grading systems:
Final scores, grades & prizes should be approved by the
The final scores of all courses shall be reported to the registrar's
office out of 100 & to the Faculty Board as grades.
Distribution of marks between theory & practical should be
weighted by each department according to the objectives of the course
138 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program & approved by the Faculty Board upon the recommendation of the
curriculum committee.

Continuous assessment should receive 20 to 30% of the total
marks for a given course.
The grading system is as follows:
80% and more
Very good:
less than 50%
139 (ACST) Curriculum of Dentistry Program

Source: http://fajrcollege.edu.sd/images/programmes/pdf/Dentistry-Program.pdf


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