NORMAL AND PREMATURE ADRENARCHE Alicia Belgorosky; María Sonia Baquedano; Gabriela Guercio; Marco A. Servicio de Endocrinologia, Hospital de Pediatría Garrahan, Buenos Aires, 1. INTRODUCTION Adrenarche occurs only in higher primates, typical y at 6-8 y of age in humans, when the innermost layer of adrenal cortex, the zona reticularis, develops. This is an event of posnatal sexual maturation in which there is an
Sp nl 2002 final copyNewsletter of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society
A Message from the Board CHS NEEDS YOU! to help raise $100,000
Over the past two years our services have expanded dramatically, as we try to keep up with the high demand for informationand support to those with hemochromatosis and their families. The number of newsletters, brochures and information pack-ages have doubled. We have expanded our website to reach out to the medical community as well as all other Canadians. Weare also working hard to support our network of valuable contacts, volunteers, and medical " I was lucky that
professionals, who are constantly promoting awareness in their communities. We need to be sites like this one
able to continue and expand this work.
enabled me to
recognize that I have
This growth has taken its toll on our small office. We now have 3 part time staff to keep up with the demands, and at the same time our costs for stationery, printing, postage, computers,rent, telephones, and wages continue to rise.
Keep up the good
Hemochromatosis is the NUMBER ONE genetic disorder in this country. Through charitable giving, you are becoming apartner in reaching the Society's goal of promoting the health of ALL CANADIANS suffering from hemochromatosis. Ev- "You've given eryday we are getting closer to obtaining this goal, but we cannot do this without your ongoing generos-
me a lot of
ity. Unfortunately donations in 2001 were down from the previous year. As a non-profit society, without government funding, we have to raise our own money to continue our services.
At this time of year when donations are generally down, it is our hope to inspire you to think of ways in which you may be able to help in your community. Perhaps you can talk to your local media or organize a local fundraiser. Have a dance or dinner, or make us the charity of your choice at the office. Many of the support." you may have connections to large organizations or charitable foundations that could make our society
the recipient of their charitable donations. It took 5 years for our president to convince her golf clubto make hemochromatosis the designated charity to receive the proceeds of their annual Ladies "I am so glad
Invitational Golf Tournament. This effort resulted in a $20,000 cheque received in 2001. So it does to have the
DO YOUR PART! Ask your family and friends to become members and to donate.
Now with the International Association of Hemochromatosis Societies getting more attention in themedical communities around the world, it is the time to come together to stop this deadly disorder.
We can save lives through early detection. Maybe it will be someone in your family or a friend of yours. Together we canmake a difference in the future of Canadians and their families.
2002 BOARD OF DIRECTORS
President Emeritus: Marie Warder
National President: Charm Cottingham
Nancy Cottingham Powell, Kay Belanger National Vice President: Elizabeth Minish
Dr. Sam Krikler, Dr. William Saywell National Secretary: Rick Plumridge
Julie Miller, Michael English, National Treasurer: Rohan Hazelton
Member of the InternationalAssociation of Hemochromatosis Societies Hemochromatosis in the News
Arie Boom .To see what can be rescued!
Arie Boom (49 years old) suffers from International News; "Celtic gene traced back to 1000 AD linked to
hemochromatosis. Diagnosed too late. Incurabley ill. He hemochromatosis disorder," Dublin, Oct 2000 has found the motivation to make a personal contribution The Hinton Parklander; May 2001
to the promotion of as much knowledge as possible about North Shore News; "Ladybugs Golf Seymour for good cause," Jul 2001
Richmond Review; "Volunteering the right target for bowlers," Jul 2001
hemochromatosis. A journey around the world. Two years.
Times Colonist; "Trumping Iron" by Katherine Dedyna. Interviewed
By sea. Alone.
Marguie Nordman, Oct. 2001 Arie Boom is the head of harbor traffic in the coastal Optimum; Institute for Positive Health for Seniors "Iron Overload,"
town of Harlingen, the Netherlands. He was also a crew member of the Royal Dutch lifeboat Association. After 15 The New York Times; "Blood donors with a need to give" by Eric
Nagourney, Oct 2001
years in the merchant navy this was his way to stay in Ottawa Newspaper - Le Devoir; Sante, Dec. 2001
touch with the sea.
South Fraser Health Region Newsletter; "Hemochromatosis Experts in
His illness has put an end to his rescuing. He is SFHR," Dr. Krikler and Marie Warder, Dec, 2001 dropping everything and is setting out. This will definitely Toronto Star; "Science Friction: Greed vs. public good," Feb. 2002
be the last time. But it will be a historic one. A journey Ottawa Citizen; "Gene Patents hike research costs," Feb 2002
ON THE AIR
around the world with the goal: Public Awareness.
CJOH, Ottawa Support Group, Oct 2001
After a long search, the most suitable sailing boat was Channel 6, Crime Scene Investigations discussed HHC, BC, Oct 2001
found. The next months will involve rigging, fitting out Ottawa Support Group, Sylvie Desjardins, Jan 2002
and stocking up the ship. Public awareness is carried bypublicity. The search for sponsors is ongoing That is whythe sails are still white. The hull is still bare. Arie Boom will sail. That is certain. His website: www.ironoverload.nl The Next Annual General Meeting
This will take place on Saturday May 4, 1pm at the Caring General Information on
Place in Richmond BC. Come and voice your opinion and particpate in a question and answer period with one of our medical advisors.
What is it? - The excess storage of iron in the body.
Awareness Week, May 25-31
What is the cause? - Primarily hereditary
Help us spread the word about HHC. Ask us for brochures Most common symptoms - chronic fatigue, joint
and posters to distribute, talk to your local media. This pain, irregular heart beat, mood swings and year we are targeting post secondary schools.
confusion, bronzing of the skin and abdominal pain.
Ottawa Support Group
Most common complications - liver and heart
Located in the Boardroom of the Ottawa Hospital disease, diabetes, arthritis and hormonal Riverside Campus and scheduled for: Thursday Feb. 14th; Thursday March 14th; Tests required for diagnosis - serum ferritin,
Thursday April 11; Wednesday May 8th transferrin saturation percentage and genetic testing.
Phone; (613) 739- 9277 Treatment - phlebotomy treatments (bloodletting)
Everyone is Welcome! which are ongoing for life -LITERALLY! Richmond Support Group
Reference reading - The Bronze Killer; The Iron
Saturday April 13, 2002 12:00 pm-2:00pm Elephant; Iron Disorders Institute Guide to Located at the Caring Place in Richmond RSVP to our office if you are interested in attending.
Successful Pregnancy Following
estrogen, serum progesterone, FSH, and LH levels tested. Myestrogen levels were normal, but I had low levels of FSH and Diagnosis of Hemochromatosis
When I asked various physicians about my chances of By Jill C. Cordova Ph. D
having a successful pregnancy, most tried to dissuade me. They often seemed nervous because they knew so little about the is well established as disease. It was hard to find a obstetrician/gynecologist who a cause of infertility knew much about hemochromatosis. The physicians seemed concerned about the extra stress placed on a woman's body women. Despite its during pregnancy and the usual need for more iron for the frequency and effect mother and fetus. After much searching, I did find one physician who suggested that I consider hormonal therapy to induce system, Hemochro- ovulation, but I decided to let my body discern whether I was matosis has attracted able to conceive. I am happy that my case history confirms that little attention in successful pregnancy without hormonal therapy can occur after fertility textbooks (Tweed and Roland, 1998). These textbooks diagnosis of Hemochromatosis.
suggest that an early diagnosis of hemochromatosis is important since phlebotomy treatment can restore hypothalamic-pituitary Tom Ross, Phlebotomist.
and reproductive functions. To order the full article send us your nameand address, or use our toll free number. Rolling veins exists mostly in people with poor connec- tive tissue. The vein is loose like a rope. When the needle is I was diagnosed with hemochromatosis in 1987 at the inserted the vein rolls away making it difficult for the technician age of 30. My symptoms included fatigue, osteoarthritis, bronze to penetrate.
skin color, enlarged organs, a ferritin level of 8100, and an iron One method that works best is easy: facing the patient, saturation level of 91%. I immediately began phlebotomy apply tourniquet as usual. Then, using your free hand, grasp the therapy and continued an average of twice weekly phlebotomies arm of the patient under the elbow and pull the flesh taut-like, for just over a year. Since then my ferritin levels have consistently like the skin over the top of a drum. The vein will pop up nicely stayed around 25 and I have phlebotomies three or four times a and it cannot move. A technician should be able to draw blood year. I had no permanent organ damage. However, I do have easily and painlessly. This takes know how and a bit of extra advanced osteoarthritis in my ankles and knees which could have After more than 10 years of drawing blood Tom has been precipitated by my participation in triathlons and competi- learned some more tips for painless blood extraction. When the tive soccer. I was amenorrheic for two years, from 1986 vein is small and difficult to find, it is helpful to apply two through 1988.
tourniquets: one is placed above the site and the other below the Because my estrogen levels were low, beginning in 1988 I site. This creates a dam, so to speak. The vein then becomes full began estrogen and progesterone therapy (Premarin and Cycrin).
and is easy to draw.
I continued this hormone therapy for six years, basically to On the small vein it can be productive to take the time to resume regular menstrual cycles and prevention of osteoporosis.
heat the towel (hot water) and apply just above your site. This will I had a spontaneous second period within one month in 1994.
dilate the vein with more blood thus making your "target" more At this time I decided to stop the hormonal therapy and waited visible and easy to enter. I know sometimes we are rushed for to see if I would begin menstrual cycles on my own. My time but these extra steps will actually save you time in the long monthly menstrual cycles resumed without hormonal therapy.
run. No one needs to hurt with a draw done with a little During the summer of 1998, I became pregnant and had a care.From IDINSIGHT newsletter form IRON DISORDERS Org.GreenvilleUSA.
miscarriage at 10 weeks gestation. I continued to have regularmenstrual cycles until February 2000, when I became pregnant at Painful Venesection Treatment
the age of 43. I had a normal, healthy pregnancy and gave birthto a healthy eight-pound girl in November of 2000.
Since my twenties I have been diagnosed constantly as The best method I have found is to buy some Xylocaine Oint- anemic. I was even given iron prescriptions while in college, ment. Apply the ointment at least 30 minutes before giving your prior to my diagnosis of hemochromatosis. I continued to be at blood. If you find it a little messy or sticky, place a small piece of anemic levels throughout my pregnancy, however this did not gauze over it and tape it in place, which should keep the ointment seem to affect either my pregnancy or my daughter. During the from getting onto your clothes. I have been using Xylocaine six years prior to my second pregnancy, twice I had my serum (pronounced Zylocaine) for a year now and have found it verysuccessful.
From Great Britain newsletter March 2001 MAIL- I am homozygote and so is my brother. I wouldn't have known except that I had gastric by pass and they track your blood work every three months. The dietician noticed that I had elevated iron and through AG HER insistence the doctor finally sent me to see a specialist, where the diagnosis was made. This helped my brother because he has arthritis.
At present, I won't be able to keep my weight up by drinking Ensure.
We have taken the liberty of excerpting from some of the many letters we received from our readers Thank you for writing. I have been genetically tested and I have hemochromatosis.
After I was tested, my husband was tested and he too is genetically I am 41 years of age. I was born of Norwegian and Irish the same as I am. I was tested because my father and his sisters have descent. I am one of two siblings both diagnosed with hemochroma- tosis. My brother passed away with massive heart failure at the age Since being tested I am hearing more about this condition.
of 31 years. At about the same time I was diagnosed.
However there are still a lot of doctors saying it is rare. I am aware I was about 12 years of age when I started to have massive with my husband and myself having it, it isn't so rare.
headaches, followed by nosebleeds. I joined the Canadian Armed Knowing my daughter (who is 30) has it, sort of concerns me.
Forces in May of 1979. During the early years of my enlistment I had She and many other young people are taking shots to prevent preg- an abundance of energy and a glorious tan. In about 1981, then 22 nancy and are not getting periods. To me this means a danger to years old, I started to feel fatigued with very little exertion, and also untested girls. I hope doctors are thinking the same way I am.
suffered with fits of anger and moodiness.
I really wish people could say my friend, son, daughter died of I was married by then and we were trying to start a family of hemochromatosis complicated by heart failure, kidney failure, etc.
our own. I visited the military doctor, who without blood tests gave There would be a lot more awareness quickly.
me Iron pills. The fatigue never went away. My knees started to lock, P.S.
my ankles felt like I had sprained both of them, my hands ached, andmy head felt like it was going to explode with migraine headaches. I would have spells of vomiting with every migraine occurrence. The My husband (at age 56) was diagnosed in March 2001. Consequently base doctor prescribed various painkillers, which seemed to have no our children were all tested and the results are as follows: 1st born son effect on the migraines. He put me on therapy and light duties. While – heterozygote for Cys282Tyr; 2nd born son – compound heterozygote all this was going on, like a sudden wind came the sterility. I was then for the mutations His63Asp and Cy282Tyr; daughter 3rd born com- referred to a specialist at the National Defense Medical Centre in pound heterozygote for the mutations C282Y and H63D. Because of Ottawa, who prescribed anti-histamines.
these results I was tested and found to be a carrier of the H63D I received a call from my mother. My brother had had another mutation. My husband has two sisters, one has been found a carrier heart attack. He got diagnosed with hemochromatosis and said that I of Cys282Tyr, the other is currently being tested. I also have two should be tested. I was sent back to the National Defense Medical sisters that will undergo testing. "And on it goes". We have two Centre. After a lot of explaining to the base doctor and having him grandsons who will be watched and eventually tested for the gene.
call the Surrey Memorial Hospital, I too was diagnosed with Hemochromatosis. I underwent weekly phlebotomies from September of 1982 to late 1983, when I started having dizzy spells. Myphlebotomies got moved to every two weeks until my medical dis-charge on May 4th 1984. I came home to Parry Sound, Ontario.
I was diagnosed 2 yrs ago at the age of 25 and through normal blood I tried to seek compensation from the military, as I was not donations, I can maintain my iron without difficulty. My diagnosis allowed to work for a long period of time. I was unsuccessful. During was lucky because I have been a blood donor since 1955 and when the years to follow my health was quite reasonable. I regained my donating I have always had high hemoglobin levels. What I am ability to impregnate my wife and now have two beautiful children. In stressing is that blood donations don't only save other peoples' lives.
1995 I suffered from hair loss. All the hair on the crown of my head in It can help save your own as well.
a 4-inch diameter fell out. It grew back in late 1996. Later in 1997 and M. K.
1998 I began to feel the joint pains again. Also I developed a hiatus hernia with acid reflex, ulcers, and chronic diarrhea. I was found tohave very high liver enzymes, enlarged liver, and gall stones.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR I am applying for disability as a result of the arthritis, diarrhea, If you would like to share your experience, comments, concerns and sporadic vomiting. It is SO difficult to get the medical profession or suggestions with other members of the Society, consider submitting to acknowledge the real problem.
a letter to the editor for inclusion in this bi-annual publication. Since space is limited, please keep your comments relatively brief. Inorder to publish as many letters as possible, we retain the right toedit you contributions for length. conclusive, the role of non-clinical levels of iron loading seemsto require more study.
Report from Iron 2001 Conference
Dr. Eugene Weinburg, a physician whose work was Submitted by Elizabeth Minish
included in "The Bronze Killer" is a leading expert in infectiousdisease and cancer. Of special interest was his information In October I had the honor and the pleasure of repre- about the role of inhaled iron in lung cancer, especially through senting the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society at the Iron 2001 tobacco smoke, which is extremely high in iron. (This gave me conference in Greenville, SC organized by the Iron Disorders the idea to approach the anti-tobacco lobby for help in our "too Institute. IDI describes itself as an educational resource center, much iron can kill you" message!) He also talked about the not a membership based organization. As such, it produces dangers of supplemental iron for pregnant women, pointing out educational materials, hosts scientific and patient conferences (of that since during the second and third trimester a women is which this is one), and conducts workshops for nurse practitio- much more efficient at absorbing iron, there is very little case to ners and technical staff such as phlebotomists. Fundamentally, be made for this widespread practice.
based on the idea that iron's influence and imbalances are the Dr. P.D. Phatak gave a presentation on the cost effective- underlying cause of many health problems we face today and ness of screening for HHC/iron overload. Genetic screening may face in the future, the institute's mission statement is: "To continues to be controversial in the US, however some kind of reduce pain, suffering, and unnecessary death due to disorders of general population screening would definitely be cost effective.
iron such as anemia of chronic disease, iron loading anemia, iron Ironically , an HMO in San Diego recently stopped doing routine deficiency anemia, porphyria cutanea tarda, African siderosis, non iron profile screening in the aftermath of a scandal involving HFE-related iron overload, and hereditary hemochromatosis." billing for unnecessary tests in another jurisdiction. As we all Although iron disorders of all types are covered under the know, HHC is a poster child for the exercise of preventative umbrella of the institute, each of the three co-founders has been medicine. In light of the other presentations that seem to also personally affected by HHC.
implicate heterozygosity as an increased risk factor in many This was my first conference of this type and I found it to be a diseases, it occurred to me that this further strengthened the case most edifying experience on many levels. Unfortunately, atten- for genetic testing.
dance by both patients and presenters was adversely affected by There were also presentations from a number of pa- the events of September 11 tients who told their stories, many of which were very heart th, but the presentations were all of a very high caliber. Some of the highlights follow below.
rending. Of great interest to me personally were the presenta- Dr. James Connor presented information about iron tions from a man who was a compound heterozygote who is imbalances and the brain. To summarize, the ability of the brain loading iron, and from a young woman who is homozygous for to store a readily bioavailable source of iron is essential for HHC, has TS of 95% and sets off metal detectors at airports, normal neurological function because both the iron deficiency yet has extremely low ferritin and as such, has been refused and iron excess in the brain have serious neurological conse- treatments. Genetically, I am a compound heterozygote and I quences. For example, excess iron in the brain is a consistent have low normal ferritin levels yet have elevated TS%. I was observation in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease. Excess iron shaken out of any complacency I might have been experiencing in the pituitary, sometimes referred to as the master gland, is and I am presently on a mission to investigate the protocol for implicated in the mood swings, depression, impotence, and people like me because my genetic report lists the risk of iron infertility consistent with hemochromatosis. On the other hand, loading at around 2%. The IDI includes compound heterozy- evidence is accumulating that Restless Legs Syndrome is a result gotes as people with hemochromatosis in their database. I believe of too little iron in the brain. Although the brain is traditionally we may be doing this as well, but most importantly, I had never considered "protected" in hemochromatosis, recent data sug- considered this for myself.
gests that it is not. Of particular interest to me was information Attending this conference has re-inspired me and given about how heterozygotes with HHC had elevated risk levels for me a number of ideas for new ways of marketing us. It was also a number of neurological disorders including brain tumors.
great for giving me a true appreciation for the role of organiza- Another presentation by Dr. Herbert Bonkovsky looked tions such as ours and what we have to offer not just to patients at the role of HFE gene mutations in liver diseases other than we serve, but to the research community who by necessity needs HHC, including porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), Nonalcoholic to have a very narrow focus for their work. I feel much more Steatohepatitis (NASH), Alcoholic Liver Disease, and Endstage strongly now that we have a true mutually beneficial relationship Liver Disease. In all cases, the prevalence of heterozygosity for with the medical research community, who often need our HFE mutations seems to be statistically higher in patients with broader perspective to make connections and get confirmation these diseases, suggesting that these mutations may contribute to from our database of the inter-relatedness of many disease hepatic iron loading and fibrosis. Although the results are not difference. In the meantime, I searched for all the information I Member in the Spotlight
could find about hemochromatosis and managed to locate twobooks: "The Iron Time Bomb" by Bill Sardi and "The Bronze Rien van Tilborg
Killer" by Marie Warder. If the titles didn't get your attention, I was born in Holland in August 1945, three months after the contents certainly did! I had my first phlebotomy (500 mL) the end of World War II. In 1951 our family immigrated to early in June and passed out as the procedure was being com- Canada, settling in the Abbotsford area of British Columbia. I pleted. A second phlebotomy (200 mL) in the middle of June had my public schooling in Abbotsford and in 1964 attended went better. However, I frequently went into hypoglycemic UBC in Vancouver for teacher training. In September 1965, I reactions and generally did not feel well most of June. As my started teaching in Mission, B.C., and taught there for 35 years, body continued to adjust, subsequent phlebotomies had less attaining ‘freedom 55' at the end of June 2000.
Although I had rickets as a young Also in June 2000, after reading the two child, I have been relatively healthy, except for books, I went to see my doctor to request blood periodic bouts of intestinal and urinary inflam- tests to determine how iron overload may have mation/infection. During the last ten years of affected the liver. The blood work was ordered, teaching, I noticed that memory for details was as was an ultrasound of the liver, pancreas and diminishing, as was my energy level. I attrib- spleen. Blood tests showed normal liver func- uted both to increased demands of the teach- tion. Although the ultrasound indicated no ing profession and compensated by concerns with the liver and pancreas, it did reveal writing reminder notes and lengthening my an aneurysm (in rupture range) on the artery to workday to reduce the pace. Certain body the spleen! I found it rather ironical (no pun changes were also occurring - I bruised easily intended) that hemochromatosis, a potential life- and the tiny blood vessels in the whites of my threatening condition, lead to the discovery of an eyes periodically ruptured. At the end of each aneurysm and a life-saving operation! For this I day, my socks were coated with tiny flakes of skin from my lower legs. Visits to the family While going through the procedure doctor and specialists revealed no identifiable reasons for these leading up to removal of the aneurysm in October 2000, I continued with phlebotomies, gradually increasing them to 500 In November 1996, I developed chest pains and went to mL. By the middle of September, the ferritin level had dropped emergency to check for a possible heart attack. The blood tests from 778 ug/L to 239 ug/L. To date, I have had sixteen done were normal except for hemoglobin, phlebotomies and a recent ferritin test indicated 35 ug/L — well which was slightly below the norm. A within normal limits. It appears that a phle- ferritin test was ordered for possible anemia. botomy every three or four months will ‘keep The result was 646 ug/L on a scale of 20 - 778, devastating results of
me in line'.
and in the normal range!?! Three years later, in What have I learned? December 1999, I went to my doctor and overloadand subsequent a) You must take charge of your health and be
complained that I was constantly tired. I stated persistent with the medical community, par- medical costs, a yearly
that I was possibly anemic and requested an iron ticularly if you have ongoing, unexplained test. A ferritin test was done and the result was ferritin test is a sound symptoms.
flagged, showing 778 ug/L on a revised scale of investment for both you b) Maintain a record of doctor visits, including
15 - 370. I now was clearly outside the normal range, copies of lab results. It is impossible to and the government.
and using the revised scale, I was well outside three remember your medical history in detail (even if years earlier! Further tests revealed the following: Total Iron - 29 (9 - your memory isn't affected by hemochromatosis). Records 30) umol/L, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) - 34 (45 - 70) umol/L, allow you to pick out patterns that may lead to timely intervention.
and Saturation - 0.85 (0.15 - 0.55). Hemochromatosis was suspected c) If you have unexplained changes in your state of health, request a and confirmed early in April 2000. ferritin test. Considering the devastating results of undiagnosed iron At this point, I was three months away from the end overload and subsequent medical costs, a yearly ferritin test is a of the school year and retirement from teaching. I decided to sound investment for both you and the government. If there start phlebotomies in July, suspecting that I might not respond ever is a 'medical stock market', a ferritin test should be part of well to bloodletting—after all, I had lived with this condition for everyone's portfolio — it's a guaranteed winner! more than 54 years and a few more months wouldn't make much Inhaled Iron
One of the First Diseases Resulting From Iron Overload
A serious public health concern
Advanced diabetes can lead to blindness and gangrene of We don't typically think of iron as something we inhale. The the toes and fingers, requiring amputation. Diabetes can also lead intestinal lining permits only 5-10 percent absorption, whereas the lung to kidney failure, and premature death all of which can be allows 30-50 percent entry into the circulatory system.
prevented. Normally blood sugar levels are kept between 70- In the case of inhaled iron, the respiratory tract does have a 130 mg/dL by several hormonal and neuronal mechanisms, few defensive strategies. For example, the powerful iron-trappingprotein, transferrin, is present in lung lining fluid. Furthermore, lung especially by the hormone insulin, which is produced by the beta- defense cells called alveolar macrophages scavenge inhaled iron and deposit cells of the pancreas. When defects in insulin production, insulin it in a protein receptacle termed ferritin. Gradually, the protein plus the action, or both are present, high blood sugars can result.
metal is converted into an insoluble precipitate called hemosiderin.
You might ask, how does iron contaminate air and who is at Symptoms of severe diabetes mellitus may include risk? Some sources of airborne iron are obvious-dust from iron mines frequent and abundant urination, thirst, hunger, weight loss, and or smelters or from the grinding or polishing of steel. Other sources blurred vision. Physical inactivity, obesity, and abdominal body are less obvious: these include iron derived from mineral dusts from those fat distribution are all known risk factors for developing diabetes.
types of asbestos that consist of iron silicates, and the burning of tobacco.
Presence of diabetes in a family member also increases the risk Urban air particulates are also burdened with iron apparently derived from of development of diabetes, which suggests that genetic factors Tobacco plants accumulate a large quantity of iron in their play a role in causing the disease.
leaves. It is no wonder that moderate smokers have a tenfold in-creased risk and heavy smokers a 15-25 fold increased risk of dying Hereditary hemochromatosis (HHC), a common genetic form lung cancer.
disorder of iron metabolism, has diabetes as one of its conse-quences. Patients with HHC absorb as much as four times more Iron is carcinogenic in three ways. First, the metal is a powerful
iron from their diets as do people with normal metabolism.
oxidant. This action can initiate the cancer process by causing breaks Unneeded excess iron cannot be excreted and it eventually in DNA strands and by changing cellular structure. Second, iron can
accumulates to toxic levels in vital organs. The impaired organs bolster the growth of cancer cells by suppressing macrophage become unable to function properly. In most cases of HHC, defenses. Third, iron is an essential nutrient for cancer cell multiplica-
this process is somewhat slow to develop. The damage shows tion.
Excerpt from Id Insight. For the complete article contact the office.
up as a heart attack, liver failure, or diabetes after about three tofive decades of iron accumulation.
Welcome to our
More than 90% of hemochromatosis patients with New Volunteer Contacts
diabetes have Type II diabetes or are glucose intolerant andabout 1/3 of these patients require insulin. Iron can cause Gene & Lorna Sapp , Williams Lake BC, Apr-01 Howard Cordick , Richmond BC, Jul-01 damage to tissues of vital organs by changing oxygen into a James McNamee , Surrey BC, May-01 form known as free radical -increased oxidative stress. Unop- Kimberley Morrison , Richmond Hill ON, May-01 posed free radical activity can cause irreversible cell damage.
Melanie Banks , Kelowna BC, Mar-02 Thus, agents that increase free radical production, such as iron, Rick Plumridge , Aldergrove BC, Jan-02 could result in destruction of pancreatic cells.
Rien Van Tilborg , Abbotsford BC, Jul-01 Robin Camp , Calgary AB, May-01 If HHC is diagnosed before complications, such as Terry Wallbridge , Victoria BC, Aug-01 diabetes develop, maintaining a de-ironed status will significantly Therese Dupuis , Notre Dame NB, Feb-02 diminish the risk of iron-related diabetes and other diseases. As apreventative measure, if diabetes runs in your family, you might They really help us in their communities in many ways, i.e.
ask your physician to check iron levels along with blood sugar by distributing materials, contacting media, answering levels. Other major symptoms that may suggest tissue iron levels phone queries. If you would like to become a contact let are excessively high include fatigue, abdominal pain, liver damage, us know. We especially need contacts in outlying areas.
heart arrhythmias, impotence, loss of menstrual periods, depres- At present, we have no contacts in PE, YK, NT, or NU.
sion, and joint pain.
Excerpt from Id Insight. For the complete article contact the office. Welcome to our New Members
David Adam, Etobicoke ON Laurie MacQuarrie, Port Hawkesbury NF Christine O'Grady, Calgary AB Jackie Albert, Calgary AB Frances Harris, Sevogle NB Isabel Oickle, Chester NS Ambulatory Care, Langley BC Willem Hart, Toronto ON Francis Pickles, Brighton ON Kevin Audet, Barrie ON Anne Hartley, Spruce Grove AB Edith Price, Fredericton NS Rudi Bangemann, Surrey BC Anthony and Linda Helfrich, Bragg Creek AB James William Publicover, Springhill NS Dorothy Barry, Nanaimo BC Helen Helfrich, Turner Valley AB Robert Raine, Victoria BC Mercedes Bautista, Richmond BC M.J. Hering, Thorold ON Jacquelyn E. Rawson, Edmonton AB Robert Bordeleau, Bonnyville AB Robert W. Hillier, Antigonish NS Agnes Rea, Landis SK Keith & Marlene Bradley, Ottawa ON Danniel L Holden, Ta Ta Creek BC Pat Rea-Auckland, Big River SK Ray Button, Oakville ON Anne Housser, Shawnigan Lake BC Mark Redeker, Edmonton AB Park Cameron, Oil Springs ON Sharon M. Hudson, Brockville ON Vicenc Roda I Beltran, Coma-ruga Spain Kay Cathers, Toronto ON Dave Isaacson, Coquitlam BC Carla Roter, Toronto ON Jill Cordova, Grand Junction CO Lee Ann Jaerschky, Guelph ON Sam Roth, Ft. McMurray AB Betsy Cowan, Whitehorse YK Darlene Jomphe, St-Paul NB Shawn Sibbald, Ottawa ON Laurie Crozier, Ucluelet BC Andrea Jonasson, Calgary AB Cynthia Sipe, Hythe AB Helene De Villers, St. Jean Chrysostome QC Nelson Jones, Elmvale ON Earl A. Smith, Russell MB James Denney, Stouffville ON Jennifer Jones, Nepean ON Theresa Stanley, Victoria Harbour ON Mildred Deweerd, Westbank BC Sheila Kelly, St. Thomas ON Marilyn Sutherland, Calgary AB Robert Dodd, Burnaby BC Guy Lee, Surrey BC James L Swanson, Delta BC Odette Dompierre, Gloucester ON Arnold Leeder, Barrie ON Dan Sweet, Ottawa ON Therese Dupuis, Notre Dame NB Barbara Lowden, Brookings OR Clement Thivierge , Quebec City QC Anthony A. Farris, Sheet Harbour NS Stella MacLean, Coldbrook NS Georges Trenson, Rimbey AB Gene/Lorna Foss, Duncan BC Leo McGrady, Vancouver BC Nicole Vandal, Kapuskasing ON Rick Gaertner, Nipawin SK Marjorie McKinnon, Carstairs AB Rob Wells, Surrey BC Roy Gardner, Port Stanley ON Brian Meloche, Ottawa ON Kenneth Welwood, Burnaby BC Philippe & Dollena Giguere , Rock Forest QC Judy Mistal, Cranbrook BC Chris Whittington, Abbotsford BC David K Graham, Lethbridge AB Vern and Vi Morris, Chilliwack BC George Wilson, West Vancouver BC Florence & Keith Graham, Alberton PE Anna Neudorf, Portage La Prairie MB James Wright, Kinuso AB Nancy Greenhill, Manotick ON Bernadette Norlin, Lethbridge AB Brenda Zareski, East Chezzetcook NS Memorial Remembrance of Loved Ones
Our deepest condolences to the families & friends who have lost loved ones
and our thanks to the many listed below who have sent memorial gifts.
In Memory of Edward Drab In Memory of Helen Kirkwood In Memory of Douglas Wilson Ken & Ellen Barker; Mrs. Norma Davidson; Geraldine Cook-Kirschner; Jim & Alecia Ted & Joy Hoddy; Traynor Concrete Ltd.; Caroline M. and Andy Besler; Esther Wensel; McLean; Zella Laidley; H.R. Anderson; Peterborough Carpetland Inc.; J.B. Cruikshank Rita Weller and Family; Dixie Jones; Howard Betty Williams; Cheryl & Reg Coones; Sarah Enterprises; Mel Davis Masonry Ltd.; Larry Black; Alden, Jane, and Shelly Dodds; Bill & Carson; Nan Maxwell; Norman Thomas; McCarrell Bryan; Cathcart Rooney Electric Pam Burt; Thomas & Toni Morrison; The Jim Dorothy Forbes; Roy Mullen, Katherine & Ltd.; Charlie's Buzzie Carpentry; Al Smith; Hudson Family; Dr. & Mrs. M. Gurjar; Donald Keith Minaker; Sheila Troke; Richard Crossman Excavating; Peterborough Roofing; L. Evans; Eileen, Marilyn, & Gerry Hudson; &Helen Massey; Ruth Brooks; Joe & Garry & Sandy Brack; Phil & Barb Matthews; Masonic Temple, Richmond #73 Margaret Collins; Jean Sloan; Brian & Tracy Ross & Karen Bolton; Steve & Deadra Mann; Ross; Norman Thomas; Beverly McNulty; Joseph & Sonja Cunningham; Ackison In Memory of Margaret Ball Robert & Karen Dungan; Marjorie Electric; Norm Bray; Yuan & Delcie Villeneuve; Donna Stroud; William Moss Stephenson; David & Judy Stephenson; Anna Kyle; Greg & Rhonda Lustic; Frank Peter & Barb Navta; Barbara McCall Steffler; Grant McKay; Randy & Fay Andrews; In Memory of Jack Braitenbach Scott Lustic; Dean Bridges; Terry & Nancy In Memory of John Edward Fournier; Peter & Maureen Jackman; H & R Plumbing; David & Carolyn Galvin; Maureen In Memory of Sarah Caney Troy B. Brady; Rose Powers; Dana, Craig, Wilson; Doug Wilson Construction; Brian & Leah, & Emily Coppella; Partners Graphic Kimberley Groot; David & Maria Forsyth; Support; David and Barbara Leetham; Peter & Lorraine Fournier; Kandis Kyle; Ivan In Memory of Catherine Connelly Dunford Excavating Ltd.; Greg & Rhonda Mary, Louise, and Kay Kenney Lustic; John & Lee Latchford.
In Memory of James H. Lounder In Memory of Carl Doyle In Memory of Roberta Jean Price In Memory of Cora Mapson In Memory of Darcy E. Drab Norm & Kay Belanger In Memory of Harriet Ross Brian & Glenys Edwards; Donna Drab Barina; Marilyn Sutherland Danae L. Drab; Deserae Drab-Kataro; June In Memory of Bert Mapson Norm and Kay Belanger In Memory of John Schmist Brian, Laura & Adam Schmist In Memory of Wilfred Eva In Memory of Mary F. McKnight In Memory of John Sutherland Marilyn Sutherland In Memory of Betty Jean Green In Memory of Sheila Patterson Robert J. Stewart In Memory of Gail Wiebe
Testing and CFD Study of Airius Destratification Fans Report 50454/1 February 2007 Carried out for: Airius Europe Ltd Compiled by: John Quality Approved: GREG KING BSc MSc M.InstR This report must not be BSRIA Limited reproduced except in full without the written approval of an