20th Biennial International SAAFoST Congress and Exhibition– Final Programme
7 - 10 October 2013, CSIR International Convention Centre, Pretoria
Monday, 7 October 2013
07h00-08h30 Registration in Central Foyer / Tea and Coffee in Exhibition Hall
Plenary session
Venue: Diamond Auditorium
Sponsored by Swift Silliker
Session Chair: Amanda Minnaar 08h30-08h40 Amanda Minnaar, Chair of Local Organising Committee
08h40-08h50 Welcome address by the SAAFoST President: Gunnar Sigge
08h50-09h00 Welcome address by the IUFoST President: Pingfan Rao
09h00-09h10 Welcome address by the IFT President: Janet Collins
09h10-09h50 Plenary lecture: Leon Louw
Executive Director of the Free Market Foundation (FMF) and of the Law Review Project (LRP).

09h50-10h30 Ernest Newbery Memorial Lecture: Janet Collins President of IFT; Du Pont, Washington DC, USA
10h30-11h00 Tea and Coffee in Exhibition Hall
Parallel sessions and Symposia
Venue: Diamond Auditorium
Venue: Ruby Auditorium
Venue: Emerald Auditorium
Venue: Amethyst Auditorium
Sponsored by Swift Silliker
Session Chair: Pingfan Rao
Session Chair: Lorraine Geel Session Chair: Lucia Anelich
Session Chair: Belinda du
11h00-11h30 Anne-Marie Hermansson
Johann Kirsten
Trevor Britz
Peter Fischer
The Royal Academy of LEVLO, University of Pretoria Dept of Food Science, Institute of Food Science and Sciences, Sweden Stellenbosch University Nutrition, ETH, Zurich 11h30-12h00 Sheryl Hendriks
Hennie Fisher
Liesbeth Jacxsens
Mats Stading
Director: IFNuW (Institute of Dept of Consumer Science, Dept Food Safety and Food Manager of the Structure and Food, Nutrition and Well-being), University of Pretoria Quality, University of Ghent, Material Design Group, SIK, University of Pretoria Gothenburg, Sweden 12h00-12h30 Delia Rodriguez-Amaya
Sam Newberg
Lise Korsten
Janet Taylor
President Elect - IUFoST Sweet Green Fields, Dept of Microbiology and Plant Dept of Food Science, Academy of Fellows (IAFoST, Bellingham, WA, USA Pathology, University of Pretoria University International Academy of Food of Pretoria Science and Technology) 12h30-13h00 Ruth Oniang'o
Dominique Pallet
Mjikisile Vulindlu
Mohammad Naushad
Founder of the Rural Outreach Qualisud, CIRAD, France Scientific Services, City of Cape Emmambux
Dept of Food Science, University of Pretoria Lunch sponsored by Lake Foods
13h00-13h30 Venue: Outdoor Deck
Parallel sessions and Symposia
symposium (continued)
Venue: Diamond Auditorium
Venue: Ruby Auditorium
Venue: Emerald Auditorium
Venue: Amethyst Auditorium
Sponsored by Swift Silliker
Session Chair: Pingfan Rao
Session Chair: Denise
Session Chair: Gerda Botha
Session Chair: Eric Amonsou
13h30-14h00 John Taylor
Russell Flowers
Nigel Sunley
Peter Fischer
Dept of Food Science, Chairman & Chief Scientific Sunley Consulting ETH (Zurich) University Officer, Mérieux NutriSciences of Pretoria 14h00-14h30 Walter Spiess
Nafiisa Sobratee
Pierre Joubert
Christian Mestres
President: International Post-Doctoral Fellow, Dept Bureau of Market Research QualiSud, CIRAD, France Academy of Food Science and Engineering, University of Kwa (BMR), UNISA Technology, IUFoST Zulu Natal 14h30-15h00 Herman Koeter
Elizabeth Lodolo
Christine Leighton
Andrew Murray
MD, Orange House Partnership, South African Breweries Project coordinator of the Andrew Murray Consulting Consumer Education Project Milk South Africa 15h00-15h30 Tea and Coffee in Exhibition Hall
Plenary session
Venue: Diamond Auditorium
Sponsored by Swift Silliker
Session Chair: Ryan Ponquett
15h30-16h00 Plenary lecture: Anne-Marie Hermansson
The Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden

16h00-16h30 Plenary lecture: Brenda Neall
Publisher and editor of FOODStuff SA and DRINKStuff SA websites and newsletters

16h30-16h45 Plenary lecture: David Watson
Managing Director Sunspray Food Ingredients (Pty) Ltd

Poster session in Central Foyer
17h15-18h15 SAAFoST BGM
Compusense Inc. Welcoming Cocktail
Venue: Outdoor Deck

Tuesday, 8 October 2013
Registration in Central Foyer / Tea and Coffee in Exhibition Hall
Plenary session
Venue: Diamond Auditorium
Sponsored by Swift Silliker
Session Chair: Gunnar Sigge
Plenary lecture: Chris Findlay
CEO, Compusense Inc.

Plenary lecture: Lucia Anelich
Director, Anelich Consulting

Plenary lecture: LJ Grobler
Dean, Faculty of Engineering, North-West University

Poster Session in Central Foyer
Tea and Coffee in Exhibition Hall sponsored by Mondelez International
Parallel sessions and Symposia
Venue: Diamond Auditorium
Venue: Ruby Auditorium
Venue: Emerald Auditorium
Venue: Amethyst Auditorium
Sponsored by Swift Silliker
Session Chair: Chris Findlay
Session Chair: Nigel Sunley
Session Chair: Ryk Lues
Session Chairs: Janet Taylor
and Laura Da Silva
Anne Goldman
Janet Collins
Alex Ray Jambalang
Dave Howard
Vice President of Consumer IFT President Dept of Paraclinical Sciences, Marketing and Online Content Research at ACCE University of Pretoria Manager at IFIS International, Canada Joseph Anyango
Post-doctoral Fellow, Dept of
Food Science, University of

Frieda Dehrmann
Janusz Luterek
Patrick Njage
Tonna Anyasi
Consumer Science and Patent Attorney, Hahn and Post-doctoral Fellow, Dept Food PhD student, Dept of Food Sensory Manager, South Science, University of Pretoria Science and Technology, African Breweries University of Venda Theresa Beelders
PhD student, Dept of Food
Science, Stellenbosch

Jeanine Sainsbury
Edelweiss Wentzel-Viljoen
Selamat Jinap
Daniso Beswa
Sensory Science and Dept of Consumer Science, Food Safety Research Center, PhD student, Dept of Food Consumer Insights Manager, North-West University University Putra, Malaysia Science and Technology, McCormick University of Venda Johanita Kruger
Post-doctoral Fellow, Dept of
Food Science, University of

Vinet Coetzee
Boitshoko Ntshabele
Michael Knowles
Bheki Dlamini
Dept of Genetics, University of Director, National Department VP Global Scientific & PhD student, Dept of Food of Agriculture, Forestry and Regulatory Affairs ( Retd.), The Science, University of Pretoria Fisheries Coca-Cola Company J Edmore Kativu
PhD Student, Unit of Applied
Food Science and
Biotechnology, Central
University of Technology

Lunch sponsored by Kellogg Company of South Africa
Venue: Outdoor Deck
Parallel sessions and Symposia
INDUSTRY (continued)
Venue: Diamond Auditorium
Venue: Ruby Auditorium
Venue: Emerald Auditorium
Venue: Amethyst Auditorium
Sponsored by Swift Silliker
Session Chair: Anne
Session Chair: Christine
Session Chair: Lebogang
Session Chairs: Janet Taylor
and Laura Da Silva
Ilona Steenkamp
Elna Buys
Ronald Olusola Olawale
MacDonald Cluff
Dept of Food Science, Dept of Food Science, Nigerian Institute of Food PhD student Dept of Microbial, Stellenbosch University Universityof Pretoria Science and Technology Biochemical and Food (NIFST), Nigeria Biotechnology, University of the Free State Ennet Moholisa
PhD student, Dept of Microbial,
Biochemical and Food
Biotechnology, University of the
Free State

Nina Muller
Daleen Van der Merwe
Esther Sakyi-Dawson
Richard Nyanzi
Dept of Food Science, North-West University Dept. of Nutrition and Food PhD student, Dept of Stellenbosch University Science, University of Ghana, Biotechnology and Food Technology, Tshwane University of Technology Melanie Richard
PhD student, Dept of Food
Science, University of Pretoria

Riette de Kock
Pieter van Twisk
Joyce Kinabo
Adewale O Omolola
Dept of Food Science, PvT Consulting Dept of Food Science and PhD student, Dept of Food University Technology, Sokoine University, Science and Technology, of Pretoria University of Venda Obiro Cuthbert Wokadala
PhD student, Dept of Food
Science, University of Pretoria

Tea and Coffee in Exhibition Hall
Plenary session
Venue: Diamond Auditorium
Sponsored by Swift Silliker
Session Chair: Ron Timm
Plenary lecture: Wentzel Gelderblom
Interim Director of the PROMEC Unit, MRC

Plenary lecture: Donna Cawthorn
Post-doctoral fellow, Department of Animal Science, Stellenbosch University

Theme: Out of Africa
Venue: Amber Room

Wednesday, 9 October 2013
Registration in Central Foyer / Tea and Coffee in Exhibition Hall
Plenary session
Venue: Diamond Auditorium
Sponsored by Swift Silliker
Session Chair: David Watson
Plenary lecture: Pingfan Rao
IUFoST President, Professor and founding Director of CAS.SIBS-Zhejiang Gongshang University Joint Center for Food and
Nutrition Research in Hangzhou, China

Plenary lecture: Kevin Korb
Acting Foods Director, Games Stores, Massmart

Plenary lecture: Morongwa Themba
Scientific Services Manager, Nampak

Plenary lecture: Peter McClure
Science and Technology Leader for Microbiological Safety, Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever R&D,
Bedfordshire, UK

Tea and Coffee in Exhibition Hall
Parallel sessions, Workshop, Industry Talks and Symposium
IFT LEADERSHIP WORKSHOP Industry Novel Ingredients and
BEING (including Functional
Ingredients and Foods)
led by Bob Gravani (Past
President, IFT)
Industry Sponsored Talks
Venue: Diamond Auditorium
Venue: Ruby Auditorium
Venue: Emerald Auditorium
Venue: Amethyst Auditorium
Sponsored by Swift Silliker
Session Chair: Elna Buys
Session Chair: Linda
Session Chairs: Bob Gravani
Session Chair: Ingrid Woodrow
and Romy Hochfeld
Lucia Anelich
Brinda Govindarajan
Welcome and Overview Nigel Sunley
Director, Anelich Consulting Senior Director, Research & Sunley Consulting Introduction to the ICMSF Technology, Kellogg Asia-Pacific Ltd., Singapore behalf of the South African Sugar Association - SASA) Trust Beta
Personal reflections on leadership Kirsten Henstra
Food Safety Centre, University Canada Research Council Chair Product Specialist - Food Science of Tasmania in Food Science and Busting common leadership myths Division, Bio-Rad Laboratories Technology, University of Jean-Louis Cordier
Gyebi Duodu
Discovering and exploring the 5 Ryan Ponquett
Nestlé Switzerland, Group Dept of Food Science, University practices of exemplary leadership Vice President RD&A for Kerry Expert Food Safety Microbiology of Pretoria Ingredients and Flavours, Sub- Determining your leadership style Saharan Africa, South Africa Vinesh Maharaj
Developing a personal action plan Francois Decaris
Food Safety Centre, University Platform Manager, for achieving one of your goals of Tasmania CSIRBiosciences Lunch sponsored by Ecowize Group
Venue: Outdoor Deck
Parallel sessions and Symposium
BEING (including Functional
Ingredients and Foods)
Venue: Diamond Auditorium
Venue: Ruby Auditorium
Venue: Emerald Auditorium
Venue: Amethyst Auditorium
Sponsored by Swift Silliker
Session Chair: Elna Buys
Session Chair: Gyebi Duodu
Session Chair: Trevor Britz
Session Chair: Bernard Cole
Jean-Louis Cordier
Nicolette Hall
Mats Stading
Falko Fliessbach
Nestlé Switzerland, Group Institute of Food, Nutrition and Manager of the Structure and Sales, GEA Group Business Unit Expert Food Safety Microbiology Well-being, University of Pretoria Material Design Group, SIK, Flow Components, Tuchenhagen, Gothenburg, Sweden Peter McClure
Nigel Sunley
Gustav Gous
Martin van Nistelrooij
Science and Technology Leader Sunley Consulting Dept of Food Science, University GEA Messo PT, Netherlands for Microbiological Safety, of Pretoria Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever R&D, Bedfordshire, UK Jean-Louis Cordier
Herman Koeter
George Charimba
Wilahun Seyoum Workneh
Nestlé Switzerland, Group MD, Orange House Partnership, Dept of Microbial, Biochemical Bioresources Engineering Expert Food Safety Microbiology Belgium and Food Biotechnology, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal University of the Free State Tea and Coffee in Exhibition Hall
Plenary session
Venue: Diamond Auditorium
Sponsored by Swift Silliker
Session Chair: Nick Starke
Plenary lecture: Harris Steinman
Director, Food & Allergy Consulting and Testing Service - FACTS

Closing Ceremony and Award Presentations
Dinnermates Closing and Farewell Cocktail
Venue: Outdoor Deck

20th Biennial International SAAFoST Congress and Exhibition–
Provisional Programme
7 - 10 October 2013, CSIR International Convention Centre, Pretoria
ICMSF* Post Congress Workshop 2013 Microbiological Sampling Plans and Food Safety Objectives Crystal Garnet Room, CSIR – Thursday, 10 October 2013 – in association with SAAFoST *The International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods 08h00 – 08h30
Dr Lucia Anelich
08h30 – 09h00
Anelich Consulting, South Africa
Introduction to the ICMSF, the workshop and speakers Dr Jean Louis Cordier
09h00 – 09h30
Nestlé, Switzerland
Dr Tom Ross
Food Safety Centre, University of Tasmania, Tasmania
09h30 – 10h30
Practical exercise using Microsoft Excel (all participants)
10h30 - 11h00
Tea and Coffee

11h00 – 11h30
Dr Peter McClure
Unilever, United Kingdom
11h30 – 13h00
All participants
Practical exercises using the ICMSF sampling plan spreadsheet 13h00 – 14h00
14h00 – 14h30
Dr Jean Louis Cordier
Nestlé, Switzerland
14h30 – 15h00
Dr Tom Ross
Food Safety Centre, University of Tasmania, Tasmania
15h00 – 15h30
Tea and Coffee
15h30 – 17h00
All participants
Practical exercises using the FSO tool
Sponsored by

Monday, 07 October 2013 – Oral Abstracts
Increasingly, consumers want more information; they want Plenary Lectures
foundational information and messages- and they trust each other more than they trust regulators, scientists, and industry representatives. Social media and broad communications by food activists, celebrity chefs and Can Africa be the world's food basket of the future?
self-acclaimed diet gurus are more interesting streams of conversation to follow than mainstream science. If we look at the great number of popular books pointing Free Market Foundation, Johannesburg, South Africa fingers and blaming the food industry for society‘s woes (Freedman., 2013), we see that the language used to Sub-Saharan (―Black‖) Africa is the only region of the create a message is very different from language used world that got poorer for that last 30 years of the among scientists. twentieth century. Why? Theories were as disparate as ―the colonial legacy‖, ―the resource curse‖, ―African We do not know how to communicate the wonders of the socialism‖ and as the ―racial inferiority‖ hypothesis. technologies holding promise for a future to feed Shortly after the prestigious Economist wrote Africa off as a ―failed continent‖ increasingly diverse and populous geographies using and foreign aid givers complained of ―donor fatigue‖, Africa became the world‘s highest existing land space and water resources. How can we growth region. Why? What changed? How does an begin to expect consumers to understand technology entire region go from being the world‘s worst to its best when we do not explain it in terms that they can performer? Does it mean that this is ―the African Century‖ or the ―African Renaissance‖ as former President Mbeki called it? Whilst some African countries According to Randy Olson (2009) in his book, "Don't be have been growing at spectacular rates despite the so- Such a Scientist: Talking substance in an age of style," called ―financial crisis‖, others remain the world‘s worst with knowledge of science we can solve resource performers. Why? Africa has some of the world‘s potentially most productive land. Can it become the limitation, cure diseases, and make society work world‘s food basket, and if so, how? What do these happily- but only if people can figure out what in the developments mean for Africa‘s investment and trade world scientists are talking about and why they should Innovation is key to growth in our industry while at the Scientific
same time, science does not resonate. Finding common technology: consumer trust
ground, creating a story and personalizing the messages we deliver, regardless of the audience will be our best Janet E. Collins means of gaining support with the general populace. President, IFT, Washington, DC, USA This presentation will address how best to communicate The food industry has a history of meeting the ever- about discovery, purpose and use of food science and changing demands of regulators, nutrition and health technological developments in a way that does not influencers, and consumers (Hoolihan et al., 2012). disparage the science or drive away the consumer- but Achievements in food science and technology amaze also places into context the realities of the food supply. and delight consumers- those same achievements raise questions and concerns for consumers. Unprecedented changes in lifestyles and eating patterns, a greater Nano and microstructure design
demand for healthier food, more ethical food choices, and consumers‘ desire to know more about food Anne Marie Hermansson production and processing are resulting in marked changes in the way that the food industry responds. Chalmers University of Technology and SIK - The Swedish Food Institute, Goteborg, Sweden Consumers, by and large, are not educated in food science and technology- they do not understand the scientific justification for nutritional enrichment and pharmaceuticals, hygiene products and other soft fortification; canning and preserving; additives and biomaterials is to master inherent structural properties ingredients; and for chemical synthesis versus extraction over a range of length scales to control properties and from biological sources. Further, they also do not tailor specific functions. Variations in raw materials as understand the farm to fork continuum and as a well as process condition can be followed on nano- and consequence, they do not appreciate global and micrometer scales. Microstructure can explain many technological intricacies inherent in farming, harvesting, differences in product quality and can be used to understand and control product structure and is thus an distribution of food in general. important tool in product and process development. Structures on the meso-scale control many bulk marketing, technology and behaviours to watch - things properties but they are to a large extent determined by with the potential to ladder up to bigger trends. structural arrangements on the nano-scale. The toolbox for microstructure characterization include a range of Understanding trends and catching a wave in the microscopic techniques that can cover length scales marketplace combine as one of two important elements from nanometers to micrometers, but we also need to for creating business growth. When coupled with understand the dynamics of structure formation and outstanding execution, performance can yield results breakdown to fully understand how to tailor-make many factors higher than normal. As Professor David processes and conditions that give the desired Hughes, Emeritus Professor of Food Marketing at characteristics of the product. Local events can have a Imperial Col ege, London, observes: ―If you are pushing dramatic effect on the overall properties. in the direction people want to go in, it‘s much easier.‖ Structures related to rheology and mass transport are The tone of the presentation will be global and crucial for a wide range of applications such as journalistic – and while unashamedly unscientific, it aims controlled release, barrier properties, swelling and to be engaging, relevant and stimulating. dissolution, water binding as well as the sensory perception of food during consumption and release of nutrients during degradation in the body. New Facts about F.A.C.S.
techniques are available for measurement dynamic properties as well as local properties such as local diffusion properties in complex structures. It is possible to directly observe water uptake on the nano-scale. We Managing Director, Sunspray Food Ingredients (Pty) Ltd, also know more about structure complexity such as Johannesburg, South Africa confinement effects in complex multiphase systems. The presentation will cover when and why FACS was This means that multifunctional materials can be established and will discuss the objectives of FACS. developed, where different parts of the structure are The voluntary committee that runs FACS is made up of designed for special functions. Interesting developments members of SAAFoST and representatives of the South are also taken place within predictive science where African Consumer Union, the Association for Dietetics in experimental data on the micrometer and nanometer South Africa (ADSA), the Directorate of Food Control of scale can be used to simulate properties such as flow the Department of Health. The aim of the organisation is to disseminate scientifically based information to consumers, people involved in the food industry, and the media on pertinent Feed, weed, seed – the pursue, eschew and ‘ooh' in
topics relating to food and nutrition. FACS attempts to today's food and beverage trends
counter myths and misconceptions that are commonly voiced about food processing, food additives and the like but also warns its audience about food safety issues, bad practices and false claims. Editor, FOODStuff South Africa, George, South Africa It goes without saying that consumer food choices today are driven by five mega trends: convenience, health and IUFoST Food Security and Sustainability
wellness, 'naturality', pleasure and value. Symposium
Drawing from her many years of reporting on the local and global food-beverage industry, the past five comprising daily internet research and news gathering Global visions for the role of food science and
for her two websites and weekly e-newsletter, Brenda technology to meet societal and technological
will share insights on these trends and cherry-picked challenges. Report from a feasibility study initiated
takes and turns on them. by IAFoST
Feed: What is happening today and deserving of
Anne Marie Hermansson1, Peter Lillford2 undivided attention. 1Chalmers University of Technology and SIK - The Weed: What is no longer happening and deserving of
Swedish Food Institute, Göteborg, Sweden, 2University undivided attention. of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK Seed: A look at new food-beverage ideas, ingredients
The role of Food Science for Societal and Technological changes is unclear and individual regions and nation states may have different objectives and visions for their future. Security, Sustainability, Diet and Health are headlines, but to achieve any of these aims, the role of Key issues for African food security and how food
practicalities of best practice in food manufacture as well science can play a role in addressing these issues
as the contribution of food science and interdisciplinary skills and an educated and trained workforce will be University of Pretoria, Director: Institute for Food, There is worldwide recognition that for humankind to Nutrition and Well-being, Pretoria, South Africa feed itself adequately, there will need to be changes in Food insecurity is global concern. Recent global current practice, and net Growth is required. This is a economic recession, extreme and uncertain weather political, economic and social issue and one objective is conditions, food price shocks, high price volatility and to clarify the role of food science in this context. concerns over the sustainability of food production Changes in life style will change our needs for Diet. challenge our ability to feed a growing population. Over Different countries have different research policies and it the decades, the focus of food security debates has is important for future strategies have a map of priorities shifted from production to the functioning of markets to in a global perspective. This could help governments to the human face of hunger and access to food. More take necessary steps in a Health perspective. Security recent shifts have focused on human nutrition and how and Sustainability to link agriculture, food, nutrition and health. New strategies for food science and engineering to meet attention focuses on food policy and the role of changes in climate as well as consequences thereof, regulation in protecting domestic livelihood opportunities, such as the use of water and availability of raw markets, food safety and the value of indigenous foods materials. Here again individual regions and nation in health and nutrition. Food science plays a crucial role states will have different objectives and visions for their in food security. Now, more than ever, the knowledge, skills and expertise of food scientists are needed in So, the key drivers and issues facing food production addressing a number of crucial issues related to food and security on a global basis are pretty well known. security. This presentation will provide an overview of What is NOT known is how regions, nation states, and global and African food security issues, providing insight even the global food businesses are developing into the scope, magnitude and severity of the situation individual strategies to cope. With a weakened economic and identify the key areas that food science can position, we suspect that Food Science is being squeezed out. However, this view is not evidence based, and requires a more complete investigation. Highlighting nutritional security: a key component of
We recognise that changes in agricultural production will food security
necessarily occur, but this project focuses on post farm
practices. Our eventual aim is to have an accurate
Delia B. Rodriguez-Amaya ―Map―, of the current state of affairs from which IUFoST can recommend collaboration, change of programmes, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil and best practice in Food Research, Training and Innovation worldwide, The project intends to report its Although the focus is usually on food production, food findings at the IUFoST congress in Montreal in 2014. security encompasses food safety and nutritional security. In terms of food insecurity, households are In the first Feasibility Phase we have explored the
often classified into those with light insecurity (referring routes to collect a more detailed picture of which to food quality, including nutritional quality), those with initiatives are proposed in different parts of the world. moderate insecurity (referring to quantity) and those with Results to date show that whilst there is considerable serious insecurity (referring to hunger). The first group activity in relevant sciences, it is difficult to identify generally and considerably outnumbers the other two. integrated plans for the future of Food Science and With the increasing incidence of diet-related chronic Technology, despite the evident and urgent need for diseases, along with the persistence of micronutrient international action. We now invite colleagues to join the deficiency, a situation that has become known as the continuing project, where we will continue to collect double burden, nutrition should be a vital consideration in food security efforts for developing countries. Diet contribution of FS&T to the continued wellbeing of diversification has long been regarded as the definitive individual nations, and the world at large. solution to micronutrient deficiency; biofortification of staple foods has been introduced more recently. Emerging strategies for nutritional security include: (1) use of nutrient and bioactive compound contents as a criterion, along with yield and resistance, for the selection of varieties for agricultural production; (2) conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity for food and nutrition, (3) optimization or development of Biofortification of cereal grains for improved
processing technologies to provide maximum retention nutrition
of nutrients and bioactive compounds, (4) reduction of challenges
the substantial postharvest losses of fruits and vegetables and utilization of food industries‘ by-products John R.N. Taylor, Janet Taylor /wastes rich in these health-promoting substances. Case Institute for Food, Nutrition and Well-being and studies will be presented to illustrate these strategies. To Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, address food security successfully, a multidisciplinary Pretoria, South Africa approach is necessary, involving Agriculture, Nutrition and Food Science and Technology. Biofortification is a new name for a well-established strategy. It is the improvement of the nutritional quality of staple foods, such as cereals, in terms of macro- and Food security challenges in east Africa and novel
micro-nutrient content and bioavailability through ways to combat this
breeding. Advances in genetics, including recombinant DNA technology, and in our understanding of people‘s micronutrient needs ―the hidden hunger‖ have led to a huge upsurge in research and development of AJFAND/IUFoST, Nairobi, Kenya biofortified staples, particularly cereals, especially to combat malnutrition in Africa. Probably the first example Food security challenges in East Africa are no different of cereal biofortification is Quality Protein Maize (high from those facing the rest of sub-Saharan Africa. They lysine) maize. Recent biofortified cereals include: are not insurmountable. Top of the agenda is good Golden Rice (fortified with provitamin A), Provitamin A governance and respect for the rule of law. The maize, iron fortified pearl millet and Africa Biofortified challenge to halve the number of hungry persons by Sorghum (ABS). The latter has multiple biofortified 2015 in MDG1, if respected by all governments would nutrients; increased lysine, improved protein and mineral see more resources and efforts put in place towards the bioavailability and provitamin A. realization of this millennium development goal. For many governments, however, it is more rhetoric than A survey of young child food consumption in Burkina action. This, therefore, means that as people experience Faso, a country with a very high incidence of child hunger, the level of anger rises, accompanied by more malnutrition, indicated a potentially strong positive effect social intolerance and unrest, and thus more crime and of biofortified cereals on the children‘s nutrient status. less respect for law and order. In an environment of high This is assuming that all the children‘s cereal intake was crime, there cannot be much economic development. directly replaced by these biofortified cereals. However, The economy stagnates, few jobs are generated and HarvestPlus, the organisation responsible for many overall poverty escalates. A second challenge has to do biofortification activities, estimates the contribution of with failure to honour trade tariff provisions. There is a biofortified cereals to the diet may only be 30-40%. legislated customs union that allows free movement of people and goods. Food is probably the most traded The complexity of the process of development and commodity within East Africa. Yes, there continue acceptance of biofortified crops should not be imposition of non-tariff barriers and human malpractices underestimated. To ensure that the enhanced levels of that cause confusion and interfere with the free flow of nutrients in biofortified cereals actually improve people‘s goods. Given the different ecologies in East Africa, it is nutritional status and health, a multi-disciplinary possible for the diet base to be diversified and for approach must be used, involving plant breeders, populations to enjoy affordable fresh produce year geneticists, agronomists, extension officers, food round. As such, food would be available in both quantity scientists, nutritionists, social scientists, economists, and quality terms. A third challenge that we scientists market and product developers and educators. must address has to do with our political clout and relevance in this whole arena. We may have great science, but it needs to be applied politically. Food is political, yet food and nutrition security is a development imperative. Is there a role for food science and technology in
challenges. Dealing with existing problems like the combating future world food crisis?
tremendous losses in the food chain and the utilization of under-utilized resources would be first steps out of the Walter E.L. Spiess present crisis and to prevent future crises. President International Academy of Food Science and Food Science related strategies to cope with future Technology (IAFoST), C/O Karlsruhe Institut fur challenges are e.g.: Reduction of Post Harvesting Technologie Losses; Improvement of Product Quality; Higher Lebensmitteltechnik, Karlsruhe, Germany Process Effectiveness; Reduction of Process Impacts on the Environment by a better Utilization of Energy and According to the many statistics compiled by FAO, WHO or UNDP and others almost one sixth of the world‘s Processing Waste; Utilization of under or so far not population is suffering from hunger and malnutrition; a utilized Natural Resources; Improvement of Storage and situation that has prevailed for many years. This obvious Distribution/Retailing Strategies. scandal has been recognized by the world public in many ways, the response so far are mainly numerous, Major potential contributions of Food Science and resolutions and declarations e.g.FAO-World Declaration Technology which will allow coping with future problems on Nutrition (1992) The United Nations Millennium will be discussed in detail. Development Goals (MDG)(2000) and more recently the Draft Zero of the Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, 2012; not to forget IUFoST‘s Budapest Declaration in 1996 and Cape Down Food security: how much time do we have?
Declaration in 2010 The commitments made by the Herman.B.W.M. Koëter World Community are clear and measurable, e.g. in Target 1C of the MDG 1it is proclaimed to eradicate Orange House Partnership, Brussels, Belgium extreme poverty and hunger and in detail to Halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger to achieve Many papers have been written about global food by the year 2015. shortage by 2050 and many rather dark scenarios have been presented. However, one might also consider a None of those goals have been reached, there have more positive development. This presentation will argue been some successes in certain areas but in other areas that the era of plenty of food for some parts of the world the situation is even worse and if projected into the and hardly enough to survive for other parts has to be future there is barely any hope that a major world food over and most likely will be over within the next 10-20 crisis can be prevented, a crisis which will hit especially years. Developing countries and emerging economies Africa, parts of South East Asia and parts of South will learn from the mistakes and failures of Europe and North America. Sustainability will turn out to be essential for survival and new, efficiency enhancing, technologies The reasons for this dramatic failure are certainly many in the food sector will become available, not necessarily fold; the major reason is without any doubt that the many requiring intensive farming or intensive agriculture. political statements and declarations for assuring However, the key to and prerequisite for success will be worldwide Food Security, if at all, have only been twofold: (i) a fundamental shift in what today is seen as halfhearted translated into effective actions, partially the most desirable food, namely animal protein, and (ii) because of national egoisms, partially because of the changing from up-scaling single food production to small protection of vested rights and privileges. Further scale local and diversified food production. The reasons which hampered progress in successfully presentation will address the pros and cons of coping with the present crisis and the crisis on the biotechnology and bio-fuel, including suggestions for horizon, are the fact that (agricultural) innovations and future directions that are environmentally sustainable. developments are blocked and that food technological Furthermore, thoughts will be shared on food efficiency measures were considered as less important or even and food safety issues. neglected, prices for staple foods reached dramatic heights and not to forget that inappropriate lifestyles development in certain countries. In order to cope with future problems in a sustainable way misleading strategies should be readjusted. In this context the almost sole focus on the growth of the agricultural output has to be corrected. Food Science and Technology have to be recognized as important elements to cope successfully and effectively with future Sensory and Consumer Sciences
architecture and the travel industry. This is a first time application of Q-methodology employing food images in sensory research. Food images are important in the food marketing industry, where they represent dreams and economic
ideals that are intentionally communicated to sell marketing and certification system for a meat
products. Food images evoke certain emotions, and may product in South Africa: perceptions, preferences
make sense to the viewer or not. An image has a and experiments
message that the viewer decodes and consequently an experience follows, which could be pleasing or not. Johann Kirsten, Hester Vermeulen, Karin van Zyl, Gerrie These content-driven messages, which are encoded du Rand, Henrietta du Plessis, Tessa Weissnar through their talent by food stylists and are then University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa interpreted by consumers, may contribute to an altered persuasion or behavioural intention. An understanding of The main focus of this paper is to unpack South African how consumers respond to content aesthetics, as a consumers‘ perceptions of and preferences for an origin- result of how they interpret content through their senses, based meat product through applying a set of different will greatly benefit the food stylist and may ultimately methodologies. ‘Hypothetical bias‘, the difference influence the marketing of food. between hypothetical and real values when evaluating consumers‘ preferences, has received significant Six specific food images, paired with six particular attention in academic literature since it is often the aesthetic indicators, were Q-sorted by a predetermined reason for an overestimation of willingness to pay (WTP) sample of two of South Africa‘s most eminent food values. The different approaches (sensory analysis, magazine readership. Seven factors with a notable perception analysis, conjoint analysis, experimental correlation between the food image and the aesthetic auction and an in-store experiment) are all employed to indicators could be deduced after evaluation by the illustrate ‗hypothetical bias‘, to establish without doubt consumers. The seven factors reflected specific sensory that the market potential for a specific origin-based meat related food image characteristics and explained more product does exist and to test consumers‘ wil ingness to than 60% of the variance, although the first factor pay a premium price for such a product and determining continued to dominate, explaining 17,7% of the variance its range. The results come from several studies that across the participants‘ sorts. The findings showed that applied different methods related to the same product Q-methodology, employing food images, is a useful and but with different consumer groups in different locations. valuable sensory research approach for non-verbal The findings provide sufficient evidence to suggest that communication settings where the technical and artistic the regional identity of the product is important and that messaging of food stylists are employed during food various willingness to pay estimates yield different image content assembly, and could be harnessed to results. It is clear that the stated preference methods positively alter behavioural intent and, eventually, confirm the hypothesis that consumers recognise the purchasing decisions. reputation of the product and are willing to pay a premium price for it. Positive results from the experimental auction and in-store experiment strengthen Taste optimization by understanding the impact of
these conclusions. Together these deductions present a steviol glycoside relationships
strong case for the marketing potential of origin-based mutton / lamb which could sell at a premium price similar Mel Jackson, Sam Newberg to or slightly higher than comparable existing luxury and niche lamb brands on the South African market. Sweet Green Fields, Bellingham, WA, USA There are a number of steviol glycoside extracts in the marketplace today with varying glycoside compositions. Consumers' responses to food images: a new
application of Q-methodology in sensory research
composition and taste impact of these glycoside variants is critical in formulating sweetener solutions to produce Hennie Fisher, Gerrie Du Rand, Alet Erasmus high quality food products for the consumer. Our research has shown that in applications where a University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa reduction of sugar is the objective, blends of This report presents results obtained during the application of the Q-sort technique to food magazine Rebaudioside C, and Rebaudioside D out-perform high readers‘ responses when examining food images matched with aesthetic indicators. The Q-method is a Rebaudioside A 97 and Rebaudioside A 99. A trained reliable psychometric technique that often uses and calibrated panel (n=10) showed that glycoside photographs in non-food related contexts such as blends rated higher in a number of descriptive aspects, including mouth-feel, overall liking and acceptance. brought from Senegal were tested, two directly as These findings are a result of organoleptic studies commercial products - viz. 1 commercial syrup and 1 conducted in a number of flavour model systems and commercial instantaneous juice and two produced food and beverage category applications. Sensory according to traditional approaches from calices. acceptance with glycoside blends in applications where Consumer‘s studies were performed in Oporto, Porto - saccharides are present in the sweetener matrix, Portugal, with 100 people from two Portuguese Catholic University Campuses, in Chatham, United Kingdom, with 120 people from the University of Greenwich and in Montpellier, France with 120 people from two canteens at the CIRAD Campus (La Recherche Agronomique pour le Développment) viz.  Baillarguet and Lavallete. Intercultural study of consumer acceptability of
Consumers were asked to score their overall liking and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. drinks between European
to answer a CATA questionnaire that included 28 countries – Portugal, United Kingdom and France
sensory and hedonic terms. Maria Isabel Franco1, Geneviève Fliedel4, Aurelie Significant differences were found in the frequencies in Bechoff5, Corinne Rumney5, Mónica Freitas2, Susana which CATA terms were used for describing the four Teixeira1, Ana Patrícia Silva1, Maria João Monteiro1, samples in each European country under study, Mady Cissé3, Dominique Pallet4, Ben Bennett5, Keith suggesting that this methodology was able to detect Tomlins5, Manuela Pintado1 differences in consumer‘s perception of the drinks. CATA methodology allows establishing a European Escola Superior de Biotecnologia - Universidade consumer profile of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Drinks. Católica Portuguesa, Porto, Portugal, 2Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil, Brazil, 3Association Afrique Agro Export, Senegal, Senegal, 4CIRAD, Montpellier, France, 5Natural Symposium: ILSI Water Quality and Safety
Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, Chatham, UK The consumption of this drink is widespread in Africa River water as source of high-risk irrigation water!
and Asia, as far as we know little appears to have been published about European consumers‘ acceptance, TJ Britz, C Lamprecht when the drink is largely unknown in Europe. In order to Department of Food Science, Stellenbosch University, achieve product acceptance followed by successful Stellenbosch, South Africa market introduction in Europe, it is of prime importance to gain insight into the factors determining consumers‘ Consumption of fresh produce is increasing worldwide food choice. Understanding how consumers perceive and since often eaten raw it makes an excellent vehicle food products is critical for food companies. This for disease transmission. Not-surprisingly, food-borne information is essential for the development and disease outbreaks linked to fresh produce are marketing of new products, the reformulation of existing increasing, in both number and intensity. Although fresh ones, the optimization of manufacturing processes and produce can become contaminated at any time in the the establishment of specifications in quality control agri-food chain, pre-harvest contamination is considered the most likely origin. One important source of pathogens found on fresh produce is from faecally- One of the most novel methodologies that has been developed for gathering information about consumers‘ contaminated irrigation water. Over the last decade the microbial quality of many South African rivers used for perception of the sensory characteristics of food irrigation of fresh produce has decreased and pollution products is the use of check-all-that-apply questions levels are far above recommended WHO and local (CATA). CATA questions consist of a list of words or phrases from which respondents select all the words they consider appropriate to describe a product. This As part of a study funded by the Water Research can result in a simpler and more valid approach to Commission and Department of Agriculture, the potential gathering information about consumers‘ perception that risk involved in the use of contaminated river water as includes both their sensory and hedonic impression. irrigation water was investigated. Based on the results, the microbial levels of rivers and fresh produce The aim of the present work was to apply CATA monitored in different provinces of South Africa over 4 questions to compare consumer perception in the years showed unacceptable microbiological levels with development of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. drink products faecal indicators, reaching log 7 cell concentrations. In between European countries, namely Portugal, United many cases they did not meet international faecal Kingdom and France. Four traditional samples (n=4) guidelines for safe irrigation with Escherichia coli revised microbiological guidelines should be aligned with concentrations exceeding 1 000 cfu.100 mL-1. The new scientific data and baseline studies. Furthermore presence of indicator organisms did not only indicate the lack of adequate local information on the prevalence unsanitary conditions, but also the presence of potential of foodborne pathogens on fresh produce in the supply pathogens including Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Listeria, chain makes it difficult to effectively implement food Salmonella, Enterococcus, coliforms, E. coli, norovirus safety assurance systems. In South Africa, data on and hepatitis A viruses, and protozoa. microorganisms is further limited. The microbiological It was concluded that there is a high risk of exposure to ecology of fresh produce, the potential link with poor human pathogens when water from these rivers is used quality irrigation water and the prevalence/absence of to irrigate produce that is consumed raw. In view of this, food borne pathogens will be discussed in this as well as the seriousness of recent E. coli food-borne presentation. A final perspective on the status of food outbreaks which involved multi-drug resistant pathogenic safety assurance in South Africa will be provided based E. coli strains, it could be argued that the potential of E. on a Water Research Commission and Department of coli as emerging pathogen on fresh produce cannot be Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries funded research project: An investigation into the link between water quality and microbiological safety of fruit and vegetables from the farming to the processing stages of production Water quality and microbiological criteria: how to
and marketing (Project K5/1875/4). set these and apply them in practice
Liesbeth Jacxsens, Mieke Uyttendaele Occurrence of algae and indicator bacteria in an
Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium open drinking water reservoir and their subsequent
infiltration into the distribution network systems

Water quality and water sources applied along the fresh produce chain as irrigation water, transport water or Mjikisile Vulindlu, Molefe Mohlala washing water can be an important vehicle for foodborne City of Cape Town, Water and Sanitation Scientific pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter Services, Cape Town, South Africa spp., parasites or norovirus. Given the fact that there is a lot of pressure on the use of potable water on a global The fitness of suitability of drinking water for human scale due to different reasons such as cost, availability consumption in South Africa is measured against the or environmental considerations, multiple sources and national standard SANS 241 for both biological and qualities of water are used. Many guidelines are physico-chemical parameters. Water suppliers aim to available to explain which type of water and quality of produce water that meets this standard in order to water can be applied at an international level, with often comply with the Department of Water Affairs incentive- conflicting recommendations. This presentation will give based monitoring system known as the Blue Drop an overview of microbiological parameters, set criteria System. Following a rigorous treatment process, and definitions of waters applied. It will discuss drinking water is supplied to customers through a approaches in setting criteria and guidelines. Finally, it network of closed bulk water reservoirs and a couple of will end up with examples of risk assessment studies to open reservoirs. The City Cape Town‘s Oranjezicht and set science based criteria for water quality. Within the Southern suburbs experienced episodes of clogged EU funded project Veg-i-Trade, water sources and water filters in their water meters which resulted in low types (irrigation water, washing water for fresh produce) pressure in their shower taps. Water sampling was over different regions in the world (South Africa, Brazil, carried out at the reservoir and associated distribution Egypt, Spain, Belgium and Norway) are analysed for network. Sludge samples were also collected at the multiple parameters and will be presented. floor of the reservoir. Two filamentous algal species Melosira Mougeotia (Chlorophyceae) were isolated and found to be Food safety assurance in fresh produce: scientific
dominant species occurring in the reservoir as well as in facts, public perceptions and the role of governance
the drinking water samples. Elevated levels of indicator and control
bacteria, metals, inorganic compounds as well as a cocktail of other algae were also observed in the sludge Lise Korsten, Erika du Plessis samples. It was concluded that the filamentous algae were responsible for the clogging of the filters and had University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa passed through the open drinking water reservoir into the distribution. The presence of polluted sludge at the In order to establish a more realistic food safety bottom of the reservoir presents the possibility of framework for the South African fresh produce industries compromising drinking water quality and infiltration of and to retain our strong international trade profile, unwanted pollutants into the system. This presentation experiences. Normally we do not think about these will elaborate on this and other challenges facing the intricate processes and much of them are even City of Cape Town and how the City aims to manage automatic, still they are the basis of how we perceive the these issues in the future. food we eat. This means that with detailed knowledge of the eating and swallowing processes we are able to develop food by Food Oral Design. Saliva is one important component in the oral processing Nanotechnology, Food Structure and Food
where it is involved in taste and aroma transfer, lubrication and thus strongly contributes to the perception of the food. Other major functions of saliva are to protect hard and soft oral tissues from wear, dehydration, demineralisation, chemical insult and interfacial
glycoproteins such as mucins and proline-rich proteins that have structural features that correlate to the protective function of masticatory lubrication. Mucins, of both high and low molecular weight are secreted from ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland the submandibular-sublingual salivary glands while the Interfacial stabilization by adsorption layers of proteins, proline-rich glycoproteins emanate from the parotid small molecular weight surfactants, and particles is glands. The saliva from the different glands is shown to ubiquitous in numerous food products and discussed as have very different viscoelastic properties. potential encapsulation method (Erni et al., 2011). To The actual swallowing is another important component establish the link between interfacial morphology and the of the oral processing. As healthy individuals we seldom resulting mechanical properties of the adsorption layer consider it, whereas for others it may cause discomfort we focus on a set of recombinant proteins (DARPins) and even serious health problems. Already over 50 (Mitropoulos et al., 2011) and nanoparticles (Pickering years of age, 22% suffer from swallowing disorders, or emulsions) (Sander et al., 2012; Kim et al., 2013). The dysphagia, and in the age group above 70 years, 40 % modular construction of the proteins allows a polymer- suffer due to factors such as degenerative diseases, like extension with the same building block and a side effects of medication and trauma. These persons controlled adjustment of its bulk and interfacial must eat texture adjusted foods, and the oral processing properties. On the other hand, the different adsorption is considerably affected. behaviour of nanoparticles at the interface offers a wide range of stabilization mechanisms. Using interfacial rheology, neutron scattering reflectivity, and microfluidic techniques we are able to correlate the protein and Cereal prolamin bioplastic materials: what is
particle properties (e.g. size and charge) to the resulting preventing the commercialisation of these natural
adsorption layer morphology, layer viscoelasticity, and polymers?
capsule mechanics. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Food oral design
Environmentally friendly edible bioplastic materials can be made from zein and kafirin, the prolamin storage proteins of maize and sorghum grain, respectively. 1SIK - The Swedish Institute for Food and These natural materials show potential for use in the Biotechnology, Gothenburg, 2Chalmers food industry as encapsulating agents for nutraceuticals University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden and as coating materials to extend the shelf-life of fruit. However, despite much research, there are very few Before we swallow something we first disintegrate it into commercial bioplastic materials made from these smaller particles and mix them with saliva to form a materials. This paper provides some insight into why viscoelastic bolus which we transport to the back of the this is so and what can be done to change this. High mouth. As soon as the bolus hits the pharyngeal arches cost is a primary reason for lack of commercialisation of we automatically swallow. During the short time it takes these products. This may change with the vastly to carry out these activities the receptors of various increasing quantities of prolamin-rich co-products, senses in the oral cavity and in the nose are stimulated particularly from grain biofuel production but also from and we perceive all impressions about what we eat wet milling and brewing, are now being generated, which regarding aroma, taste, texture and mouthfeel. Ideally are attractive sources of feedstock to produce these this stimulation gives rise to pleasurable food prolamin bio-plastic materials. Commercialisation of these prolamin bioplastic materials is further hampered Shelf-Life Testing and Evaluation
by their inferior functional properties compared to synthetic polymer plastics. This is because these prolamins are complex, each consisting of several classes and sub-classes and the functional properties of Microbiological shelf-life and safety of perishable
their bioplastic materials are greatly affected by water. Prolamin bioplastic materials are be produced by protein Russell S. Flowers aggregation from a solvent. Recent research indicates that protein aggregation occurs by polypeptide self- Merieux NutriSciences, Chicago, USA assembly into nanostructures. We are investigating the very complex processes of how prolamin polypeptides There are few regulations that define the shelf-life of a assemble into nanostructures, including the role of food. However, it is unlawful to sell or distribute foods protein secondary structure, and especially how these that are adulterated, and foods that are unsafe or structures further assemble into the organizational spoiled are considered adulterated. Thus, it is inferred structures of the various prolamin bioplastic materials. that foods that are spoiled are adulterated. Shelf-life can Such knowledge should enable us to manipulate and be considered to be the time period between direct the process to improve functionality. This, along manufacture and spoilage or ideally the period just prior with an improved economic viability should enable to spoilage. Ultimately the consumer determines what bioplastic products made from prolamin proteins to the definition of spoilage, which may result from complete effectively with synthetic polymer plastics. chemical, physical or microbiological changes in the food. This presentation will be limited to a discussion of microbiological spoilage and the relationship to the safety. Definitions of microbiological spoilage, and the Starch modification with stearic acid for ‘clean' label
levels, and types of microorganisms causing various starches
types of spoilage will be discussed. In addition, methods Mohammad Naushad Emmambux to predict and test microbiological shelf life will be considered. The design of storage studies and University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa challenge studies will be discussed. The usefulness of predictive modelling and accelerated shelf life studies Starch is widely used in the food industry for thickening, will be considered. Examples will be presented for stabilizing and even as a fat replacer. These starches which predictive modelling and storage /challenge are generally modified with chemicals to produce studies closely correlated, as well as examples where substituted and cross-linked starches for better modelling was not a good predictor of microbial growth functionality and stability. The production of these starches require the use of ‗non-food friendly‘ chemicals with legislative limitation and the use of solvents that require disposal. They are also not regarded as ‗clean‘ label. This presentation discusses starch modification Post-harvest quality changes in green harvested
using lipids as food biomolecules. When starch is sugarcane stalks from the Kwa-Zulu Natal midlands
modified with stearic acid (a lipid molecule) at 1.5% w/w, Nafiisa Sobratee, Carel Bezuidenhout, Tilahun Workneh, a biphasic starch paste (two pasting peak viscosity) is Milindi Sibomana obtained. The second pasting peak viscosity is characterised by high viscosity and non-gelling University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South properties. These properties seem to be similar to (i) substituted starches which are non-gelling and (ii) cross-linked starches with high viscosity. Starch modified with stearic acid can also be used as a fat replacer in bottlenecks in the sugarcane industry is the major cause mayonnaise type emulsion. The non-gelling and high of post-harvest changes resulting in sucrose degradation viscosity of starch modified with stearic acid is due to the during delay. Pre-harvest factors, harvesting techniques production of amylose-lipid complexes as shown by X- and climatic factors exacerbate sugar inversion and the ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The formation of viscosity-altering deterioration products that amylose lipid complexes are at nanometer scale and this impact on sucrose recovery. The aim of this study is to can also allow for more interaction in the system for identify a set of comprehensive and sensitive indicators higher viscosity. Starch modified with lipids may be to benchmark post-harvest changes during (i) early and considered as food friendly chemicals and regarded as late harvest and (ii) green and burnt cane. The present ‗clean‘ label starch for food application. work reports post-harvest quality changes, during a nine-day harvest-to-crush delay, in two common cane varieties, namely N12 and N31 from the Kwa-Zulu Natal Midlands in South Africa. Total bacterial count (TBC), lactic acid (LA) concentrations, total soluble solids (TSS) clearly defined. Breweries were classified based on and respiration rate, were examined for internode- their current hygiene status (GMP, CIP, people practices specific susceptibility to deterioration across the stems in and micro performance) and work programs were tailor- green harvested sugarcane. LA was only detectable in made to address specific gaps identified per site. the outermost portions starting from day 5 (N12) and day Additionally, training programs were initiated to train staff 7(N31), respectively, and was significantly higher in the at all levels regarding the required changes in work bottom portion than the immature top portion. TBC were practices. Extrinsic and intrinsic micro targets were set higher in the top portions indicating the presence of for both brewing and packaging areas. Extrinsic targets more concentration of glucose to support bacterial are achieved through environmental cleaning programs. growth in this part of the stem whereby the sucrose- Intrinsic hygiene targets are achieved through the hexose pool was in favour of invert sugars rather than required Clean in Place (CIP) practices. The program sucrose with delay. The TSS content significantly (P ≤ was supported by the introduction of more sensitive 0.05) increased in the top internodes. This indicates that micro media specifically designed to detect beer there were high physiological changes in the top spoilage bacteria and wild yeast as well as increased portions. Similarly, the trends in respiration rate were sample volumes. The results of a brewery specific similar in the outermost portions in contrast to the middle hygiene program, as monitored with the improved micro portions. The findings of this study showed that cane standards, are presented based on a case study. This stalk position had effect on post-harvest quality. successful hygiene project demonstrated the ability to Parameters used to detect deterioration signals, in the reduce total pasteurisation units whilst maintaining high sucrose environment of the sugarcane stalk, need excellent product quality. to be able to detect and characterize this differential rate of postharvest changes during the harvest-to-crush Key Consumer and Market Trends in Food
Science and Technology
A brewery hygiene case study: a multi-pronged
The management of food activism
approach to eradicate beer spoilers
Elizabeth Lodolo, Martin Brooks, Clint Viljoen, Vernon Keys Sunley Consulting, Johannesburg, South Africa SAB Ltd, Alrode, South Africa Many issues in food science and technology raise strong emotions among the general public and the last twenty Since the first written records of the use of hops in Abbot years has seen substantial growth in the number of beer, the antimicrobial properties of hops, combined with activist bodies who vigorously promote specific points of typical lager alcohol concentrations, served the brewer view on controversial food related issues. Some of these well in preventing the presence of food pathogens. admittedly relate to commercial rather than scientific However, beer spoilage bacteria such as Lactobacillus aspects of food but, irrespective of the actual nature of and Pediococcus have developed resistance to hops the issues concerned, food scientists and technologists and therefore have the ability to grow in hopped beer if have tended to take a back seat in this area, preferring unmanaged. Although these bacteria do not pose a to leave them to often scientifically poorly-informed health risk, they are the main cause of beer spoilage, corporate affairs personnel. This approach can causing a change in beer flavour and/or causing turbidity potentially cause more harm than good and it is essential that a rational and scientifically rigorous approach be taken in handling the issues raised by food The pasteurisation of beer to kill beer spoilage bacteria activists. In particular, it is essential that a clear was first shown by Pasteur in 1870. Although an distinction is made between issues driven by purely effective process, the addition of heat to beer once scientific considerations and those of a more moral and packaged results in a slight change in flavour and ethical nature. It should also be remembered that in impacts the overall flavour stability of beer freshness some cases the issues raised by activists may be over time. A beer which has a lower bacterial log legitimate ones; however their credibility can often be reduction requirement can therefore be subjected to a blurred by an emotional, scientifically flawed and unduly lower level of pasteurisation and hence improve product simplistic approach, particularly in the area of risk freshness in the trade. With this knowledge in mind, an assessment. Food scientists and technologists thus opportunity to present consumers with fresher tasting have an important role to play in this area, and this beer offerings became a focus for SAB Ltd. A project to paper, an earlier version of which was presented at the manage the reduction of beer spoilers through World Congress of Food Science & Technology in 2012, appropriate brewery hygiene practices followed. The will outline some of the ways in which food activism hygiene journey was divided into milestones which were operates and how it can be managed, using a number of case studies including non-nutritive sweeteners, genetic Dairy products provide shortfall nutrients in the diets of modification and nutritional activism in fields such as low income South African consumers, yet intakes tend to breast milk substitutes as examples. be low, as dairy is perceived to be expensive. By demonstrating the nutrition and cost impact of dairy Strategic communication insights to the Consumer
products on typical consumption patterns and meals of Education Project (CEP) of Milk SA
these consumers, new marketing avenues could be explored. The aim of this presentation is to describe the Pierre Joubert1, Christine Leighton2 low income consumer, a selection of typical meals and 1Bureau of Market Research. College of Economic and snacks, and the theoretical impact of the addition of Management Sciences, Pretoria, South Africa, 2Milk selected dairy products on the nutritional composition South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa and cost of the selected meals and snacks. Milk South Africa commenced with the Consumer Existing market research (Markinor 2007) and food Education Project (CEP) during 2007. The objective with consumption surveys were consulted to characterise the this project aims to inform consumers of the health and low income South African consumer. Typical plates of nutritional advantage of dairy products and eliminate food or food items commonly consumed by lower socio dairy related misperceptions. A communication strategy economic groups in South Africa were identified and (including print, television and internet) informed by the analysed in terms of selected macro- and micro- shortfall objectives has been finalised. This strategy delivers a nutrients using the South African Food Composition multimedia communication plan that includes the most Tables (2010) and in terms of cost. The theoretical efficient, cost effective and relevant media channels. impact of adding affordable dairy products on the nutritional profile and the cost of the meals or snacks To effectively educate consumers on the health and nutritional benefits of dairy, strong insights into attitudes, emotions and feelings of consumers towards dairy In order to promote food-related behaviour change, an products can be advantageous. Subjecting consumers in-depth understanding of how people view the benefits, to a barrage of scientific facts is therefore probably not costs and other factors that could influence their ability the most appropriate tool to serve the purpose of to adopt new behaviours, is required. This paper educating consumers on the role of different dairy introduces the greater South African population in terms products in respect of nutrition and health. of the different income groups, their disposable income and typical dietary intakes. It highlights the theoretical The aim of the study was to provide strategic insight into nutritional value for money of various dairy products for consumer reaction to four dairy products and seven key the low income consumer, and ends with suggestions for communication messages of the project. The study practically applying this knowledge in current and future explored the emotions and feelings of different segments nutrition promotion campaigns of the Consumer of the Consumer Education Project of Milk South Africa‘s Education Project of Milk SA, including strategies to target market. Furthermore it informed its relevancy in improve acceptability and awareness of dairy in low shaping the future of the dairy industry in South Africa. income communities. The research methodology employed state-of-the-art analytical tools which included computer aided personal interviews to explore the emotional and feeling Innovation in New Food Processing and
Engineering Technologies
The outcome of the study is not only relevant for the African market but other developing markets that include thickening
low, medium and high income segments and who share polysaccharides by tailored impact milling
similar demographic characteristics. Silke Illmann, Michael Pollard, Erich J. Windhab, Peter Affordable dairy products for low income South
ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland African consumers – making a nutritional difference
C.S. Leighton1, F.A.M. Wenhold2 1Consumer Education Project of Milk South Africa, thickeners and bulking agents in a variety of food Pretoria, South Africa, 2Department of Human Nutrition, formulation (Pollard et al., 2006) They are found in Faculty of Health Sciences, University Of Pretoria, tissues of seed endosperms of species such as guar Pretoria, South Africa and carob. In order to produce these powders the seeds under go several harsh and damaging processing steps. These processes cause irreversible changes in the model. A double linear model was fitted with the structure of the biopolymer molecule due to thermal and variation of alpha-amylase activity with pH. A global mechanical treatments. Thus, the potential functionality fermentation simulator was thus built, and the of the product as a thickener is diminished. In our study comparison of measured and predicted data in MRS we designed and developed a new method for extraction medium showed that the model gives a good prediction and milling of such endosperms (Pollard et al., 2011). of growth rate and lactic acid production for the two The thickening behaviour and the molecular weight of strains. The simulator, in addition, predicts that after 15 such galactomannan flours can be kept at its biological hours of fermentation conducted by L. plantarum, all level due to a specific two step milling procedure. At first alpha- amylase activity is lost while a third of the activity the endosperms are pre-milled in a pin mill in a dry state. remained after 24 hours with the L brevis strain. This Second, the material will be hydrated in water, before it result shows that the L. brevis strain is potentially well is milled in a centrifugal mill to the final powder. The new suited for the lactic fermentation of Gowé. process enhances the solubility of the powders while preserving the natural molecular structure of the polymers, thus resulting in higher molecular weights. As Are our eating habits sustainable?
causes of these property enhancements morphological changes of the material during the hydration step are proposed, leading to the alteration of the mechanical properties. This results in a different breaking Andrew Murray Consulting, Hermanus, South Africa mechanism of the seed endosperms inside the mill. After identifying the relevant parameters influencing the The survival of a man and the survival of mankind are process, we are able to control the desired properties as dependent of adequate supplies of water, biomass (in well as the rheological behaviour of the resulting the form of food) and energy. galactomannan solutions. Virtual water is an expression of the quantity of water that is used in the production of a given quantity of a product. For instance the virtual water content of a Modelling lactic acid fermentation to improve
kilogram of beef is, on average, 15 500 litres. fermented beverages from cereals
Munanga Bettencourt1, Gérard Loiseau2,1, Christian interdependence of biomass and energy noting that in effect the only way that biomass is created is though photosynthesis which is dependent on solar energy. 1CIRAD/QualiSud, Montpellier, Biomass is then converted from one form to another with 2SupAgro/QualiSud, Montpellier, France varying efficiency through the different levels of the food chain. We measure our diet in terms of the energy it Gowé is a sour and sweet sorghum based traditional provides (kilojoules or calories) rather than the mass Beninese beverage that is consumed after the addition of sugar, ice and sometimes milk. The traditional manufacturing of Gowé includes malting, fermentation The linked concepts of virtual water and biomass-energy and cooking. A Gowé of high quality relies on a sufficient relationships are examined to determine whether we can acidification during fermentation (to achieve safety and afford to go on scoffing the way we do. sourness) and sorghum starch hydrolysis by malt amylases which produces fermentable substrates and imparts a sugary taste. The kinetics of the lactic fermentation thus depends on malt amylasic activities Tuesday, 08 October 2013 – Oral Abstracts
that are in return more or less inhibited by the acidification due to the production of lactic acid. The final Plenary Lectures
objective of this study is to propose a global model allowing predicting the good making of Gowé. Two selected lactobacilli known to have different Beyond the taste test: sensory science's value-
potentialities of acidification: L. plantarum and L. brevis addition to food R&D
were cultivated on MRS liquid medium. We firstly modeled the growth of the two strains at constant pH according to the logistic primary model of Rosso (1996) Compusense Inc., Guelph, Ontario, Canada which determines lag time and growth rate. Secondly, a cardinal model (CPM) was used to model the effect of Over the last 50 years, the science of sensory and pH on growth rate. Lactic acid production appeared consumer research has grown from its infancy to linked to bacterial growth rate through a sigmoid type become a robust tool that creates value for food research and development. Our understanding of the fields of psychophysics and statistics has grown to there is a severe underreporting of such diseases, provide the theoretical underpinnings of current sensory particularly in developing countries, including Africa. science. There are now over 5000 sensory scientists active in the world and the growth of professional Africa consists of 54 countries, most with diverse societies is a major indicator of that progress. One of the cultures, religions, languages, traditions and foods. oldest groups, the Sensory and Consumer Science Whilst there are many differences between African Division of the IFT celebrates its 40th Anniversary this year, while the African Network for Sensory Evaluation sophistication of agriculture, food manufacturing and Research (ANsWer) is prepared to become the leader of food retail as well as infrastructure, there are many African sensory science. similarities. These include a severe underreporting of food- and waterborne diseases. Consequently, the true Product taste tests were once the staple of product prevalence of foodborne disease in Africa is unknown. development or quality control departments. The questions were simple and the results were basic. This presentation explores current knowledge on the Sensory science has moved forward from then through prevalence of selected microbial and chemical hazards the application of basic science to build a robust in African food and water sources, many of which are of greater importance to the African continent than to the response and consumer choice. developed world. Outbreaks of various food- and waterborne diseases, as well as the impact that food- Calibrated descriptive analysis is now able to deliver and waterborne diseases have on the African analytical sensory profiles of products that are both population, taking the prevalence of severe food accurate and precise. This has led to more meaningful insecurity and HIV/AIDS into consideration, will be measurement of the sensory authenticity of products. This complements any conventional food analysis, the ability to create a product development library of prototypes using their sensory properties and delivering Innovative ways of dealing with energy in the food
reliable measures of sensory shelf life. industry
Moving beyond traditional consumer segmentation, we now know much more about consumers and are able to cluster them based upon their liking of products and their Engineering, North-West University, behaviour. This has resulted in consumer-driven product Potchefstroom, South Africa development; creating new products based upon sensory design, targeted on the desires and needs of Rising energy costs and energy security have become specific consumer groups. so important that companies cannot neglect to look at innovative and smart ways to reduce energy costs and Sensory and consumer research has taken advantage of the progress in computing and communications to be able to take its tests to consumer, wherever they are and For many companies energy falls within the top three to permit sensory laboratories to collaborate on a global operating expenses. Food processing and specifically cooking is fairly energy Sensory science can deliver enormous benefits to intensive processes. Many processes require various product development and to understanding the priorities forms of energy for heating, cooling, drying, conveying of consumers in a global market. etc. Traditionally energy was purchased to drive the processes. The high costs of energy are forcing companies to look at innovative ways to save energy and also make use of waste heat recovery to reuse The prevalence of foodborne disease in Africa
energy whenever possible. The paper will focus on innovative ways that can be Director, Anelich Consulting, Pretoria, South Africa applied in the food processing sector to reduce energy costs and use. Topics to be covered are: Energy Millions of people around the world become ill from food- efficiency; Demand side management; Waste heat and waterborne disease. Of these, an estimated three recovery; Combined heat and power system; Tri million people die every year with 700 000 estimated generation systems. deaths occurring in Africa due to diarrhoea alone, associated with contaminated food and water. Whilst cases of foodborne illness occur daily in all countries, Mycotoxin risk assessment in South African maize
promote fair-trade and transparency on the market. consumers
Nonetheless, due to their high prices, meat products are often targets for species substitution and adulteration. W.C.A Gelderblom1, H-M Burger1, M.J Lombard2, G.S Such phenomena are exemplified by the recent horse Shephard1, D.J Van Schalkwyk3 meat crisis in the European Union, as well as the discovery of undeclared donkey, water buffalo and goat PROMEC Unit, South African Medical Research in a variety of South African meat products. Following Council, Tygerberg, South Africa, 2Division of Human the emergence of these scandals, there has been a Nutrition, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South tendency for regulators to attempt to set threshold Africa, 3Consultant, Durbanville, South Africa values for the presence of undeclared or prohibited South African maize is frequently contaminated by species in meats in terms of percentage meat content fumonisins (FB), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (weight/weight) and to attempt to use the available DNA- (ZEA). The risk of mycotoxin exposure in the South based analytical methods to ensure compliance with African population, resident in nine Provinces, was such thresholds. However, while DNA-based methods assessed during a cross-sectional grain consumer are widely recognised as the most accurate techniques survey by; (i) providing the relative per capita maize for the detection of undeclared species in foodstuffs, intake (g day-1) stratified by gender, ethnicity and major problems are encountered with quantification. This Province and (ii) the probable daily intake (PDI) of each paper sets out to review the available analytical methods mycotoxin (µg kg-1 body weight day-1) utilising for species authentication, their limits of detection contamination levels of dry milled maize fractions (LODs) and their capacities for quantification. Particular focus will be placed on the problems associated with consumption. When utilising specific maize intake correlating quantitative DNA measurements to meat increments (g kg-1 body weight day-1), a sensitive content expressed as percentage (w/w), stressing the factors that contribute to correlation problems (amongst (MYCORAM) for FB, DON and ZEA was developed and others, meat composition, mitochondrial distribution and validated and the percentage of the population exposed copy number, DNA extractability and degradation). In above the PMTDI for each toxin was characterised for addition, the basis of thresholds is discussed, the each Province. The estimated mean mycotoxin PDIs acceptability of these thresholds from health and utilising the commercial dry milled maize fractions was religious viewpoints, and the achievability of these with far below the Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily the current analytical techniques. Overall, the intention is Intake (PMTDI) for each mycotoxin. The predictive risk to make industry and researchers aware of the of exposure (MYCORAM) when utilising experimental shortcomings involved with expressing DNA results as SPECIAL dry milling fraction varies between 7 to 18 %; meat content (w/w), to attempt to seek suitable 3 to 9.5% and 0.2 to 4.2% of the population exposed alternatives and to suggest the way forward in ensuring above the PMTDI for FB, DON and ZEA respectively. the authenticity of meat products offered for sale on The SUPER dry milling fraction provides an approximate worldwide markets. five-fold lower level of exposure. In contrast, the dry milling fractions (SPECIAL and SUPER) obtained from samples representing levels in home grown maize of Symposium: Sensory and Consumer
rural subsistent communities provide a far higher percentage of maize consumers above the PMTDI for each mycotoxin. The MYCORAM provides a far more sensitive and alternative model in assessing the risk of mycotoxin exposure and addressed maize consumption A global business perspective of cross-cultural
profiles, demographics and population density. consumer sensory testing of food products
Detection and quantification of meat adulteration:
ACCE - Applied Consumer & Clinical Evaluations, what DNA can and cannot tell us?
Mississauga, Ontario, Canada Donna Cawthorn1, Louw Hoffman1, Harris Steinman2 Understanding cross cultural differences is a key Department Sciences, Stellenbosch component to prevent product failure in the global University, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2Food & Allergy marketplace where marketing and trading activities Consulting & Testing Services (FACTS), Milnerton, across borders, countries and continents grow every South Africa year. Sensory and consumer science research is The correct description of foodstuffs is important not only essential to help businesses in their understanding of for economic, religious and health reasons, but also to consumer product preferences in different countries and to harness product optimization opportunities for The role of proper sensory assessor training and diverse cultural populations. assurance is also discussed, and examples of driving assessor competency are shared. The sensory tools of QDA, This presentation will cover the challenges and discuss solutions to using consumer sensory research across implementation of a QA and QC sensory system. Finally, different cultural groups. Factors that impact the the advantage of global quality assurance system is also research design and execution including translation and appropriate scaling as well as understanding customs, beliefs, differences will be discussed with reference to relevant examples. Chillies: from heat to eat
Jeanine Sainsbury The presenter has considerable experience in the execution of consumer sensory research across a McCormick South Africa, Johannesburg, South Africa variety of product categories with diverse consumer populations. With a 75% increase in the number of chilli containing food products launched in South Africa and a 35 % increase globally over the last 2 years, it is clear that chillies are a hot topic in the food industry. Consumers The application of a sensory QC and QA program in
are not referring to chillies in general anymore, but a global FMCG company
rather to specific varieties such as Jalapeno, Chipotle Frieda Dehrmann, Gary Steyn and Habanero. As consumers are becoming more educated on chillies and health benefits associated with The South African Breweries Ltd., Johannesburg, South the consumption of chillies, it is critical for the food industry to deliver products that are appealing to the consumer. The increase in sales and consumption of As part of a global vision to understand the quality of chillies and chilli flavoured products further emphasizes beverages produced by the SABMiller group around the the importance of understanding the consumer‘s needs globe, a global QA and QC Sensory system was and sensory attributes of different chilli varieties and introduced. This review identifies the key requirements chilli containing products. Sensory Science tools such as for this initiative and highlights milestones and examples time intensity, consensus profiling and other novel tools has enabled us to understand the differences between chilli varieties and chilli products in the South African This presentation was informed by the implementation of as other global markets. By a global system, and makes use of various recognised understanding the sensory composition of these sensory testing methodologies and project management products as well as the consumer‘s behaviour towards chilli, the food industry will be able to develop chilli techniques and an application of a modified QDA for QC products with the correct chilli profile, heat intensity and and QA tests are explored. The application of a global QC and QA system has allowed the intelligent application of quality measures that ultimately have driven quality improvements, as Understanding preferences with indirect methods:
consumption and beta-carotene supplementation on
produced in various locations, between brewery skin colour
locations, countries and continents, b) Assurance of franchise brands produced around c) Quality improvements of brands driven by the Department of Genetics, University of Pretoria, identification of brand off flavours, Hatfield, Pretoria, South Africa d) Consumer assurance of best quality products, e) The application in NPD and trade monitoring. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables is consistently associated with increased health, partly because of the role of carotenoids. These plant pigments play a crucial Examples of each of these comparisons are provided. role in the human antioxidative network — protecting the The fundamental of placing the brand technical essence body against the harmful effect of free radicals — and at the centre of the assurance system, and thereby more generally in immune response. Once obtained assuring a consistent consumer experience, in a from the diet, carotenoids are deposited in various category where brand consistency is vital is highlighted. human tissues including the skin, increasing the arising from seasonal differences is covered in the yellowness of the skin. Skin yellowness might therefore wheel, sample sets (Rooibos: n = 259; Honeybush: n = serve as a non-invasive indirect marker for fruit and 135) from additional harvest seasons were evaluated vegetable consumption, the antioxidative network, using DSA, and the results used to modify and validate immune response and health in general. Here we report the sensory wheels. on a range of collaborative studies conducted in the United Kingdom and South Africa testing the role of Although the method of DSA is most accurate and carotenoid colouration as a marker for diet, health and comprehensive in generating a quantitative sensory attractive appearance. We show that (a) carotenoid profile for each analysed sample, it is a very time- intake is significantly associated with increased skin consuming process. Therefore, it was investigated yellowness in both Caucasian and African skin, (b) that whether a much simpler and faster sensory method both African and Caucasian observers enhance skin (Sorting technique) would be able to provide a similar reflection of the sensory characteristics of the sample attractiveness, and (c) that lifestyle factors influence sets. Results indicated that DSA and Sorting delivered carotenoid deposition in the skin. These findings point to significantly similar representations of the sensory the utility of skin colour measurements as an indirect profiles and groupings within a sample set. marker for diet, health and attractive appearance. Furthermore, these findings introduce the possibility of using appearance-based interventions to motivate Novel tools for sensory fingerprinting of wines
dietary changes in the South African population. E Hanekom, H Nieuwoudt, A Tredoux, N Muller Stellenbosch University, Western Cape, South Africa Development of flavour wheels for indigenous South
African herbal teas, rooibos and honeybush

Descriptive sensory analysis is one of the most extensively used tools in wine analysis. It can provide a Ilona Koch1, Nina Muller1, A Theron1, E Joubert2 complete, quantified description of the sensory attributes of wine. Considering the economic and time constraints Stellenbosch University, Western Cape, South Africa, of training sensory panels for descriptive sensory ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Western Cape, South Africa analysis, several novel methodologies for sensory Sensory wheels are graphical representations of aroma, characterisation have been developed over the past 10 flavour, taste and mouthfeel attributes that describe the years. These methodologies are less time-consuming sensory characteristics of a food or beverage product. and can be used with trained and semi-trained They are widely used in industry to describe and assessors or even consumers, providing maps that are discriminate between products for quality control, very close to those of classical descriptive analysis. One product development and research purposes. The lack of these newly-developed methodologies, the sorting of a comprehensive set of descriptive terms in the technique, is based on the evaluation of global sensory rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia differences and has been used with success in a species) industries has led to the development of number of studies, including wine and beer. The aim of sensory wheels for both rooibos and honeybush teas. this presentation is to review the theory, implementation, advantages and disadvantages of descriptive analysis Rooibos (n = 69) and honeybush (n= 58) samples were and the sorting technique in sensory characterisation of sourced ensuring that the sample sets capture as much a product range. potential variation in sensory attributes as possible. Samples from different producers, harvest areas and The results of research on Chenin blanc wines will be used to illustrate the capacities of these two sensory development of the honeybush sensory wheel, six methodologies. Fifteen commercial Chenin blanc wines different Cyclopia species were included. were used, the wines were classified as dry (RS < 4 g/L) and represented three of the classical Chenin blanc wine Samples were analysed using descriptive sensory styles, i.e. ―fresh and fruity‖‘, ―rich and ripe unwooded‖ analysis (DSA) in order to develop a sensory profile for and ―rich and ripe wooded‖. Descriptive analysis data each sample. A panel of trained judges generated an were analysed using PCA and the sorting data using extensive list of aroma, flavour, taste and mouthfeel MDS, DISTATIS and CA. terminology for both types of teas. These descriptors were then reorganised into first and second tier descriptors and finally assembled into a sensory wheel. The first version of the rooibos and honeybush sensory wheels reflects the sensory attributes of tea from one season only. In order to ensure that sensory variation Sensory food science: a vital component of research
Food Legislation and Impact on the Food
to improve nutrition in Africa
Henriette L. De Kock University of Pretoria, Department of Food Science, Impacts of the U.S. food safety modernization act on
Pretoria, South Africa global food commerce
Tuorila & Monteleone (2009) defined Sensory Food Janet E. Collins Science as a discipline dealing with human sensory perceptions of and affective responses to foods, President, IFT, Washington, DC, USA beverages and their components. It is multidisciplinary by its nature, deriving research questions from food The purity of food has been a concern of all societies science and applying behavioural research methods to since the beginning of time; food regulations largely solve these questions.‖ were developed to prevent economic adulteration of food. As food delivery and production moved from farms The African continent is home to 1 billion+ people, to larger scale enterprises, some food manufacturers almost 15% of the world population, a market that is sold foods that contained ingredients other than those rapidly increasing and changing. Over fifty countries are intended to be in the food for sale. Those intentional recognised and over 2100 languages spoken. Africa has adulterations included flour as a thickener for cream; a variety of traditional beliefs and religions which has cement powder to colour and thicken milk; and animal been a major influence onandSub- parts not intended for human consumption added to Saharan Africa is facing high levels of food insecurity sausages and ground meats. In the late 1800‘s Federal and only few countries are on track to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. An aspect that is often misbranded foods. The first uniform Federal food law overlooked is that whatever economical status, people was enacted in 1906; this Pure Food and Drug Act was want to eat tasty food typical of their own culture and followed by Amendments and then the Food, Drug and tradition. There are only a limited number of Sensory Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act, 1938) as new technology and Food Scientists in Africa. This paper will review more advanced methods of processing foods evolved. published sensory studies conducted in Africa over the With regards to food, the FD&C Act was designed to last five years. The objective is to identify the types of ensure that foods were produced under sanitary sensory investigations that are conducted, review the conditions and properly labelled. methods used, and identify opportunities. The introduction of sanitation to the regulation was Multidisciplinary research, international and cross- recognition that some foods made people sick—through African collaboration that include Sensory Food Science are crucial to build capacity in regional food and nutrition insanitary conditions, food was being ‗adulterated,‘ in ways not intended. The limitations of the FD&C Act physicochemical, physiological, and consumer-based were more punitive than protective. Over time, research methods is crucial to understand consumer regulations developed that were aimed at particular perceptions and acceptance of foods and beverages to segments of the food chain- fortification and enrichment, relate the significance of food for human well-being and pesticide residues, foreign materials. However, in order health. In food companies, Sensory Food Science can for regulatory action to be taken, the US Food and Drug be of great value to both tactical and strategic research Administration (FDA) was responsible to demonstrate goals. The African Network for Sensory Evaluation such adulteration or misbranding. Given limited Research (ANSWER) aims to establish an international resources, such oversight was not entirely effective- network of researchers, institutions and industrial legal cases were brought against manufacturers but partners for this purpose. Collaborations could be most agree that much mischief existed in food awareness, stimulating knowledge exchange, building capacity, alleviating isolation and sourcing funding for For the first time since the 1938 Act was issued, FDA research carried by partners from various African has taken a preventative approach to food regulation and proposed rules to compel food industry stakeholders to be more proactive in ensuring food safety (Tarver, 2013). The proposed rules under the Food Safety Modernization Act (2013) will emphasize the food industry‘s primary role in ensuring safe food and preventing foodborne illness. At present, only two proposed rules in the areas of ‗Prevention‘ have been published- produce safety, and preventive controls for human food facilities. Other areas yet to be developed role with the coming into force of the Consumer include Inspection and Compliance; Response; Imports; Protection Act which also claims jurisdiction over and Enhanced Partnerships. labelling, trade descriptions, production methods, and product quality and safety as far as consumers are Each subject area will contain proposed regulations that concerned. In addition, the National Regulator for impact not only foods produced and sold in the US, but Compulsory Standards (NRCS) enforces compulsory also to imported foods. For example, the Preventive standards which relate to foodstuffs in so far as weights Controls for Human Food Facilities proposed rule and measures and even food safety are concerned. foreign facilities Finally, SARS plays a role in defining foodstuffs in manufacture, process, pack or hold human food; it also relation to excise duty. requires development and implementation of a written plan addressing hazard analysis and risk-based preventive controls. Forthcoming proposed rules will address foreign supplier verification, accreditation of The impact of nutrient profiling on the food industry
third party auditors of foreign food facilities, and E. Wentzel-Viljoen, J.C. Jerling, M. Wicks preventive controls of animal food. Centre of Excellence for Nutrition, Faculty of Health The developing proposed rules, when enacted will Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South impact food safety determinations and prevention along the entire food value chain- specifically from the farm through manufacture, processing, distribution and The use of a nutrient profiling model (NPM) as a criterion packaging for the consumer. These impacts will be for making nutrient and/or health claims aim to avoid a dramatic- and will affect not only domestic food situation where claims mask the overall nutritional status producers but also those who export to the US. of food products, which could mislead consumers when trying to make healthy food choices. The aim was to This talk will address the food safety and prevention validate the NPM of Food Standards Australia New elements of the Food Safety Modernization Act, as Zealand (FSANZ) and to provide a scientific basis to written, and the potential impact on food producers and assess the eligibility of food stuffs to carry health claims manufacturers who export to the United States. in South Africa. The ―Guiding principles and framework manual for the The South African food law landscape
development or adaptation of nutrient profile models‖ of the WHO was used as the guide to validate the NPM. Janusz F. Luterek Five methods were applied including construct validity (using FBDG, Diet Quality Index, linear programming) Hahn & Hahn, Pretoria, South Africa and convergent validity (based on dieticians). The legislative and regulatory landscape in respect of Results of the study showed good agreement between food is complex with a number of government the way the model and the FBDGs categorises food departments having a finger in the pie, some products. There was good correlation between the unexpectedly having a louder voice than others. Whilst classification of food products by the NPM and the views the reason for this is only of historical importance, the of dieticians. The consumption of foods categorised as practical implications are far reaching and a failure to ‗being eligible to carry a health claim‘ by the NPM are unravel this ball of wool can result in both civil and higher in people who have ‗healthy‘ diets than people criminal liability as well as losses of product and who have ‗unhealthy‘ diets. A plausible theoretical packaging materials due to the forfeiture provisions in ‗healthy‘ diet can be constructed from only foods eligible several of the laws and rejection of products by retailers. to carry a health claim and no such plausible theoretical diet can be constructed from only foods that would be The main actors in the legislative and regulatory ineligible to carry a claim. The quality of the diet can be landscape are, as expected, the Department of Health improved when foods not eligible to carry a health claim and the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and are replaced by foods that would be eligible to carry a Fisheries, the former being concerned with public health health claim. The results of all the validation studies and this is reflected in the Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and suggested that the FSANZ NPM is a valid instrument for Disinfectants Act and the Regulations thereunder, and use in the South African food and nutrition environment. the latter being concerned with compositional and quality standards as reflected, amongst others, in the Our understanding is that the NPM will be used as part Agricultural Products Standards Act and the Regulations of legislation regarding nutrient and/or health claims in thereunder. However, whereas most would believe this the future. The Food Industry should use this tool to to be the entire picture, the Department of Trade and adapt the composition of current products and in the Industry has started playing a bigger and more imported development of new food products if they want to make mechanism. If the shelf-life needs to remain the same any nutrient and/or health claim on the food in future. then levels of the other factors will have to be increased to replace the antimicrobial effect of the reduced salt. The microbiological food safety and quality implications of NaCl reduction in foods has received little recent Challenges associated with multiple agency food
attention both in peer-reviewed literature, media and by control system in South Africa
regulators relative to that devoted to potentially B.R. Ntshabele, M. Mutengwe beneficial cardiovascular health impacts. Reduction of NaCl in processed foods may not only enable enhanced Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, pathogen growth and survival, it may also permit more Gauteng, South Africa accelerated spoilage of certain foods causing a negative economic impact to producers, distributors, retailers, and South Africa‘s food control system is a multiple agency type system with food control responsibilities delegated to different governments departments. Legislation Enhanced pathogen growth and survival may also apportions food control responsibilities between several permit more accelerated spoilage of certain foods government departments such as the Department of causing a negative economic impact to producers, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF), Department distributors, retailers and consumers. of Health (DoH) and the Department of Trade and Industry (the dti). In addition, provincial and certain local authorities are also involved in enforcing certain aspects Food labels as source of health information: what
of the food control system. As such, the South Africa consumers think?
food control system is characterized by fragmentation of legislation, Daleen Van der Merwe1, Magdalena Bosman1, Susanna operational challenges. The challenges include lack of Ellis2, Johann C Jerling3, Jane Badham3 confusion over jurisdiction of functions within and 1School for Physiology, Nutrition and Consumer between involved governments departments. This paper Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South reviews the legislative mandates and established Africa, 2Statistics and Operational Research, North-West coordination mechanisms to highlight and discuss the University, Potchefstroom, South Africa, 3Centre of challenges regarding multiple agency food control. Excellence Nutrition, North-West University, Various proposals to overcome the problem associated Potchefstroom, South Africa with fragmentation of food control are made. Food labels are intended to serve as a valuable source of health information to consumers. Furthermore, the role of food labels in communicating the globally Reducing salt in food products: what are the food
recognised link between diet and health needs to safety issues?
consumers to facilitate healthy food choices is of utmost importance. Thus this study aimed to determine South African (SA) metropolitan consumers‘ opinions and University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa beliefs about the food-health link, as well as their opinions and use of health information on food labels. A Consumers have become more health conscious and cross-sectional study using fieldworker-administered there has been a drive towards reducing the sodium questionnaires was done. Using stratified randomised intake in their diets. Excessive sodium intake has been sampling, 1 997 respondents were recruited. The data linked to the development of hypertension and were weighted to represent the metropolitan SA adult cardiovascular disease. The average sodium intake in population (N=10 695 000). Practically significantly more the modern western diet is excessive, being two to three (d=0.92 to 1.68) respondents believed there is a food- times more than the recommended dietary intake. All health link and that health messages on food labels are foods will contain microorganisms which will either supported by scientific research. Respondents‘ opinions cause food spoilage or illness in consumers due to on health information on food labels were mostly presence of the microorganisms themselves or due to positive, as confirmed by the average opinions for the toxins produced in the food. Food scientists develop different ethnic groups. The results identified a lack of food formulations which aim to prevent the growth of interest, time and price concerns, and habitual undesirable microorganisms during the shelf-life of the purchasing as reasons for not reading food labels. food. Salt reduces the water activity of the food so that it Health-concerned respondents considered labels as is unavailable for microorganisms to use. If the salt level of a product is reduced then the shelf-life of that product education on the food-health link and the use of health is also likely to be reduced as it affects the antimicrobial information on food labels should address the deficiencies identified through the opinions and use of false positive results. It was discovered that heating egg food labels by these respondents. Representative samples at 80 °C for 10 minutes inactivated the results of SA metropolitan consumers in this study are inhibitors. A new bacteriological screening test for significant since third world countries are burdened by antimicrobial residues in eggs, developed during this various diseases and former studies only used limited- Geobacillus sized non-probability samples. As opinions and beliefs stearothermophilus ATCC 12980, which are sensitive to could be changed easily to guide or motivate behaviour this study might contribute to improve food choice tetracycline‘s and macrolides. This test method was behaviour through food label education. Food industry validated against the Kundrat micro-screening four-plate should strive towards the provision of more detailed and test and Premi®Test standard reference methods. In informative health information that complies with vitro test showed that florfenicol and norfloxacin out of regulations to assist consumers in the need to make the eighteen antimicrobials tested have no established healthier food choices. MRL or published Premi®Test values, therefore, their minimum detection concentrations and sensitivity could not be compared to that obtained by the new test. Several performance criteria and minimum detection Global harmonization initiative
concentrations were estimated and discussed. Some Pieter van Twisk agreements and differences were found between the new and the reference tests with the new test being Consultant, Pretoria, South Africa more sensitive to beta-lactams, tetracyclines and macrolides than the Kundrat and Premi®Test on the The Global Harmonization Initiative (GHI) was founded average. The new test method was poorer in detecting in 2004 as a joint activity of the International Division of sulfadiazine and sulphamethoxyazole than Premi®Test. the US-based Institute of Food Technologists and the A preliminary trial was then conducted on 36 hens that European Federation of Food Science and Technology. were given therapeutic oral doses of over-the-counter The GHI is a network of scientific organizations and antimicrobials daily for seven days with one of eleven individual scientists, in their personal capacity, working manufacturer‘s together to promote harmonization of global regulations recommendations. Eggs were collected from the hens and legislation. during and after treatment and tested for the presence or absence of antimicrobial residues The new screening The presentation will cover aspects like the GHI Mission, test can thus be recommended for routine screening of Organizational Structure, Global Framework, Global antimicrobial residues in eggs. A two seasonal survey conducted to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial Accomplishments. residues in commercial chicken eggs in Tshwane area of Gauteng Province, South Africa using the new test method indicated that 7.5% of the samples tested Food Safety
positive. Statistical results of the survey showed that cheaper eggs 12.1%, certain egg brands, 16.2% - 50%, (informal/roadside Validation of a novel bacteriological screening test
antimicrobial residues in them compared to eggs for antimicrobial residues in eggs
obtained from big chain supermarkets 1.2%. Alex Ray Jambalang1,2, Shahnn Bisschop3, Jacqueline The transfer potential of extended spectrum β-
1Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Phytomedicine lactamase
Programme, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University commensal E. coli between irrigation water and
of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 2Salmonella Research Laboratory of the National Veterinary Research Institute in Vom, Nigeria, Vom, Nigeria, 3Department of Patrick Njage, Elna Buys Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa 4Department of Veterinary Tropical Disease Faculty of The impact of E. coli on morbidity, mortality, and Veterinary Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, healthcare costs has not been considerable in the past South Africa due to effective antibiotic therapy. This situation is Screening of antimicrobial residues in eggs needs rapidly changing with increase in the acquisition of special attention because of the high level of naturally antimicrobial resistance by E. coli strains. Extended- occurring inhibitors contained in eggs which often lead to spectrum or third-generation cephalosporins were designed to overcome this. However, E. coli and some lemon, commercial-tamarind and basic-oil-tamarind. other members of Enterobacteriaceae are able to BaP generation was used as a marker for the PAHs produce mutant forms of the ―older‖ β -lactamases family in grilled meat to study the effect of preheating referred to as extended-spectrum β –lactamases methods (steam and microwave) before charcoal grilling (ESBLs) which are capable of hydrolyzing the new- to reduce PAHs. The results showed PAHs reduction of generation cephalosporins and aztreonam. E. coli is 46-100% for steam and 34-100% for microwave pre- therefore amongst the six drug-resistant microbes to treatments. To further reduce PAHs, aluminum foil and which new therapies are urgently needed. Genes may banana leaf were used to wrap the samples during charcoal grilling. The PAHs reduction with aluminum foil transduction. Little attention has been given to transfer was 39 -100%, and 32-100% for banana leaf. The of resistance genes through water and vegetables results of sensory evaluation confirmed that the though evidence has shown that it might be an important precooking, wrapping and acidic marinating treatments pathway of gene transfer to human pathogenic and reduction were acceptable by the panellists. commensal strains given that many vegetables are consumed raw. E. coli isolated over ten months from two irrigation water sources and lettuce were studied for Exposure assessment of food additives with
phenotypic and genotypic resistance to ESBLs. Their particular emphasis on flavourings and colorants
clonal relatedness, possible extraintestinal virulence genes and molecular compatibility of ESBL plasmids to translocation was also studied. The in vitro transfer frequency of ESBLs coding genes between pathogenic KIROS sprl, Brussels, Belgium and commensal E. coli from irrigation water and lettuce was also studied. This information is an important pre- Exposure assessment of chemicals in food is a critical requisite to quantification of the risk posed to humans step in risk assessment enabling risk characterisation, from the transfer of ESBL determinants among since only intakes of toxicologically significant amounts pathogenic and commensal E. coli between irrigation can lead to adverse health effects, even for relatively water and lettuce. toxic substances. For chemical in foods there are three key determinants: the concentration in the food as eaten, including processing effects; consumption patterns of the foods containing the substance, including Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in grilled meat
high consumers; integration of this data to ensure that all susceptible sub-groups of the population are addressed. All of these steps have limitations which lead to Selamat Jinap1, Farhadian Afsaneh1,2 uncertainties which in turn need to be included in 1Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, estimations by various methods. For food additives, to 2Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, use scarce resources wisely, a tiered approach is usually implemented by risk assessors. A screening method using conservative consumption data and Meat and meat products may be a source of exposure to maximum use levels in all foods allowed to contain the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that vary additive is used and if this produces intakes below any according to cooking methods, temperature duration and safety level , e.g. ADI , then no further refined type of meat. Dietary exposure to PAHs is associated assessment is required . If this is not the case then with risk of human cancers. In this study tandem solid- further refined estimates are made and these will be phase extraction, using Extrelut diatomaceous earth, discussed. The increasing use of probabilistic modelling, PRS and silica columns, was developed and HPLC with particularly FACET and the recent ILSI Europe ‗Guidea‘ fluorescence detector was used for the determination of initiative, will be discussed. PAHs. The developed method had a good correlation coefficients, recoveries and precision. The validated method was then applied on nine types of popular grilled meat dishes. The highest concentration of total of three PAHs was found in charcoal grilled beef, followed by chicken and fish. When the charcoal, gas and oven grilling were compared, the highest concentration of PAHs was found in charcoal grilled, followed by gas grilled and oven grilled dishes. Seven marinade treatments at four time intervals (0 - 12 h.) were then applied before charcoal grilling. The study showed the highest reduction of PAHs was through the addition of lemon juice to basic marinade followed by basic-oil- Young Scientists Research Section
the vacuoles within the microparticles, probably due to air expansion within the microparticles, as the vacuoles are probably air bubble footprints. Thin (<50 μm) glutaraldehyde-treated microparticle films were found to How to increase your chances of getting published
maintain their integrity and flexibility in water, despite in international research journals
being several magnitudes thinner than other bioplastics reported in other studies. This indicates their potential as Marketing and Online Content Manager, IFIS, Shinfield, environments. The large kafirin microparticles obtained Reading, UK with the crosslinking treatments could have application for microencapsulation This session will discuss how to increase your chances of getting published in international research journals, microparticle films could be applied as films/coatings for and provide essential insight into publishing strategies food under humid conditions, such as interleaving for and behind the scenes advice on how to enhance your pizzas and fruit salads. publishing profile. The presentation will be of value to scientists and researchers in the area of food science, technology and nutrition writing scientific papers and Some functional properties of conventionally dried
wanting to get published. unripe non-commercial banana flour
A key component of initiating any research project is a Tonna Anyasi1, Afam Jideani1, Ainamensa Mchau2 full understanding of the existing landscape of scientific research, to ensure the research you produce is 1Department of Food Science and Technology, School authoritative and unique and adds value to the body of of Agriculture, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, knowledge. The volume of literature has increased Limpopo Province, South Africa, 2Department of exponentially in recent years covering not only journal Horticultural Sciences, School of Agriculture, University articles, but also books, standards, patents, reviews, of Venda, Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South conference proceedings and informative summaries. This talk will discuss methods to locate scientific research in food science and technology. The underutilization of unripe banana due to lack of information on its use, has resulted generally in the consumption and processing of banana only when ripe. Continuous post-harvest loss of bananas is therefore Improvement in the functional properties of kafirin
recorded especially among farmers with low storage protein microstructures for use as bioplastic films
capacity. Unripe non-commercial banana cultivars and for microencapsulation
(NBC) harvested in Limpopo province were processed Joseph Anyango, Janet Taylor, John Taylor into banana flour using conventional oven drying method at a temperature of 70°C for 12 hours. Fruits were pre- University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa treated with ascorbic acid (AA), citric acid (CA) and lactic acid (LA) which are GRAS chemicals with treatment We have developed a process to produce various types done at varying concentrations of 10%, 15%, and 20% of microstructures including vacuolated microspheres w/v respectively. The L*, hue (a*) and chroma (b*) from kafirin, the very inert sorghum grain prolamin values for banana flour obtained from oven dried NBC storage protein. These inert vacuolated microparticles were also determined. Pre-treatment with GRAS have shown potential for encapsulation of antioxidants analytical grade acids and conventional drying showed and for preparation of high quality bioplastic films. varying effects on the colour and functional properties of However, the microstructure functional properties need banana flour. Unripe NBC flour exhibited significant to be improved to exploit their potential as delivery difference (p < 0.05) in their water holding capacity, oil devices for bioactives. This would enable control and holding capacity, pasting property, swelling power and manipulation of properties of these bioactives close to solubility index. NBC flour with AA pre-treatment had molecular level. The microstructures must protect the more yellowness and the highest positive values of a* bioactives from degradation before reaching target point and b* in all concentrations while the CA and LA pre- of release. Heat and glutaraldehyde crosslinking treated oven dried flour showed more whiteness and treatments were investigated to modify the kafirin higher positive values for L* in all treatment at varying microparticles properties. Though incompatible with concentrations. These results are useful indices to food, glutaraldehyde was used to test the crosslinking determining alternative and non-conventional value- principle. Both treatments increased microparticle added uses of flour from NBC in food processing. average diameter to about 20 µm, probably due to cross-linking of kafirin proteins. Heat treatment enlarged Cyclopia genistoides (honeybush): development and
Effect of amaranth addition on physical quality and
chromatographic (HPLC) method for the quantitative
biofortified maize snacks
analysis of extracts
Daniso Beswa1,2, Muthulisi Siwela1, Eric O Amonsou3, Theresa Beelders1, Dalene de Beer2, Elizabeth Joubert2 Nomusa R Dlamini4, John Derera1 1Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 1University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South 2Agricultural Research Council (ARC) of South Africa, Africa, 2University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa, Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Post-harvest and Wine Technology 3Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa, Division, Stellenbosch, South Africa 4Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa The indigenous fynbos species, Cyclopia, has a long history of use as herbal tea, but hot water extracts Maize-based extruded products are popular world-wide. recently found application in the food industry. The Provitamin A- biofortified maize snacks with added leafy functional ingredient status of extracts, characterised by vegetables may have a potential as nutritious and a naturally sweet taste and aroma, is boosted by its health-promoting products, especially for addressing biological properties ranging from antioxidant to anti- vitamin A deficiency, which is prevalent in developing diabetic and cholesterol-lowering effects. The biological countries. Powder of the leafy vegetable Amaranth, properties of Cyclopia extracts may partially be ascribed which is indigenous in Southern Africa, was added at to its phenolic composition, comprising monomeric concentrations of 0%, 1% and 3% (w/w) to flour of each polyphenols from subclasses such as xanthones, of four experimental hybrids of provitamin A- biofortified maize, PVAH79-100, PVAH1-26, PVAH27-49 and Standardisation of extracts in terms of selected marker PVAH50-75, and the flours were then extruded into compounds and/or other parameters is required for the snacks. A snack made with a biofortified maize hybrid, production of high quality products. The C-glycosyl without Amaranth, was used as a reference. The snacks xanthone, mangiferin, is currently targeted for extract were analysed for their physical properties by standard standardisation purposes. Cyclopia genistoides is a methods, and their phenolic content and antioxidant commercially important species renowned for high levels activity were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and of this biologically active compound, which is also its TEAC methods, respectively. When compared with the major phenolic constituent. Extracts prepared from this reference, the addition of Amaranth generally had species can thus be used to manufacture extracts positive effects on the physical and potential health- containing high levels of mangiferin for a specific market, promoting properties of the snacks. Increasing the or used to enrich the mangiferin content of other concentration of Amaranth resulted in an increase in the Cyclopia extracts to meet specifications. water absorption index (WAI), bulk density (BD) and water solubility index (WSI) of the snacks by 37%, 4% In light of the above, an HPLC method with diode-array and 47%, respectively, whilst their expansion ratio (ER) detection was developed to quantify the xanthones and decreased by 7%. The hardness of the snacks other major polyphenols present in hot water extracts increased by 93% as Amaranth was increased, which indicated the need to tenderize the snacks. As Amaranth genistoides plant material. For method development, was increased, the phenolic content and antioxidant different stationary phases, mobile phases and column activity of the snacks increased from 51 to 99 mg gallic temperatures were evaluated and gradient parameters acid equiv./g and 370 to 400 mg of Trolox equiv./g, optimised. The method was successfully validated in respectively. Provitamin A-biofortified maize with added terms of specificity, linearity and range, precision, as Amaranth has a potential for use in nutritious and well as analyte stability. Mass spectrometric detection healthy extruded snacks. There are hardly any studies was used for to identify the phenolic compounds in reported on how best provitamin A maize can be processed with complementary plant foods, which is quantification of the major constituents and also common in Southern Africa, thus our study seems a compounds, making it suitable for fingerprint analysis – the next level of quality control used in extract Which commonly used in vivo and in vitro assays
Challenges of low FAN in sorghum lager beer
are best suited to measure the effect of phytate
brewing and possible solutions
reduction on the iron and zinc availability in staple
grains? – The case of sorghum

Bhekisisa Dlamini, Elna M. Buys, John Taylor Johanita Kruger1, John Taylor1, Bo Lönnerdal2, André University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Production of sufficient free amino nitrogen (FAN) for a 1University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 2University rapid and complete fermentation still remains a of California, Davis, California, USA challenge when brewing with sorghum. Brewing with high protein digestibility sorghums has been shown not Improved iron and zinc availability from sorghum, a to substantially improve FAN production. Improvements commonly consumed staple in Africa, will benefit many in FAN production have, however, been reported when malnourished communities in rural Sub-Saharan Africa potassium metabisulphite (KMS) is added in the burdened with high prevalence of iron and zinc sorghum grain mashing system. In this study, malted deficiencies. Although both in vivo and in vitro assays and unmalted white Type II tannin (WTT) sorghum and have been used to obtain mineral bioavailability white-tan plant (WTP) sorghum grain, which are used for estimates, it is likely that no single assay is perfect for all making sorghum lager beer in different parts of Africa, elements and model systems. were investigated for FAN production. The effect of mashing with a commercial proteolytic (CP) enzyme, as Our research compared the effect of genetic phytate well as the effect of adding KMS at different reduction in sorghum on iron and zinc bioaccessibility concentrations on FAN production were also studied. and uptake measured by in vitro dialysability and Caco-2 cell uptake assays to that of iron and zinc absorption Malted sorghum produced substantially higher FAN measured by a suckling rat pup model. Two sets of GM levels than unmalted grain. The addition of the enzyme further increased FAN production with both malted and reductions), a set of tannin-containing sorghums (30- unmalted sorghum. Free amino nitrogen production from 40% reductions), and their respective null controls were WTP grain was significantly (p<0.05) higher, by approx. processed into thick unfermented and fermented 35%, than that of WTT grain when mashed with the CP enzyme. A proportionally higher increase (above 40%) in FAN was observed with unmalted sorghum grain than Treatments that reduced the sorghum phytate content malt when treated with the enzyme. The addition of KMS by 70% and/or below 200 mg/100 g whole grain flour at a high concentration significantly improved FAN significantly increased iron and zinc availability as production by approx. 19% to 56 mg/100 g sorghum, in measured by some or all of the assays. Principal total, when used in combination with the CP enzyme. component analysis (PCA) of the mineral availability, phytate and mineral content data indicated that the first These results indicate that mashing with malted factor, phytate content, contributed to 44% of the sorghum produces more FAN than mashing with variation in the data, whereas factor 2, which separated unmalted sorghum. However, the use of the exogenous the samples according to differences in mineral (calcium CP enzyme on malted sorghum has a lesser effect than and zinc) contents, contributed to 31% of the variation in on unmalted sorghum. This could possibly be due to the malting process which activates endogenous enzymes that hydrolyses some of the proteins. Mashing with The Caco-2 cell method, but not the dialysability assay, unmalted WTT sorghum produces low FAN than WTP, proved useful in estimating zinc absorption. The possible due to the presence of tannins. The addition of measured increase in iron availability differed between KMS at a higher concentration improves FAN production the methods, possibly due to the effect of varying probably due to the reduction of the intermolecular mineral (Ca, Fe, Zn, P) contents of the sorghums. While disulphide bonds in the kafirin protein. Therefore, FAN this effect was most prominent in the iron uptake results, production from sorghum grain can be improved by the data obtained from the dialysability assay was more using malted WTP grain and addition of KMS during closely related to that from the suckling rat pup model and seems to be better suited to measure the effect of phytate reduction on the iron availability in sorghum. Influence of storage conditions on organic acid
which may indicate that only lactic acid producing profiles from cottage cheese
bacteria was present and other microbes were not active. Kelepile Modise, Karabo Shale, Edmore Kativu, Willem Groenoweld University Technology, The effect of conjugated linoleic acid addition on the
Bloemfontein, South Africa microbial and lipid stability of salami
Cottage cheese is a soft mild flavoured cheese that is MacDonald Cluff, Celia Hugo, Carina Bothma, Arno prone to contamination and must be kept in low temperatures to maintain its shelf life. (Nelson and Barbano, 2005). Organic acids within cottage cheese The University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South play a major role in influencing the organoleptic properties as well as stabilization of the microbial Lean pork and pork backfat procured fresh from a local culture. Analysis of these organic acids profiles is vital in butchery was utilized in the manufacturing of four distinct determining the spoilage of cottage cheese and its shelf groups of novel salami. The aim of this study was to life. (Schmidt and Bouma, 1992). In this study, Ion increase the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of Exchange High Performance Liquid Chromatography salami to three different percentages (25%, 50% and was used to identify and quantify the presence of 100%) of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for different types organic acids within cottage cheese conjugated linoleic acid per 28 g portion of salami. This detected at 210 and 290 ηm. Samples of cottage cheese was accomplished through the direct addition of CLA were collected and stored at three different conditions, (Tonalin® TG 80) in a pre-emulsified form with e.g. room temperature, 4 °C and fresh samples from the proportional decreases in the normally used pork BF factory. Changes in organic acid concentration and content of the salamis. The salamis from these three types were noted. The samples were analysed for six treatment groups were then compared to a 100% pork consecutive weeks. Cottage cheeses analysed showed backfat control group for any possible effects on the that they contain a number of organic acids. A total of 11 microbial, physical, and lipid stability parameters as well peaks could clearly be seen on the samples as fatty acid composition and fatty acid ratios. Microbial chromatograms. Organic acids namely acetic, citric, and sensory parameters were largely unaffected with oxalic and uric acids were confirmed to be present. varying effects on the physical and lipid stability Refrigeration of cottage cheese proved to be an effective parameters. Major effects on the fatty acid composition and fatty acid ratios of the salamis were observed. The chromatographic profiles that are very similar to those of partial replacement of pork backfat and direct addition of cottage cheese fresh from the factory. Generally cottage CLA to salami proved to be an effective method of cheese collected fresh from the factory and those stored increasing CLA levels in salami in an attempt to improve in the refrigerator exhibited low organic acid content. the health aspects of salami to the point where it could Major organic acids identified were oxalic acid, lactic be regarded as a functional food. acid, citric acid and acetic acid. Samples fresh from the factory recorded a highest concentration of oxalic acid and lactic acid of 0.054 and 0.52 mg/ml respectively while Influence of beta-agonist (zilpaterol) and age on
concentration of oxalic and lactic acid of 0.056 and tenderness of beef loin and silverside muscles
0.057 mg/ml respectively. Cottage cheese showed that their organic acid profiles and concentration remained Ennet Moholisa1, Phillip Strydom1, Arno Hugo2, Michelle unaffected for at least two weeks. For the first two weeks the highest organic acid recorded was that of lactic acid 1Animal Production Institute, Agricultural Research with a concentration of 0.058 mg/ml while the rest of the Council, Pretoria, South Africa, 2University of Free-State, organic acid remained unchanged at least six weeks. Bloemfontein, South Africa concentration of 0.12mg/ml in the 3rd week of the South African beef is classified according to the age of experiment. The results found in this investigation the animal as determined by dentition. Since the indicate that cottage cheese investigated can be implementation of this system in 1994, much have effectively be stored at temperatures below 4°C and changed that could affect quality within age classes and remained unaltered. Cottage cheese under study‘s this could result in huge variation in product quality. For organic acid profile remain unaltered for the first two this reason it is difficult to describe or predict product weeks remained relatively stable and thereafter quality such as tenderness based on a single factor like investigated cottage cheese recorded a significant age. Beta-agonists are largely used in feedlot cattle in increase on lactic acid concentration. All the other organic acid remained relatively stable for the six weeks South Africa and may have negative effect on meat amplicons using Bio-Rad‘s Gel DocTM XR+ Imaging system transilluminator. The PCR amplicons were sequenced using the Genetic analyser ABI PRISMTM Tenderness of the M. longissimus dorsi (LD) and M. 3100. MEGA 5.04 software was used in the phylogenetic biceps femoris (BF) muscles of three different age groups according to South African beef carcass classification decomposition analysis. Compared to 16S rDNA system was evaluated. sequences, the use of selected protein-coding gene sequences combined with phylogenetic analysis and Forty A-age weaner Bonsmara steers from feedlot, twenty concatenation provided a substantial improvement in AB-age and twenty B-age grass fed Bonsmara steers discriminatory power between closely related isolates. The MLSA enabled the precise identification of isolates supplemented with beta-agonist (zilpaterol), the other from pharmaceutical probiotic supplements and food twenty were used as a control group. Parameters products. The potential practical application of these measured included collagen properties, myofibrillar findings in terms of antimicrobial activity and the fragmentation lengths (MFLs) and Warner-Bratzler shear sequestration of mycotoxins will be discussed. Although not statistically significant, collagen content increased with increasing animal age for BF while the Shelf-life estimation of low fat UHT milk
opposite was observed with LD. Collagen solubility decreased with increasing animal age. Zilpaterol treatment Melanie Richards, Elna, M Buys, Henriette, L De Kock reduced total collagen and increased collagen solubility. MFLs and WBSF values significantly increased with University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa increasing animal age in a 3 day aging period. Zilpaterol Real time shelf-life determination of shelf stable products had less effect on BF when compared to LD in parameters like UHT milk can be very time consuming and measured except for MFL. expensive and critical descriptors used to determine the Zilpaterol supplementation caused variation in tenderness end of shelf life can be difficult to identify. The of the LD within the younger age group, and did not have multivariate accelerated shelf life test (MASLT) (Pedro the same effect on high connective tissue cuts. Animal age and Ferreira, 2006) employs all sensory attributes that may play a dominant role in WBSF in these cuts. show change over time and was applied to data Therefore, if age classification is intended to distinguish obtained from a trained panel (n=11) that evaluated 19 between classes of tenderness based on number of sensory attributes of low fat UHT milk samples stored at 25°C, 35°C and 45°C over a six and a half month time classification will fail to distinguish between certain cuts period. The cut-off point that identify the end of shelf life among A age carcasses if zilpaterol is used. was obtained by survival analysis based on consumers‘ acceptance or rejection of samples stored for different times. Storage at 35°C and 45°C reduced the shelf life by a factor of approximately 2 for every 10°C increase in analysis
storage temperature. In future, changes in sensory applications of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus
attributes that correlate well with the UHT milk MASLT isolates
model can be used as predictors for end of shelf life. For this purpose the milk can be stored at accelerated Richard Nyanzi, Piet Jooste, Kobus Eloff, Susan Wright temperatures and results can be converted to actual Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South market condition. In this study the multilocus locus sequence analysis Drying kinetics of some selected fruits
(MLSA) technique was used to differentiate a range of lactobacillus species and strains isolated from probiotic Adewale O Omolola1, Afam I O Jideani1, Patrick F pharmaceutical supplements and food products. The primary aim was to precisely identify and classify species and strains prior to screening for anti-microbial 1Dept of Food Science and Technology, University of activities, probiotic characteristics and the ability of such Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa, 2Dept of Agricultural isolates to bind or sequester mycotoxins. The 16S rRNA Engineering, University gene and protein-coding genes in the genomic DNA Thohoyandou, South Africa from pure isolates of Lactobacillus species were amplified in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using carefully selected oligonucleotide pairs. Gel agarose drying/simulation models are needed in the design, electrophoresis was used to separate the PCR construction and operation of drying equipment. The drying kinetics (DE) of selected fruits, namely banana of the relatively high viscosity of the second biphasic (Musa species), prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica), and paste that occurs after prolonged pasting through the water chestnut (Trapa natans), are considered along application of lower starch concentrations to improve with research studies on the fruits. Considerations consistency and viscosity in foods. include the description, food uses and nutritional qualities of the fruits; drying models by scientists for fitting or expressing drying curves such as Page, ICSU Out of Africa Session
Henderson, Modified Henderson, Logarithmic, Wang and Singh, Diffusion, Verma, Two term, Two term exponential, Midilli et al., Modified page equation and Newton; and statistical parameters normally used in Nigeria: the gap between the food industry and the
selecting the best model expressing different drying essential needs of the people
curves and determining the consistency of the various models in drying operation. Also highlighted are the Ronald Olusola Olawale determination R2, reduced chi square value (x2), Root Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Bias Error (MBE), (NIFST), Lagos, Nigeria and t-stat used in DE. The highest values of R2 and the Nigeria, by virtue of its population of over 160 million lowest values of x2, RMSE, MBE and t-values determine people is the largest country in Africa. Feeding such a or express the best fit. The understanding of drying large population poses a big challenge. The food kinetics in food processing is important in relation to industry in Nigeria has struggled to grow despite the abundant solar radiation under tropical condition, as well huge opportunity that Nigeria represents. The players in as other sources of energy, for application in processing the industry can be grouped into 3 categories with diverse fruits and vegetables. different focus areas. The multinational companies are basically into drinks (alcoholic and non-alcoholic), food drinks, baby food, seasoning, etc. The local majors are Amylose-lipid complex occurrence in tef and maize
into wheat flour milling, wheat flour based products, starch biphasic pastes
vegetable oil production, snack foods (e.g. biscuits), and so on, while small scale producers focus on bread, Obiro Cuthbert Wokadala1, Suprakas Sinha Ray2, pastries, confectioneries, snacks, staple foods and Mohammad Naushad Emmambux1 1Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, The fact remains that none of the multi-nationals truly Pretoria, 2DST/CSIR addresses the staple foods requirement of the country. Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, National Centre for They have simply introduced to Nigeria, food concepts Nano-Structured Materials, Pretoria, Gauteng, South from other regions of the world and, through the power of marketing and distribution make them acceptable to the people. For example, soft drinks and wheat flour The occurrence of amylose-lipid complexes in maize based products (noodles, spaghetti, semolina and other and tef starch biphasic pastes was assessed. Starch pasta products) are modern day additions to the dining biphasic pastes refer to peak viscosity pastes that occur table. Durum Wheat does not grow well in Nigeria‘s at short (<15 min) and prolonged (< 40 min) wet-heat tropical climate, despite the efforts so far made and the processing times in a rapid visco-analyser (RVA). Maize money spent on research. Local food staples such as and tef starches were pasted for 11.5 and 130 min with cassava, yam tuber, plantain, etc. and other food or without added stearic acid followed by alpha-amylase preparations derived from them have not attracted the hydrolysis in an RVA. X-ray diffraction analysis of pastes attention of the big players in the country. In the and residues after hydrolysis showed crystalline V- absence of large scale production operation for the amylose diffraction patterns for the starches pasted for a staples, year round availability at affordable prices prolonged time with added stearic acid while less distinct remains a mirage. However, recent focus on cassava V-amylose patterns with non-complexed stearic acid by all key stake holders with the government leading peaks were observed with a short pasting time. from the front is very encouraging. The farm to Differential scanning calorimetry of pastes before and industry/table approach is yielding positive results. residues after paste hydrolysis showed that Type I Wheat flour produced in Nigeria must contain 20% amylose-lipid complexes were formed after pasting for cassava flour. This opens up a ready market for the short duration with added stearic acid, while Type II harvested cassava and encourages more farmers to go complexes are formed after pasting for the prolonged into cassava farming. As the scale gets bigger, so will time. The present research provides evidence that the opportunity for innovation, including looking for ways amylose-lipid complexes play an important role in starch to improve on the nutrient density and quality of cassava biphasic pasting. These results may facilitate utilization based products. This will in turn help to improve on the nutritional status of Nigerians. The food industry has to From soil elements to food nutrients: does soil
tap into these opportunities and take the lead. Doing health affect food quality?
this will help address some of the key challenges the country is facing including unemployment, net food shortage and good nutrition. Dept of Food Science and Technology, Sokoine University, Tanzania Development and marketing of a sugar-free
chocolate for the West-African market: an example
All forms of life are directly dependent on plants for food. of successful industry-academia collaboration
Plant foods contain almost all of the minerals and organic nutrients (carbohydrate, protein, fat and Esther Sakyi-Dawson1, Frank Asante2, Ida Kuekey- vitamins) established as essential for human nutrition, as well as a number of unique organic phytochemicals that 1Dept. of Nutrition and Food Science, University of have been linked to the promotion of good health. Plants Ghana, Legon, Ghana, 2Cocoa Processing Company, extract elements from the soil to make the nutrients Tema, Ghana contained in the grains, tubers, roots, vegetables and fruits for food. Nutrition of people living in Africa depends Cocoa has traditionally been the most important export largely on the nutrients derived from plants and to a commodity for Ghana and. Ghana‘s cocoa beans are limited extent from animal foods. All the foods we eat, noted for their high quality. Ghana is one of the few either from plant or animal origin are produced using the countries within the African continent that has a growing elements present in the soil and through photosynthesis. cocoa processing industry. To further enhance value Nutrients contained in the foods depend on the quantity addition, processing into semi-finished products and and chemical forms of the elements present in the soil chocolate needs to be expanded. and on the extent to which plants are able to extract or mine these nutrients from the top soil. Therefore, good Recognizing the need for expansion of their market by quality food depends on soil health (Soil type, physical bringing new chocolate products onto the market the characteristics and soil pH) and agricultural practices. Cocoa Processing Company took advantage of the African Knowledge Transfer Partnership programme to A study conducted to elucidate some of the processes partner with food scientists in the University of Ghana to involved in nutrient uptake and nutrients in vegetables achieve their aim. The goal of the project was to revealed that soil properties (structure, pH and moisture) improve on competitiveness and productivity of the have significant influence on nutrient uptake by company and to increase its share of the confectionery vegetables and content in the vegetables. In addition, market in Ghana and West Africa. To achieve this differences in nutrient uptake were observed to vary with scientific knowledge, technology and skills were to be the type of crop grown in the different types of soils. maximized to bring a new product onto the market whilst Amaranth had a higher capacity to take up calcium, zinc using an approach that brought mutual benefit for the and iron compared to other types of vegetables such as partners involved. The academic partners gained hands- sweet potato leaves and Chinese cabbage. Therefore, on experience by their engagement in a product the nutrient quality of foods depends on what is development effort from concept generation through contained in the soil and the ability of plants to draw up product formulation to product launch whilst the industry the elements from the soil. However, factors such as partners benefitted from theoretical insights in terms of processing and preparation may also contribute to product formulation matrices, and sensory techniques nutrient quality of the food that is finally consumed by which enabled the company to meet its target. human beings. It is important that agriculturalists, food scientists and nutritionists work together to ensure This presentation will provide an overview of the wholesomeness on the foods that we consume. pathways that lead to a successful collaboration and the Wednesday, 09 October 2013 – Oral
opportunities on the other. Finding this delicate balance Abstracts
brings many challenges to the retail sector including: Plenary Lectures
 buying food at an affordable price, whilst taking food safety and quality into consideration;  accessing and managing innovative food Food as a micronanosystem and the interaction with
 listing and developing relationships with suppliers to ensure an adequate and consistent Pingfan Rao, Jianwu Zhou, Lijing Ke supply of quality products; CAS.SIBS - Zhejiang Gongshang University Joint Food  handling customer complaints and food crises and Nutrition Research Center, Hangzhou, China when they occur;  regulatory issues, such as ensuring suppliers When food ingredients undergoes processing, some comply with new regulations and dealing with composition interact with each other to generate new varying levels of enforcement in different attributes as in Maillard reaction, while some others can provinces and their impact on food retailers. rid themselves of the confinement of the original structures and migrate from the solid phase to the This presentation will include real case studies to solution phase with the disruption of cellular structures. illustrate the above-mentioned challenges and will seek The former reaction has been extensively investigated, to identify solutions to some of these identified issues. but the latter remains almost unknown. Our recent works indicate that the latter is the physiochemical reaction which endows food with some of its most important Innovation in food and beverage packaging
biological functions. It is fascinating to find that once in the liquid phase, some of the liberated molecules Morongwa Themba, Anee Sieberhagen assemble into new structures from nano to micro scale with outstanding excellent physiochemical and biological Nampak R&D, Cape Town, South Africa properties. With this insight, even cooking is no more a low-tech or no-tech chore but a process for natural The last 200 years have seen packaging evolve from being a container for the product to becoming an micronanosystem most closely related to the wellness important element of total product design (Cole, 2011:3). human being. The formation of nanoparticle during An example is the extension from packing tomato sauce processing will be illustrated with our work on in glass bottles to squeezable co-extruded multi-layer nanoparticles from Alisma orientalis, a medicinal herb. plastic bottles with oxygen barrier material to achieve Meanwhile, by a method of visualization of intracellular longer shelf life. Since the 19th century, innovations in superoxide distribution in living rats, the hepatic food science and technology and importantly too, in superoxide was found to be discharged into the packaging materials have seen a large variety of food intestine, the most important site for food and body and drinks become available to consumers. interaction, through the connection of the bile duct. With the intestine involved in the storage and disposal of In recent years there has been an increasing demand for superoxide as the visceral organ‘s metabolic waste, the packaging that offers the consumer convenience and interaction of food nanoparticles with the body can be expected to be elucidated to be much more significant environmentally friendly. Packaging will also need to than imagined in a more straightforward manner, and become smarter to more effectively communicate with food will be thy medicine in a more convincing manner. consumers, improve convenience, augment brand identification and enhance sustainable credentials (Cole, Challenges in food retail management
This will continue to grow in importance on the packaging agenda (Datamonitor, 2013). For instance, a can or bottle that chills itself, was seen by some to be the holy grail of beverage packaging innovation; and had Retired, Johannesburg, South Africa remained out of reach, until now. There have been, in the past, many innovations in packaging. An example of The market in South Africa has both a very sophisticated one that addresses both the sustainability and consumer first world retail component and a very large friendly issues is new soy sauce pack, recently launched unsophisticated rural component. Business leaders need in Japan. The pack consists of a very lightweight (3.2g) to find a balance between ensuring safe and quality food plastics; three-side seal inner pouch with an integral for consumers on the one hand and creating work pour spout, which gives excellent control when pouring. establish a basis for the manufacture of safe and stable Once the pack is empty, the two packaging components (pouch and outer cartonboard) can be easily separated and Allergens: lessons learnt
This presentation will highlight numerous types of food and beverage packaging innovations by focusing on:  new packaging technologies Food & Allergy Consulting & Testing Services (FACTS),  the environment Milnerton, South Africa  light-weighting  convenience In 1996 the UN Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on  active and intelligent packaging, and ―hidden‖ allergens in food was held to consider  intelligent packaging coatings implementation of precautionary allergen labelling. Furthermore attention will also be paid to the various types of packaging substrates available namely; metal, thresholds, risk assessment, testing methods and other paper, plastic and glass. related issues. Subsequently legislation has been enacted to protect at-risk consumers throughout the world, including recently in South Africa. Science has progressed. Methods of evaluation have evolved. Novel food processing technologies and their
Manufactures have had to change mind-sets. Auditors validation
have revised manuals. Consumers have become empowered. Hard lessons have been learnt. How has South Africa fared? Current aspects regarding allergens Science and Technology Leader for Microbiological in foods, including regulations, testing and other relevant Safety, Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, local and international issues will be addressed. Unilever R&D, Sharnbrook, Befordshire, UK Practical real-world illustrative examples will be presented. Novel processes used to prolong the shelf-life of foods are generally regarded as those involving recently- developed technologies or applications (the technologies Symposium: ICMSF Food Safety Risk
themselves may not be new concepts). Many of these utilise non-thermal methods, such as high pressure, Management
pulsed electric fields, pulsed light or ultrasound and others make use of thermal effects, or combinations of some of the above. The efficacy of these novel The use of risk-based metrics for managing food
processes is generally compared to traditional thermal processing, used either alone (e.g. commercial sterilization) or in combination with other traditional preservation methods (e.g. reduced pH/aw, storage at Director, Anelich Consulting, Pretoria, South Africa preservatives). Validation of irradiation, for example, The international adoption of the World Trade initially focussed on demonstrating equivalence to the Organization Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures 12D concept used in canned foods and more recently, Agreement (WTO/SPS) in 1995 drove the importance of activities have concentrated on the different scientific the work conducted at the Codex Alimentarius criteria that should be used to demonstrate ‗equivalence‘ Commission to a new level. This occurred due to the to a wider scope of traditional approaches. The factors recognition of Codex Alimentarius as the international requiring consideration include target microorganism(s), standards setting body for SPS issues related to foods. the mechanism of action (if known), the performance Many clauses in the SPS agreement emphasize the standard(s) (e.g. n log reduction or inhibition of growth), need for a risk-based approach to food safety impact of food or food components on the fate of target management, hence the development of the Risk microorganisms, recovery methods, modelling the fate of Analysis Framework by Codex Alimentarius in the early target organisms, validation that the process is effective (including scale-up), identification of critical limits to deliver the performance standard(s) and definition of the The process of Quantitative Microbiological Risk operating characteristics/parameters for the process. Assessment (MRA) is now well-entrenched within Measures of reproducibility and reliability are also FAO/WHO as well as in many countries. Whilst the required. General considerations and those more results of microbiological risk assessments (MRA) can relevant to particular novel processes are discussed, to assist national authorities in determining the Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP) for their particular In the second part we will provide details on the different populations, the question is often raised as to the elements defining microbiological criteria as described in significance of such results for the food industry. the Guidelines of the Codex Alimentarius on the establishment of microbiological criteria. The purpose, steps as well as results of a typical MRA will be discussed. This information will be linked to risk In the last part of the presentation, we will discuss the management and food safety management principles. role and application of microbiological criteria in a food The conceptual equation (H safety management system and in the context of the FSO) of the International Commission on Microbiological microbiological risk management concepts developed Specification for Foods (ICMSF) will be used to illustrate and published by Codex Alimentarius. how the food industry can use risk-based metrics such as Performance Objectives, Performance Criteria, Process Criteria and Control Measures to better manage Useful microbiological testing for meat and poultry
food safety, based on results of MRAs. products
Understanding the uses and limitations of attributes
Food Safety Centre, University of Tasmania, West sampling plans
Hobart, Tasmania Meat is an important commodity internationally, Food Safety Centre, University of Tasmania, West consisting of fresh (chilled and frozen) meats and a Hobart, Tasmania variety of fermented, dry-cured and smoked, as well as cooked products. Poultry is also an important source of Principles for the specification of microbiological criteria protein and poultry meat is distributed in various raw, for foods require that the criterion also specifies a and cooked, forms though international trade is not as sampling plan defining the number of samples to be extensive as for red meats. Both types of meat, and taken and the size of the analytical unit. This is because the sampling plan has a direct effect on the sensitivity of microbiological quality and safety issues as well as the test, particularly when the testing involves hazards that are specific to each product type. enrichment (presence/absence) methods. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the This presentation will describe how the sensitivity of microbiological aspects of quality and safety of meat and attributes sampling plans can be determined, and poultry products. It will also give an overview of ICMSF illustrate the confidence that they can provide about the recommendations for useful microbiological testing of microbiological status of the product being tested. The these products including, as appropriate, testing of presentation will show that, when the acceptable processing environments, processing lines and finished proportion of defective units in the lot is low, attributes sampling plans require large numbers of samples to prove that the lot, as a whole, is acceptable. In this situation, end-product testing may be of limited utility Management of Salmonella in low-moisture foods
and other approaches (such as HACCP), will be more effective for assurance of microbiological quality and Jean-Louis Cordier safety. Nonetheless, attributes sampling plans still have application in some situations and understanding their Nestec Ltd., Nestlé Quality Assurance Center, Vevey, limitations is important for interpreting results based on Switzerland Several low moisture foods such as chocolate, peanut products, spices or pet foods have been implicated in Microbiological criteria – past, present, future
sporadic but recurrent outbreaks during the last decades. Jean-Louis Cordier This presentation will shortly review relevant outbreaks Nestec Ltd., Nestlé Quality Assurance Center, Vevey, caused by contaminated low-moisture foods. The routes Switzerland of contamination will be discussed as well as the In this presentation we will review the different types of relevant hygiene control measures allowing to effectively microbiological criteria existing as well as their usage control Salmonella during manufacturing in order to and application. prevent contamination and subsequent consequences. Management of drinking and processing water –
microbiological aspects

Useful microbiological testing for fruit and vegetable

Jean-Louis Cordier Nestec Ltd., Nestlé Quality Assurance Center, Vevey, Switzerland Science and Technology Leader for Microbiological Safety, Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, While the requirements for drinking water for the direct Unilever R&D, Sharnbrook, Befordshire, UK consumption and the necessary measures to obtain water fulfilling the established requirements are quite Fresh fruit and vegetables are an essential part of the well-known, aspects related to the usage of water in human diet as a source of nutrients, fibre and vitamins food processing are often less well-known. and consumption has increased significantly in many countries in recent years. However, this increase in During food processing, water is used in many different consumption has also been accompanied by an ways such as for washing of raw materials, cleaning increase in foodborne disease associated with these equipment and premises, transporting of raw materials products. For example, in the US, outbreaks associated or intermediate products, heating and cooling as well as with fresh produce increased from 1% to 12% between an ingredient as part of the recipe. Certain types of the 1970‘s and 1990‘s. Microbiological contamination of usage are common to many different types of products fresh produce arises from many different sources, while other will be specific to certain types of products including soil, manure, irrigation water, wild animals, Microorganisms can persist in soil for many months or Water is therefore either a constituent of a food product even years. Products are often eaten raw or are or will be in direct contact; in certain cases the contact minimally processed, allowing survival of contaminating may only be indirect or incidental. The use of water in microorganisms. Since there may be no intervention food processing premises may require specific or step that will ensure safety of fresh produce, prerequisite additional treatments, e.g. to allow for re-circulation or programmes, such as Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) usage in specific foods, and therefore the management and Good Hygienic Practice (GHP), and Hazard of related hazards needs to be adapted to the situation. Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) programmes This presentation will illustrate several cases. are essential. Microbiological testing is an important tool that is used demonstrate adherence to both GAP and GHP, to validate and verify HACCP plans and also to aid Food, Nutrition and Well-Being
in investigations of outbreaks or contamination incidents. This presentation aims to give practical guidance for the microbiological testing of fresh produce and associated materials, such as irrigation water and compost used for Enhancing product value through food science and
cultivation. The guidance provided was developed by nutrition
expert elicitation. The relative importance of testing of critical Brinda Govindarajan processing environment and finished product are Kellogg Company, Singapore considered and recommendations made for useful testing, with emphasis placed on testing for specific Lifestyle changes have caused consumers to lean more indicators, such as Escherichia coli, or particular and more towards processed foods. Convenience and pathogens, such as Salmonella, where this is deemed variety are key factors in determining the shift towards necessary. Sampling plans and limits for fresh and processed foods. Processed foods form a big part of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables and sprouted seeds are grocery shopping and eating habits. As consumers lean more and more on processed and recommended unless other data or information indicate packaged foods, they also demand more from the food potential for contamination. Although there are many manufacturers. To make it big, new foods should provide limitations of testing and this should never be relied many values to the consumers including taste, quality, upon on its own to assure safety, it can provide useful affordability and nutrition. Consumers are also looking at food as a preventive path to health rather than just for taste and satisfying hunger. To satisfy these multiple needs the food developer must work with very closely with other internal functions to formulate foods that add value to the consumer. This presentation looks at consumer needs and how food research focus on phenolic compounds in grains due to scientists must work closely with nutritionists to add their antioxidant properties. These antioxidant properties value to consumers and develop products that matter. of dietary phenolics offer potential health benefits such as prevention of diseases related to oxidative stress (e.g. cancer and type 2 diabetes). It also offers the opportunity for these grains to be used as sources of Cereal grains – a rich source of phytochemicals of
natural antioxidants for exogenous use in foods. potential health benefits
Research into phenolic compounds in sorghum is at a more advanced stage than that of marama bean. This paper will present the current state of knowledge about University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada phenolic compounds namely, phenolic acids, flavonoids and tannins in marama bean and sorghum and their Grains are a source of nutrients and health promoting non-nutrient phytochemicals. There are basic research scavenging activity, red blood cell hemolysis, LDL questions concerning mechanisms by which grains oxidation). The potential uses of these grains in foods confer health benefits. Because of the different types of such as composite porridges or as a source of grains, the number of bioactive compounds and the exogenous natural antioxidants will be highlighted. diversity of likely biological effects, numerous and diverse experimental approaches are taken to increase knowledge on the biology of phytochemicals in cereals. The potential of South Africa's biodiversity as a
Research investigations include determination of grain efficacy in terms of antioxidant activity and free radical source of food ingredients and nutraceuticals
scavenging capacity. It is inevitable that the identification of the molecular structures of bioactive compounds responsible for antioxidant activity in grains and other CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa plants be undertaken. Using phenolics and carotenoids as the major phytochemicals, the mechanisms involving South Africa is considered to be a ―hotspot‖ for antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity biodiversity and more than 24 000 plant species occur have been studied in relationship to the molecular within its boundaries. This represents 10% of the world‘s structures of these compounds. These in vitro chemical species, although the land surface of South Africa is less approaches are necessary before grain efficacy can be than 1% of the earth. Indigenous medicinal and food explained using animal models, clinical and sensory plants are used by more than 60% of South Africans in studies. Outcome variables including reduction in their health care needs or cultural practices. The rich cardiovascular diseases and various cancers can then biodiversity also includes a large number of plant be used to demonstrate the role of grain in health and species that are used as edible foods. The leaves and roots of edible plants have a high nutritional value and can play an important role in the prevention of malnutrition in rural areas. Some of the indigenous food types such as Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R. Dahlgren Phenolic compounds and bioactive properties of
(rooibos tea) and Cyclopia spp. (honeybush tea) have marama bean [Tylosema esculentum (Burchell) A.
developed as an agricultural industry with export activity. Schreiber] and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)
Several publications on the use of South African plants Moench] – implications for potential food uses
as edible crops have been described. A book titled Gyebi Duodu1, Eugenie Kayitesi1, JS Shelembe1, ―People‘s Plants‖ classifies edible plants based on their Henriette L de Kock1, D Cromarty2, M Bester3, Amanda preparations and the nature of the plant part used. In another survey, a book titled ―Foods from the Veld‖, the uses of several edible plants are described. South 1Department of Food Science, Institute of Food, Nutrition Arica‘s biodiversity and indigenous knowledge could and Well-Being, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South potentially be used to identify concepts and products for Africa, 2Department of Pharmacology, University of different markets viz. edible plants as new flavourants, Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 3Department of nutritional/herbal supplements as sweeteners and for the Anatomy, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa control of hunger; perfumes as a source of fragrances, and natural colorants. The marama bean is an underutilised legume that grows wild in the arid and semi-arid regions of Southern Africa However, despite South Africa‘s huge biological where it is used as a food source by the rural resources only a few edible crops have been communities of the Kalahari Desert. Sorghum is an important cereal staple in many communities of arid and Biosprospecting programme could unlock the potential semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia. There is increased of SA‘s Biodiversity and lead to new commercialisable products for the food industry. The current research programme would need to include national awareness programme focuses on the transformation of African and behaviour modification, especially related to traditional medicines and edible plants into scientifically consumer food choices and the discretionary addition of validated herbal medicines; the discovery of new pharmaceutically active ingredients; food ingredients and nutritional supplements; cosmetic ingredients and What South Africans eat, the current burden of disease providing opportunities for the establishment of and the importance of salt intake as well as the role of community-based agro-processing businesses for the the food system will be discussed. production of crops. This value addition to biodiversity and indigenous knowledge through scientific innovation is conducted through consortium-based research. The Nutritionists, food scientists and the food industry –
food application focus of this research programme in joining forces to improve the nutritional profiles of
collaboration with industry is discussed. processed foods
Salt - why we should reduce salt intake in South
Sunley Consulting, Johannesburg, South Africa considering
There is strong criticism of the food industry among many nutrition professionals as one of the main Hettie C. Schönfeldt, Nicolette Hall, Buelah Pretorius contributors to obesity and other food related public Institute of Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of health concerns. While the food industry is certainly far Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa from perfect, the more emotional and politicised members of the nutrition community often simply do not The South African National Health and Nutrition understand the very real challenges faced by food Examination Survey (2011/2012) found that the majority companies in improving the nutritional characteristics of of South African adults and children, and especially their products and have very limited knowledge of women, are overweight or obese, while many individuals practical factors such as technical feasibility, cost and palatability. The confrontational approach adopted by micronutrient deficiencies, i.e. anaemia and vitamin A these so-called ‗political nutritionists‘ that typically deficiency (SANHANES-1, 2012). High blood pressure incorporates simplistic and impractical regulatory based (hypertension) poses a health and economic burden on solutions is unlikely to achieve the desired effect due South Africans by virtue of its costly complications, and largely to the behaviour related nature of many of the early death. Uncontrolled high blood pressure (BP) causes of obesity. There are however a number of other results in high rates of strokes, heart attacks and other more desirable and realistic ways in which the nutrition forms of heart disease. The increasing incidence of community can interact in a much more constructive obesity and the consequent increases in non- manner with the food industry. Food scientists and communicable diseases such as hypertension (>10% marketing personnel need to work with nutritionists to pre-hypertensive, >10% hypertension) experienced enable them to understand the practical constraints that along with urbanization has placed the spotlight on food exist in changing the nutritional characteristics of systems to embrace nutrition considerations. particular products and encourage constructive criticism in this area. A further option is using nutrient profiling as The South African Department of Health has responded a means of assessing the effect of potential to the World Health Organization (WHO) Physical compositional changes. From a commercial perspective, Activity and Health Report by setting targets towards it is possible to incentivise companies to improve the improved health outcomes by 2020. These include nutritional quality of their products by linking staff reducing by at least 25% relative premature mortality remuneration and in particular performance bonus from non-communicable diseases; reducing the mean payments to the achievement of specific average population intake of salt to less than 5 grams per day; compositional criteria for their product ranges. A and reducing the prevalence of people with raised blood suggested model for this process will be proposed which pressure by 20%. includes not only product composition but also the volumes of different products sold by the companies. promulgated a salt reduction programme, enforced by legislation to reduce the levels of sodium / salt found in processed foods in South Africa (Government Gazette: No.R.214, under section 15(1) of the Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act 1972 (Act 54 of 1972). In order to be successful, an integral part of the Food frauds: food safety in jeopardy?
them to accomplish your goals and self-understanding to apply your leadership skills in effective ways. Herman B.W.M. Koëter If you are a student or new professional, establishing Orange House Partnership, Brussels, Belgium your leadership profile early in your career is essential. And this workshop was designed with you in mind! Food fraud relates to food of which the ingredients, the During the 3-hour interactive workshop, you will explore provenance, the amount of the product or any other commonly held myths about leadership, discover your aspect of the product differ slightly or significantly from leadership profile and build a short term action plan for the claim printed on the package. Generally, misleading achieving one of your goals. You also will hear stories of information such as much smaller contents than the leadership success from the facilitators who will share package suggests or misleading statements such as their personal perspectives on leadership. ―less fat‖ without any reference to what this comparison refers to, are not considered fraud. Also claims such as ―Fair Trade‖ product for products of which only one ingredient is indeed ―Fair Trade‖ are not considered as Industry
fraudulent. Major cases of fraud such as the melamine added to animal feed and infant formulas in China are making headlines in leading newspapers around the globe. However, products which are over the ‗best before‘ date which are repacked with a new and much The functional properties of sugar
later ‗best before‘ date usually are not attracting much public attention. On the other hand, rather frequent events of food contamination such as aflatoxin-infested Sunley Consulting, Johannesburg, South Africa pistachio nuts, Salmonella contamination of peanut butter, or dioxin contamination of potato chips can be In the midst of all the controversy associated with the intentionally (fraudulent) or intentionally (usually a nutritional properties of sugar, not to mention its role as process-related failure). The lecture will address a the world‘s most important sweetener, it is all too easy to number of cases of fraud and failures but will not forget how much of sugar‘s role relates to its functional mention products, producers or retailers by name. It will properties. Many of the foods in which sugar is address the link between food fraud and food safety. incorporated, both for domestic cookery purposes and The aim of the presentation is to raise awareness for industrial use, could not be produced without sugar among consumers, regulatory authorities and producers or would require major expensive reformulations if it alike of the possibility of food fraud occurring and by that were to be removed from the product concerned. making an attempt to reduce such food scandals. Functional properties of sugar include texture and mouthfeel generation, shelf life improvement and inhibition of microbial spoilage, not to mention synergistic actions with other ingredients such as Leadership
proteins. This paper will summarise the key functional properties of sugar and will incorporate a discussion of some of the not-so-obvious benefits it imparts to food Leadership workshop for students and young
Alternative methods for microbiological testing
Barbara Byrd Keenan, Bob Gravani Institute of Food Technologist, Chicago, IL, USA Bio-Rad, Johannesburg, South Africa Today‘s world needs leadership at all levels and across all professions. Food science and technology is no From farm to fork: food safety is a key issue today. All different. Food scientists are positioned to lead the along the food chain, microbiological risks must be advancement of scientific and technological innovation controlled. Bio-Rad has been a key player in the industry to ensure a safe, nutritious, abundant and accessible of food safety for over 60 years and we are constantly food supply worldwide. But scientific acumen will not be improving our technologies to offer new solutions for Leadership means having a vision of what you want to microbiological testing, which allows industry to get fast achieve, knowing your strengths and how to leverage and reliable results. We will also touch on product recalls in South Africa and how we compare internationally. Bio-Rad‘s alternative methods for microbiological testing plays an important role in foods, not only regarding taste include chromogenic media and molecular biology but it also has other functions for example shelf life techniques. These solutions minimise the time to results, extension and reducing water activity. reduce costs and improve risk management for our customers. The performance of our products meets the Biorigin, a Brazilian company, with their yeast extracts most stringent requirements for food detection and all of and innovative natural taste enhancers have done our methods are tested and validated by AFNOR extensive work on different processed foods and certification according to the ISO 16140 standard and achieved sodium reductions of 40 - 50%. Recipes of AOAC-RI. These alternative methods are designed to these are presented and taste sessions will be held. allow fast and efficient testing, which can assist in the quick release of food products and can help in reducing product recalls. Value Addition of Food Industry Waste
Join us to increase your knowledge of alternative methods available for food testing and see how SA fairs in product recalls! Cereal proteins extracted from by-products can be
utilised in food and biomaterial applications

Flavour modulation technology - an olfactory and
taste synergy to reduce sugar, fat and salt

1SIK - The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, Gothenburg, 2Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden Kerry Ingredients and Flavours, Hillcrest, South Africa Cereals are a major source of biopolymers, where the FMT is an acronym for Flavour Modulation Technology. dominant application is starch utilised for food and feed. It refers to deliverable taste solutions that can be A rapidly growing alternative application is the achieved from a deep understanding of the interplay production of biofuel, mainly produced from maize in the between the sense of smell and the sense of taste. US. The starch is fermented to ethanol leaving spent Taste enhancement is well known in our culinary grain rich in cereal proteins as a by-product. The spent practices as the use of certain ingredients to "bring out grain is currently utilised predominantly as feed, but flavours" in foods. The addition of sugar to fresh value can be added by using the extracted cereal protein strawberries brings out the flavour of the fruit; addition of in food and biomaterial applications. salt enhances the flavours of savoury dishes, as does The maize prolamin protein zein is currently extracted on glutamate. The lesser known phenomenon is the a large scale and used in e.g. food and materials. enhancement of taste through the addition or Similarly, the prolamins kafirin and pennisetin can be development of certain volatiles that signal, through the extracted from sorghum and pearl millet respectively, olfactory sense, the expectation of saltiness, umami, both crops critical for food security in sub-Saharan sweetness or fattiness. Through careful selection and Africa, and have shown to have similar properties to processing, key fractions from flavours in foods enhance these taste perceptions and can deftly aid the decrease in the deployment of taste-enhancing compounds such as sugar, salt, glutamate and fat. These are key issues applications that require a replacement of wheat gluten facing the food industry and more so than ever, the e.g. in connection with celiac disease, where the only reduction of sodium in food stuffs is a key driver in treatment is a life-long avoidance of mainly wheat product renovation gluten, and related species such as rye and barley. Greater awareness of this disease throughout the world has led to a growing demand for gluten-free products Salt reduction in meat and other food applications
such as pasta and bread. Non-wheat prolamins have successfully been utilised to bake porous, leavened Yves Verger, Francois Decaris bread. The prolamins were then mixed with starch, hydrocolloids and water and baked into porous loaves. EMEA, France Foaming of cereal proteins can also be utilised to Worldwide the move has been to reducing sodium in produce technical foams for e.g. insulation, packaging or processed foodstuffs due to the widespread adverse tissue engineering. During foam formation, gas cells effects of increased hypertension culminating in grow through biaxial extension at high strain and usually cardiovascular disease and strokes. Many governments low extension rate. Low viscosity is necessary for bubble have collaborated with their food industries and started nucleation, but on the other hand, there is a lower initiatives the move to lower sodium levels in foods. Salt viscosity limitunder which the cell walls collapse during Degradation
cell expansion. Determination of extensional viscosity of the pre-foam protein melt showed that the cereal proteins in general have desired rheological properties in George Charimba1, Celia Hugo1, Piet Jooste2 the right range necessary for foaming. 1University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa, 2Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa Waste utilization in the citrus processing industry
Feather waste is produced in large amounts as a by- Andries Gous, Gyebi Duodu, Naushad Emmambux product of poultry processing plants and causes serious disposal problems. Keratin makes up over 90% of University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa feathers but it is not readily digestible by animals, and is resistant to proteases and insects. This is because In South Africa citrus waste (consisting mainly of outer keratin is made up of tightly packed α–helix and β– parts of the fruit namely flavedo, albedo, segment membranes and seeds) generated by citrus processing polypeptide chains that are extensively cross-linked by plants vary between approximately 165000 to 260000 cystine bridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic ton annually. The majority are dried and used as interactions. A very small percentage of feather waste is ruminant feed or composted after peel juice removal. steamed, treated chemically and ground to form dietary The peel juice if not utilized properly can contribute to protein supplement for animals. Biological degradation water pollution. Only a small amount of the waste is of feathers using keratinolytic organisms is an used for extraction of phytochemicals, pectin, citric acid, economical and environmentally friendly alternative. emulsions or alcohol production. Peel residue contains Chryseobacterium carnipullorum 9_R23581T, previously about 80-85% moisture. If debittered it can be used as isolated from raw chicken, almost completely degraded juice filler or sweetener in juice formulations and canned all feathers in a feather meal medium within 48 h. fruit. The bitter compounds naringin and limonin can be Proteolytic and keratinolytic activities were detected in removed by using adsorption/ion exchange resins or culture supernatants using azocasein and azokeratin enzymes or combinations of these. In a recent study, respectively. The maximum protease activity was 110 grapefruit peel juice was treated with the enzymes, U/ml after 48 h and the maximum keratinolytic activity aromase and laccase in an attempt to remove the bitter was 22 U/ml on day 3. A maximum protein content of compounds naringin and limonin. Treatment with 2.58 mg ml-1 on day 3 was achieved. Such a novel aromase (0.8% w/v) decreased naringin by almost 80% keratinolytic isolate has potential biotechnological use in by hydrolysing it into naringenin and glucose and processes involving keratin hydrolysis. rhamnose (which may be broken down further into other compounds) and decreased limonin by almost 8 times Engineering
by hydrolysing it into more than one unknown product. Aromase-treated peel juice contained no limonin after 7 months of storage, an indication that aromase treatment prevented occurrence of delayed bitterness. Treatment with laccase (3.0% w/v) only decreased naringin by 40% Effective tank and vessel cleaning: how different
and decreased limonin by only 1.2 times. Treatment with systems can help meet today's demands
a combination of aromase (0.8% w/v) and laccase (3.0% w/v) showed the greatest decrease in naringin of 95% Falko Fliessbach and decreased limonin by up to 6 times. The grapefruit peel juice became lighter on treatment with aromase and GEA Breconcherry, 21514 Büchen, Germany the clarity increased. The grapefruit peel juice became Continuously developing tank cleaning technology with darker on treatment with laccase. Respondents in a the aim of improving effectiveness and efficiency will sensory panel indicated the aromase-treated sample as help to reduce the required amount of energy and the least bitter. These results indicate that aromase can be used on its own to reduce bitterness in grapefruit peel juice by inactivating both naringin and limonin. Ever higher demands for process hygiene, combined Production of enzymatically debittered peel juice with significantly increased costs for energy required to represents an example of how the citrus industry can heat up and convey cleaning media and long add value to citrus waste. downtimes, are typical challenges for many production plants. It is therefore logical to critically analyse the cleaning processes in production plants to determine and exploit the potential for optimization. Developing tank cleaning technology to improve effectiveness and efficiency will help to reduce the required amount of energy, media, and increase hygiene in the plant Prospective: innovating efficient technologies for
environment. Cleaning components are used for energy regeneration and re-use in food process
cleaning in various production plants in the Food, industries
Beverage, Pharmaceutical and Chemical industries. They allow the cleaning of tank vessel and reactor Tilahun Seyoum Workneh surfaces – irrespective of whether they are in contact University of KwaZulu Natal, Pietermartizburg, South with product or not – to be integrated into the process. Cleaning media such as water, detergents or disinfectant solutions are applied to soiled surfaces. Food processing industries are growing in the African continent. Energy is the most important input in food Depending on the application (i.e. whether vertical or processing and is a bottleneck for development of food horizontal tanks with or without internal fittings are to be industries. This survey explores existing innovative cleaned and what type of residues are to be removed). technologies for attaining high energy use efficiency and Various types of cleaning devices lend themselves to be a future challenges as well as opportunities for used more effectively in some situations than others. development of innovative technologies that could enable efficient use and regeneration of energy in food process industries with the main focus on fresh fruit and vegetables, meat and meat products, dairy and dairy Latest innovations in low temperature concentration
products process industries. Cooling and heating are of aqueous solutions
required in food supply chains and this energy expenditure make food processing and preservation Martin van Nistelrooij costly since utilization of high energy is involved. How GEA Messo PT, s'Hertogenbsoch, The Netherlands much energy is required to cool perishable food commodities to an optimum storage temperature? How The demand for high quality liquid food products has much energy is required to thermally process different stimulated the development of high quality processes. bottled and canned food products? Where does this Besides process improvements also economic feasibility input energy that is used during food cooling or heating has been a topic in new development programs. finally goes? Since energy is neither created nor Innovations in suspension based melt crystallization destroyed, it changes from one form to another form of technology in combination with wash column technology energy or simply conveyed to the surrounding create opportunities for the production of high quality environment. Although, some operations are using beverages at acceptable costs. It also creates innovative technologies to regenerate energy after use, opportunities for more effective waste management in most cases innovative energy regeneration or re-use systems and environmental sustainability. Volume systems are missing. Refrigeration is a requirement to transportation on cost, energy consumption and commodities handling industries including storage facilities, supermarkets, restaurants and others. During refrigeration heat removed from produces and other heat The latest process developments in freeze concentration sources is usually conveyed to the surrounding as a technology will be described. In the solution pure and result of heat exchange between condenser and the spherical ice crystals are formed of a controlled size at surrounding air. How much energy is conveyed on freezing point temperature. Separation of the ice crystal continuous bases to the surrounding? What are takes place in a unique wash column separator. Due to innovative heat regeneration technologies available to the high efficiency of the wash column only pure ice is be combined with refrigeration systems to recover heat separated from the concentrated liquid and thus energy? How does the recovered heat energy can be assuring maximum recovery of all original components. used to process foods? The key future challenge to The low temperature conditions prevent undesired secure high energy efficiency for agro-processing changes of the product characteristics. industries is, therefore, development of innovative technologies for the recovery of energy in processes in a Potential applications in the food processing industry cost effective manner. and the waste water industry will be described as well as the positive impact on environmental sustainability. Thursday, 10 October 2013
The ICMSF attributes sampling plan spreadsheet
ICMSF Post Congress Workshop
Unilever, United Kingdom To simplify the design and interpretation of statistical Role of microbiological criteria in food safety and
sampling plans the International Commission on quality assurance
Microbiological Specifications for Foods has developed a Microsoft TM Excel spreasheet that automates the Jean-Louis Cordier various calculations needed to design and interpret Nestec Ltd., Nestlé Quality Assurance Center, CH-1800 sampling plans. The spreadsheet includes analysis of both two- and three-class attributes plans, as well as variables sampling plans. The quality and safety of foods is ensured through the application of hygiene control measures ranging from In this presentation, users will be introduced to the general pre-requisite programs (PRP) to the more format, features and capabilities of the ICMSF specific and focused operational pre-requisite programs spreadsheet and will learn how to use it through a (OPRP) and HACCP. number of practical exersises on computers. Sampling and testing of products is traditionally carried out, it has limitations and is therefore not adequate to Food safety objectives (FSO)
– background
ensure the quality and safety of products. While it is concepts
microbiological criteria have nevertheless a role to play Jean-Louis Cordier in quality assurance. Nestec Ltd., Nestlé Quality Assurance Center, CH-1800 This presentation will review and illustrate the role microbiological criteria and testing can play within a microbiological food safety management system. Over the last 30 years, the principles and concepts of the microbiological food safety management systems have evolved from an approach focusing on quality Statistics of sampling - designing/interpreting a
control, i.e. sampling and testing of product, to a much sampling plan to match a microbiological criterion +
more effective preventive approach. practical exercise using Microsoft Excel
While the principles of HACCP have been developed in the early 1960‘s and are now widely known in food processing, the developments of the more quantitative Food Safety Centre, University of Tasmania concepts of microbiological risk analysis up to the metrics of microbiological risk management are more During this presentation, participants will be introduced to some basic ideas and principles of statistics that underpin the performance of sampling plans. These This presentation will briefly review the developments in ideas are needed to be able to understand the power or microbiological risk analysis and illustrate how the limitations of sampling plans to provide assurance of outcome of such analyses can be used to develop food food safety. They include the variabilty of the safety objectives. The impact of food safety objectives distribution of bacteria within foods and how this affects and its link to microbiological food safety management our ability to obtain meaningful results, and the systems as applied during food manufacturing will be performance of attributes sampling plans. Participants will learn how to use Microsoft TM Excel to simplify the calculations needed to develop a sampling plan that evaluates a batch of food for compliance with a microbiological criterion or, equally, to be able to interpret what level of assurance a specific sampling microbiological sampling, and the influence of the Poisson distribution, will also be exemplified. Designing performance objectives (POs) to meet
FSOs: introduction to and use of the ICMSF FSO

Food Safety Centre, University of Tasmania A Food Safety Objective (FSO) is ―the maximum frequency and/or concentration of a microbial hazard in a food considered tolerable for human protection‖. It is intended to apply to the food at the point of its consumption but we know that organisms can grow and die in foods. Performance Objectives are microbiological criteria that are analogous to FSOs but relate to the food at the time of manufacture, rather than the time of consumption, taking into account possible changes in microbial loads during the intervening time. POs are derived from FSOs by a process that might be termed 'reverse exposure assessment'. When one takes variability into account, this can be a complicated process. The ICSMF have developed a tool using Microsoft TM Excel to assist in the process of developing POs to meet FSOs, including the consequences of variability in processes and distribution conditions. This presentation will present an overview of the FSO concept and the influence of variability, and describe how credible POs can be derived from an FSO. Participants will learn how to use this ICMSF tool, and understand the basic calculations it provides, through a number of practical exercises on computers.


Grna-61-11-06 1166.1170

Journal of Gerontology: MEDICAL SCIENCES Copyright 2006 by The Gerontological Society of America 2006, Vol. 61A, No. 11, 1166–1170 Exercise: An Active Route to Healthy Aging Aerobic Exercise Training Increases Brain Volume in Aging Humans Stanley J. Colcombe,1 Kirk I. Erickson,1 Paige E. Scalf,1 Jenny S. Kim,1 Ruchika Prakash,1 Edward McAuley,2 Steriani Elavsky,2 David X. Marquez,2 Liang Hu,2 and Arthur F. Kramer1

Quorum sensing in aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and the effect of the autoinducer synthase asai on bacterial virulence

Contents lists available at Veterinary Microbiology Quorum sensing in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes andthe effect of the autoinducer synthase AsaI on bacterial virulence Johanna Schwenteit ,, Lone Gram , Kristian F. Nielsen , Olafur H. Fridjonsson ,Uwe T. Bornscheuer Michael Givskov , Bjarnheidur K. Gudmundsdottir a Institute for Experimental Pathology, University of Iceland, Keldur v/Vesturlandsveg, IS-112 Reykjavı´k, Icelandb National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søltofts Plads bldg 221, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmarkc DTU Sytems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Søltofts Plads bldg 221, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmarkd Prokaria, Matis ohf, Vı´nlandsleið 12, 113 Reykjavı´k, Icelande Institute of Biochemistry, Department of Biotechnology and Enzyme Catalysis, Greifswald University, Felix Hausdorff-Str. 4, 17487 Greifswald, Germanyf Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark