Formulary decision guide:
Dexamethasone 2 mg/5 ml oral solution (Dexsol®)
Product current status:
• More severe croup (or mild croup that might cause complications) calls for hospital admission:5 Product proposed status:
– a single dose of corticosteroid should be administered Date of next meeting:
before transfer to hospital – in hospital, treatment with a corticosteroid or nebuliser Decision:
will often reduce symptoms—the dose may be repeated after 12 hours if necessary • Providers of urgent care services should ensure that dexamethasone is available.2 Drug name
Dexamethasone 2 mg/5 ml oral solution (Dexsol®)
• For children with mild croup, dexamethasone is an effective treatment that results in consistent and small but important clinical and economic benefits, and, although the long-term • In addition to other current indications (see summary of effects of this treatment are not known, data support the use product characteristics),1 dexamethasone liquid (Dexsol®) is of dexamethasone in most, if not all, children with croup.6 now indicated for childhood croup • It is suitable for patients unable/unwilling to swallow dexamethasone tablets or capsules.
• Possible contraindications are:1 – hypersensitivity to dexamethasone or any of the excipients listed • Oral administration of dexamethasone is preferred in – systemic infection unless specific anti-infective therapy is the case of croup, as there is evidence that it is at least as effective as intramuscular dexamethasone2 – systemic fungal infections • Give all children with mild, moderate, or severe croup a single – stomach ulcer or duodenal ulcer dose of oral dexamethasone (0.15 mg/kg body weight). If – infection with tropical worms.
it is not possible to weigh the child, as a rough guide the dose would be 1.5–2.0 mg for an average-sized child aged Precautions and side effects
12–15 months and 2–3 mg for an average-sized child aged • Please refer to the summary of product characteristics.1 • Please refer to the summary of product characteristics.1 Mode of action
Rosemont Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Dexsol 2 mg/5 ml. Summary of Product Characteristics. November 2012.
NHS Evidence. Clinical Knowledge Summaries: Croup management. • Corticosteroids such as dexamethasone form a class of naturally occurring chemicals that includes steroid NHS National Institute for Health Research. The effectiveness of glucocorticoids in hormones, which are produced in the adrenal cortex.
treating croup: meta-analysis. York: Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, 2000. Sparrow A, Geelhoed G. Prednisolone versus dexamethasone in croup: a Evidence for use
randomised equivalence trial. Arch Dis Child 2006; 91: 580–583. doi: 10.1136/
Paediatric Formulary Committee. BNF for Children (online). London: BMJ • There is good evidence that corticosteroids are beneficial in Group, Pharmaceutical Press, and RCPCH Publications. Available at: children with mild, moderate, and severe croup2 [Accessed February 2013.] • Dexamethasone is effective in relieving the symptoms of Bjornson C, Johnson D. Croup. Lancet 2008; 371(9609): 329–339.
croup as early as 6 hours after treatment. Fewer Key points
co-interventions are used and hospital stays are decreased for patients treated with glucocorticoids3 • Dexamethasone oral solution may benefit: • A single oral dose of dexamethasone proved more effective – children with croup—swallowing tablets or capsules or than a single oral dose of prednisolone in reducing other solid-dose medications may be difficult unscheduled re-presentation to medical care in children with – patients who require this medicine, but who have transient mild to moderate croup4 This formulary decision guide was developed from content provided by Rosemont Pharmaceuticals Ltd in a format developed by Guidelines in Practice. It has been reviewed by a member of the Guidelines in Practice editorial board. At all times editorial control has remained with Guidelines in Practice.
Abbreviated prescribing information can be found overleaf Product code: DTM033 Date of preparation: March 2014 Formulary decision guide:
Dexamethasone 2 mg/5 ml oral solution (Dexsol®)
Abbreviated Prescribing Information: DEXSOL 2mg/5ml. Consult
patients with myasthenia gravis. Colestyramine may decrease the absorption of Summary of Product Characteristics before prescribing.
dexamethasone. Estrogens may increase the effect of corticosteroids. Aminoglutethimide decreases dexamethasone efficacy. Glucocorticoids should Presentation: Solution containing 2mg Dexamethasone (as sodium phosphate) in
be taken separately from gastrointestinal topicals, antacids or charcoal. Concomitant each 5ml. Therapeutic Indications: Dexamethasone is a corticosteroid. It is designed
administration of dexamethasone with substances that are metabolised via CYP3A4 for use in certain endocrine and non-endocrine disorders, in certain cases of cerebral could lead to increased clearance and decreased plasma concentrations of these oedema and for diagnostic testing of adrenocortical hyperfunction. Childhood Croup: substances. The renal clearance of salicylates is increased. The effects Heterogeneous group of illnesses affecting the larynx, trachea and bronchi. of hypoglycaemic agents, anti-hypertensives and diuretics are antagonised. The Laryngotracheitis, laryngotracheobronchitis, laryngotracheobronchopneumonitis and hypokalaemic effects of acetazolamide, loop diuretics, thiazide diuretics, amphotericin spasmodic croup are included in the croup syndrome. Posology: Adults: The dosage
B, potassium depleting agents, corticosteroids (gluco-mineralo), tetracosactide and should be titrated to the individual response and the nature of the disease. The lowest carbenoxolone are enhanced. Hypokalemia should be corrected before corticosteroid effective possible dosage should be used. The initial dosage varies from 0.5 – 9mg a treatment initiation. Concomitant use of amphotericin B and hydrocortisone has been day. In more severe diseases, doses higher than 9mg may be required. If satisfactory followed by cardiac enlargement and congestive heart failure. Concomitant sultopride response does not occur after a reasonable time, discontinue treatment and transfer and dexamethasone is not recommended. Patients taking NSAID's should be the patient to another therapy. Chronic dosage should preferably not exceed 1.5mg monitored. Aspirin should also be used cautiously in conjunction with corticosteroids daily. If the drug is to be stopped after more than a few days of treatment, it should be in hypoprothrombinaemia. Serum isoniazid may be decreased. Increased activity of withdrawn gradually. Children: Dosage should be limited to a single dose on alternate both ciclosporin and corticosteroids may occur. Co-administration with thalidomide days. Childhood Croup: A single dose of 0.15mg/kg is recommended. A second dose
should be employed cautiously. Corticosteroids may affect the nitrobuletetrazolium may be administered after 12 hours, if considered necessary by the treating physician. test for bacterial infection and produce false-negative results. Risk of fatal systemic However, a maximum dose of 10mg) is recommended. Elderly: Care should be taken. disease with attenuatedlive vaccines. Decrease in praziquantel plasma concentrations, Contra-indications: Hypersensitivity to dexamethasone or any of the excipients.
with a risk of treatment failure. Possible impact of corticosteroid therapy on the Systemic infection unless specific anti-infective therapy is employed. Systemic fungal metabolism of oral anticoagulants and on clotting factors. Glucose control in diabetics infections. Stomach or duodenal ulcer. Infection with tropical worms. Precautions for
may be impaired. Pregnancy and lactation: Dexamethasone should not be used
use: Patients should carry ‘steroid treatment' cards. Corticosteroids should only be
during pregnancy for maternal indications, unless it is clearly necessary. Infants born used in systemic fungal infections to control drug reactions due to amphotericin. If of mothers who have received substantial doses of corticosteroids during pregnancy inactivated viral or bacterial vaccines are administered the expected serum antibody should be carefully observed for signs of hypoadrenalism. Patients with pre-eclampsia response may not be obtained. Suppression of the inflammatory response and or fluid retention require close monitoring. Foetal serum concentrations are similar to immune function increases the susceptibility to infections and their severity. The maternal concentrations. Corticosteroids are excreted in small amounts in breast milk. clinical presentation may be atypical, and serious infections may be masked and reach Effects on ability to drive and use machines: Ability to drive or operate machinery
an advanced stage before being recognised. Appropriate anti-microbial therapy may be affected. Undesirable effects: The incidence of predictable undesirable
should accompany glucocorticoid therapy when necessary. There may be decreased effects, including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal suppression correlates with the resistance and inability to localise infection in patients on corticosteroids. Chickenpox relative potency of the drug, dosage, timing of administration and the duration of and measles are of particular concern, since these normally minor illnesses may be treatment. Sodium retention, fluid retention, congestive heart failure in susceptible fatal in immunosuppressed patients. In such children or adults particular care should patients, potassium loss, hypokalaemic alkalosis, hypertension, increased calcium be taken to avoid exposure. Exposed patients should be advised to seek medical excretion. Osteoporosis, vertebral and long bone fractures, avascular necrosis, tendon advice without delay. Corticosteroids may activate latent infections or exacerbate rupture. Proximal myopathy. Muscle weakness, aseptic necrosis of femoral and active disease due to pathogens. Prolonged use may produce subcapsular cataracts, humeral heads, loss of muscle mass. Dyspepsia, peptic ulceration with perforation and glaucoma with possible damage to the optic nerves, and may enhance the haemorrhage, acute pancreatitis, candidiasis. Abdominal distension and vomiting. establishment of secondary ocular infections due to fungi or viruses. Should not be Ulcerative oesophagitis. Perforation of the small and large bowel particularly in used in cerebral malaria. Salt restriction and potassium supplementation may be patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Impaired wound healing, thin fragile skin, necessary. Calcium excretion will be increased. Adrenal cortical atrophy develops petechiae and ecchymoses, erythema, striae, telangiectasia, acne, increased sweating, during prolonged therapy. Withdrawal after prolonged therapy must always be suppressed reaction to skin tests, other cutaneous reactions such as allergic gradual. During prolonged therapy, any intercurrent illness, trauma, stress or surgical dermatitis, urticaria, angioneurotic oedema, thinning scalp hair. Posterior subcapsular procedure will require a temporary increase in dosage; if corticosteroids have been cataracts, increased intra-ocular pressure, glaucoma, papilloedema, corneal or scleral stopped following prolonged therapy they may need to be temporarily re-introduced. thinning, exacerbation of ophthalmic viral or fungal diseases, exopthalmos. Increased Patients under stress may require increased doses prior, during and after the period of susceptibility and severity of infections with suppression of clinical symptoms and stressful situation. Stopping corticosteroids after prolonged therapy may cause signs, opportunistic infections, recurrence of dormant tuberculosis. Decreased withdrawal symptoms including fever, myalgia, arthralgia and malaise. This may resistance to infection. Menstrual irregularities and amenorrhoea, growth suppression occur in patients even without evidence of adrenal insufficiency. There is an in children and adolescents, premature epiphyseal closure, development of enhanced effect in patients with hypothyroidism and in those with cirrhosis. Cushingoid state, hirsutism, weight gain, impaired carbohydrate tolerance with Particular care is required in patients with the following conditions: renal increased requirement for anti-diabetic therapy. Negative protein and calcium insufficiency, hypertension or congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus (or a family balance. Secondary adrenocortical and pituitary unresponsiveness. Convulsions and history of diabetes), osteoporosis, previous corticosteroid-induced myopathy, aggravation of epilepsy, vertigo, headache, increased intra-cranial pressure with glaucoma (or family history of glaucoma), myasthenia gravis, non-specific ulcerative papilloedema in children, psychological dependence, depression, insomnia, colitis, diverticulitis or fresh intestinal anastomosis, peptic ulceration, existing or aggravation of schizophrenia and psychic disturbances. Affective disorders, psychotic previous history of severe affective disorders (especially previous steroid psychosis), reactions, behavioural disturbances, anxiety, cognitive dysfunction. Hypersensitivity liver failure, epilepsy, migraine, history of allergy to corticosteroids, tuberculosis, including anaphylaxis. Leucocytosis, thromboembolism, increased appetite, nausea, herpes simplex, psychiatric disorders. Fat embolism has been reported as a possible malaise, hiccups, abnormal fat deposits, increased or decreased motility and number complication of hypercortisonism. Large doses may mask the symptoms of of spermatozoa. Too rapid a reduction of corticosteroid dosage following prolonged gastro-intestinal perforation. Use with great caution after recent myocardial treatment can lead to acute adrenal insufficiency, hypotension and death. A infarction. Decrease or withdrawal could reveal underlying diseases that are ‘withdrawal syndrome' may also occur including fever, myalgia, arthralgia, rhinitis, accompanied by eosinophilia in patients with asthma. Potentially severe psychiatric conjunctivitis, painful itchy skin nodules and loss of weight. Overdose: Reports of
adverse reactions may occur. Seek medical advice if worrying psychological symptoms acute toxicity and/or deaths following overdosage with glucocorticoids are rare. No develop (especially depressed mood or suicidal ideation). Particular care is required in antidote is available. Treatment is probably not indicated for reactions due to chronic patients with or having close relatives with existing history of severe affective poisoning unless the patient has a condition that would render him unusually disorders. Children on prolonged therapy should be carefully monitored for growth susceptible to ill effects from corticosteroids. In this case, the stomach should be retardation. Preterm neonates: Evidence of long-term neurodevelopmental adverse emptied and symptomatic treatment should be instituted as necessary. Anaphylactic events after early treatment (<96 hours) in chronic lung disease. Excipient Warnings:
and hypersensitivity reactions may be treated with epinephrine (adrenaline), Propylene glycol – This may cause alcohol like symptoms. It also contains 0.7g sorbitol positive-pressure artificial respiration and aminophylline. The patient should be kept in each 5ml. It is unsuitable in hereditary fructose intolerance and can cause stomach warm and quiet. The biological half life of dexamethasone in plasma is about 190 upset and diarrhoea. It also contains liquid maltitol which may cause diarrhoea. Drug
minutes. Shelf Life and Storage: 2 years unopened (3 months after opening). Do not
interactions: Dexamethasone is metabolized via cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4).
store above 25°C. Do not refrigerate. This product is sensitive to light. Store in the Dexamethasone reduces the plasma concentration of the antiviral drugs indinavir and original package. Legal Category: POM Pack Size and NHS Price: 75ml - £21.51 and
saquinavir. Patients taking methotrexate and dexamethasone have an increased risk 150ml - £42.30. Marketing Authorisation Holder: Rosemont Pharmaceuticals Ltd,
of haematological toxicity. Concomitant administration with inducers of CYP3A4 may Rosemont House, Yorkdale Industrial Park, Braithwaite Street, Leeds, LS11 9XE. lead to decreased plasma concentrations. Concomitant administration of inhibitors of Marketing Authorisation Number: PL00427/0137. Date of Preparation: April 2013
CYP3A4 may lead to increased plasma concentrations. These interactions may also interfere with dexamethasone suppression tests. Ketoconazole may cause adrenal Information about adverse event reporting can be
insufficiency at withdrawal of corticosteroid treatment. Ephedrine may decrease plasma levels. False-negative results in the dexamethasone suppression test found at
inpatients being treated with indometacin have been reported. Macrolide antibiotics Adverse events should also be reported to
have been reported to cause a significant decrease in corticosteroid clearance. Concomitant use of anticholinesterase agents may produce severe weakness in Rosemont Pharmaceuticals Ltd on 0113 244 1400


Ml irbesartan hctz 75-300-300 mg


Senate Hearing Thank you for your time in reading this letter, as well as for your aspirational guidance in the matter at hand. My formal studies as an undergraduate, Graduate and PhD have focused on cannabis, cannabinoids and their impact on health. My education, and through a decade of experience presenting at conferences and interacting with other medical professionals on this particular subject matter, have given me a wealth of knowledge. I've been blessed and honored to have been surrounded by great scientific minds in the field of cannabinoid research. As such I have the honor of occasionally standing on those same shoulders to report their findings. In doing so, it is my personal hope that I might be able to confer some greater understanding of a misunderstood subject, to individuals like you who might make a real difference in the lives of severely ill residents. The way that humans tend to externally stimulate their endocannabinoid systems is by taking (or applying) compounds produced by the Cannabis plant. First, unlike most other drugs and even a substance like water, these naturally-occurring phytocannabinoid compounds have no achievable lethal dose. They are amongst the safest compounds known to science. They are amongst the least physically addictive substances known. For the State of Pennsylvania and it's esteemed legislators – A quick pharmacology lesson: