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A Quick Guide
W: www.btuheks.nhs.uk
T: 01268 524900 ext 3594 E: [email protected]
Referencing and Citation
Anglia Ruskin University Library has an excellent online guide to
Various styles are used when preparing references for different academic
disciplines and purposes. This leaflet is based on the HARVARD referenc-
ing style and contains useful guidelines on how to cite (refer to) those
sources in your final text. but you should check with your tutor or advisor
that you are using the preferred standard for your subject. When prepar-
ing a report, extended essay or a thesis you will need to consult the pub-
lished literature: books, journal articles, conference reports, electronic re-
sources, etc.
Your completed written work must
acknowledge the sources from which
you have obtained your information.
What is referencing and citation?
 A citation is a passage or opinion from a book, article or webpage etc.,
made in such a way that a reader can identify it  A reference is a direction to a book, article or webpage etc., where cer-
tain information may be found; an indication of the author, work, page etc., to be looked at or consulted.  A reference list is a col ection of references.
Referencing is the term given to the linking of the citations within the body
of your work and the reference list. Those reading your work must be able
to fol ow the link between your work and the articles, books etc., on your
list.
Why is it important?
 You must acknowledge any source that you refer to in your assignment,
both within the text of your essay and at the end of it (by including a list of references). Information obtained from any source, including the internet, is subject to copyright law.  Referencing your sources also enables the reader/examiner to see Basildon Healthcare Library
T: 01268 524900 Ex 3594 what sort of reading you‟ve done and to be able to locate your Education Centre E: [email protected]
references if they  You should also know that if you use sources (other people‟s work) but Basildon University Hospital Opening times
don‟t cite them either within the text or in your reference list, you could Monday—Friday 8.30am—6.30pm (staffed) be accused of PLAGIARISM, academic dishonesty, which is a serious Access for reference purposes and PC use is available 24 hours a day 7 days per week to BTUH What details are needed for the full reference list?
Trust security card holders. These are the publication details of the works themselves, which vary according to the type of material used: book, article, thesis, video, etc. ii) Without author
Where does the list appear?
Order of details: The list should come at the very end of the work, before any appendices. Title. [Online]. (Date last updated). Place of publication: Publisher. It takes the form of an alphabetical listing (by author) of the works Available from: URL [Accessed date]. consulted. If more than one author has the same surname, initials determine the alphabetical sequence. If more than one work by the same Legalisation (also Decriminalisation). [online]. (2000). Drugscope. Available author is listed, these should be arranged with the earliest published work first. Works by more than one author are entered under the name which first appears on the title, or opening page, of the book/article/item and file= wip 11 1 1 legalisation.html [Accessed 9 August 2001]. are listed after works written or edited independently by this author. b) Web homepage
Order of details: Citations in your work
Title of homepage. [Homepage of name of organization]. [online]. Date Citations within your work direct readers to the reference list at the end of it. The author‟s surname, year of publication (and page number(s) if Available from: URL [Accessed date]. appropriate) should appear in the work. If the author‟s name does not form part of the statement in the work, put name, date and page number NMC. [Homepage of the UK Nursing & Midwifery Council]. [online]. 16 Available from: http://www.nmc-uk.org [Accessed 24 September 2003]. There is evidence (Smith 1990, p23) that the statistical analysis is unsound. Further Guidance on Referencing
If the author‟s name forms part of the statement put the date and page For additional support you may wish to refer to the fol owing resources: number in brackets. Anglia Ruskin University Library. Available from: Smith (1990, p23) cited evidence that the statistical analysis is unsound. Bournemouth University. Available from: If there are two authors, the surnames of both separated by "and" should
be given before the date. Citing_Refs.pdf [Accessed 22nd November 2007]. Smith and Jones (1990, p64) proved that the statistical analysis is unsound. Referencing Software
You may also like to consider using reference management software to In the first citation of a work with three to five authors, give the surnames of all
authors (order in which authors are given is that of the title page), separating the
help you organise references and compile reference lists. This software names of the authors with commas, the last comma followed by "and". enables you to download useful references from database searches into a personal database, and then to sort them as you wish. You can also use the software to produce bibliographies and reference lists in various Smith, Jones and Jones (1990) made various claims that the statistical analysis was tI is possible that if you are a university student you wil have access to Subsequent references should be in abbreviated form, the surname of the first EndNote or Refworks, amongst others, There are also a number of freely author followed by et al. available packages which can be downloaded such as Mendeley and Zotero (which works with the Firefox browser. For a comparison of the many products which are available look at… Smith et al. (1990) have provided a range of evidence to show that the statistical analysis is unsound. For a work with six or more authors, give only the first author‟s surname
Electronic Resources – Discussion lists and Email
fol owed by et al. When citing the work of one author found in the work of
a) Discussion list
another you should acknowledge that you did not consult the original
Order of details: Author. (Date). Subject of message. Discussion list [online]. Available from: (List email address or web address). [Accessed date]. Supporting evidence appears in a study by Black (cited in Smith and Jones, 1990, p64). Sandal , J. (24 May 2001). Free web-based virtual midwifery library. "Cited in " indicates that the reference to Black‟s study was found in Midwifery-research. [online]. Available from: http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/ Smith and Jones. Include only Smith and Jones in your list. lists/midwifery-research.html [Accessed 5th July 2001]. For articles in edited works, cite under the name of the author(s) of the
b) Personal email
paper, not under the name of the editor. Order of details: For works published in the same year by the same author suffixes "a", "b",
Sender. (Sender‟s email address). (Day Month Year). Subject of message. Email to(Recipient‟s email address). added to the year. Both date and letter are used in citing the source. Re- member to use the date and the letter when including the reference in Hal , D. (d.hal @BTUH.nhs.uk). (5th July 2001). Referencing for nursing and your list at the end of the essay. social science students. Email to S. Hil ( Smith (1990a, p23) has provided evidence that the statistical analysis is Electronic Resources – Websites
 You should not cite databases e.g. CINAHL, MEDLINE but you should cite any references you obtained from these databases and read as ful To cite a website with a known author use only the name of the author
text. These should be cited as ejournals. fol owed by the year the page was last updated.  In this context, the term "publisher" means an organization responsible for maintaining the Internet site. If neither the place or the publisher can The National Aids Manual (2001) suggests that abacavir may be taken be ascertained then leave it out. more than twice a day  The date of publication means the day the pages were last updated. This may appear at the end of the page. Alternatively, to find this out When the author of a website is unknown or when citing a homepage
click on View menu, then Page Source to check last modification date. give the web address (also known as the URL) of the site fol owed by the If no date can be determined write (No date). year the page was last updated. a) Web document with or without author
Over 6m people expressed an interest in UK nurse training in 1999 accord- i) With author
Order of details: English National Board http://www.enb.org.uk/ (2001) Author. (Date last updated). Title. [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. Available from: URL [Accessed date]. Quotation marks are used to enclose direct quotations from speech and
Example: National Aids Manual. (2001). Abacavir: overview. [online]. NAM Publications. writing. Quotes of less than three lines can be included in the work. AF00-443B-B8F6-DC916D131DB8.htm [Accessed 31 August 2001]. Smith (1990, p23) concluded that "there was a fundamental discrepancy in the original data". However quotes of more than three lines should be separated from the work and indented. Conference Proceedings
Reference Lists: General Principles
Order of details: References are arranged alphabetical y by authors‟ surnames. Separate
Title of conference: Conference details. Title of proceedings. Editor (s.). surnames with commas; use initials, NOT first name; use the ampersand Place of publication. Publisher. "&" not "and" to separate surnames. [Note that ampersands are not used for referencing-in-text]. Women, work and computerization: spinning a web from past to future: For printed books and articles use capitals for the first letter of the first International Federation for Information Processing; Conference (6th: word of the title and proper names; use smal letters for al other words. 1997). Proceedings of the 6th International IFIP conference. Edited by Underline the title of books and journals; do NOT underline the title of arti- A.F.Grundy et al. Berlin: Springer. cles. Separate the parts of the reference i.e. author, date, title etc with a ful stop and two spaces. Separate place of publication and publisher Legal Material
with a colon and a space. Citing law materials such as statutes, Statutory Instruments and Law Reports is very complex and many styles are in use. A suggested order of a) Printed books
details is given here for a law report, however you are advised to check Order of details: the preferred style with your tutor. Author. (Date of publication). Title. (Edition if not first edition). Place of publication: Order of details: Publisher. Example: Name of party v Name of party. Date of decision. Volume. Abbreviated Carpenito, L.J. (1999). Nursing care plans and documentation: nursing diagnoses name of report. Page number. and collaborative problems. (3rd ed). Philadelphia: Lippincott. Bolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee. 1957. 2. Al ER. 118. b) Electronic books
Order of details: Videotape, Film or Broadcast Media
Author. (Date of publication). Title. [online]. (Edition if not first edition). Place of Order of details: publication: Publisher. Available from: URL. [Accessed date]. Director/Producer. (Date of publication). Title. Series. [Medium]. Place of publication: Publisher. Carpenito, L.J. (1999). Nursing care plans and documentation: nursing diagnoses and collaborative problems. [online]. (3rd ed). Philadelphia: Lippincott. Available Examples: from: http://gateway.ovid.com [Accessed 26th March 2003]. Royal Col ege of Nursing. (2000). Infection control. RCN nursing update 93. Articles in Journals
[Video]. London: BBC. a) Printed journal article
Garden, G. (Director). (1996). What you real y need to know about Order of details: rheumatoid arthritis. [Video]. London: Video Arts Ltd for Videos for Patients Author of article. (Date of publication). „Title of article‟. Title of journal. Volume number, (Issue number if any), Page number(s). Computer Software including CD-ROM
Order of details: Swift, C.G. (2001) „Falls in late life and their consequences: implementing effective Writer, if identifiable individual with clear responsibility for intellectual services‟. B.M.J. 322, (7290), p.855-857. content. (Date of publication). Title - this is the first element if the software b) Electronic journal article
is the co-operative work of many individuals underlined. [Medium]. Order of details: Author of article. (Date of publication). „Title of article‟. Title of journal. [online]. Examples: Volume number, (Issue number if any). Available from: URL [Accessed date] Philpott-Howard, J. (1998). Infection control: training and policies for hospitals. [CDROM]. Swift, C.G. (2001) „Falls in late life and their consequences: implementing effective WB Saunders. ADAM: interactive anatomy. (1997). [CD-ROM]. Adam services‟. B.M.J. [online]. 322, (7290). Available from: http://gateway.ovid.com [Accessed 14 August 2003] Newspaper Articles
Order of details: a) Printed newspaper article
Author. (Date of publication). Title. Thesis details, University or Institution. Order of details: Name of author(s) if available. (Year of publication). „Title of article‟. Duke, K. (1999). Containing contradictions: the development of prison Name ofnewspaper. Day and month, Page number(s), (Column number). drugs policy in England since 1980. PhD, Middlesex University, School of Norton-Taylor, R. (2001). „Amnesty attacks Britain on asylum‟. Guardian. 31 May, p11, (1-2). Government Reports
b) Electronic newspaper article
a) Printed government report
i) On the Web
Order of details: Order of details: Government Department. (Date of publication). Title of report. [Popular Name of author(s) if available. (Year of publication). „Title of article‟. title]. Place of publication: Publisher (usual y Stationery Office). Series Name ofnewspaper. [online]. Day and month, Page number(s) if given. details (if any). Available from: URL[Accessed date]. Department of Health. (2000). The NHS plan: a plan for investment, a plan Norton-Taylor, R. (2001). „Amnesty attacks Britain on asylum‟. Guardian for reform. London: Stationery Office. (Cm; 4818-1). b) Electronic Government Report
May. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/ Order of details: Article/0,4273,4195474,00.htm top [Accessed 27th August 2001]. Government Department. (Date of publication). Title of report. [Popular ii) On CD-ROM
title]. [online]. Order of details: Place of publication: Publisher. Series details (if any). Available from: URL Name of author(s) if available. (Year of publication). „Title of article‟. Name ofnewspaper. [CD-ROM]. Day and month, Page number(s) (if Government Circulars
a) Printed government circular
Norton-Taylor, R. (2001). „Amnesty attacks Britain on asylum‟. Guardian. Order of details: [CD-ROM]. 31 May, p11. Government Department. (Date of publication). Title of circular. Circular details. Place of publication: Publisher. Department of Health. (2000). The NHS plan: a plan for investment, a plan for reform. [online]. London: Stationery Office. (Cm; 4818-1). Available Department of Health. (2001). Care Standards Act 2000: transition from: http://www.doh.gov.uk/nhsplan/contents.htm [Accessed 26 August arrangements for the creation of the National Care Standards Commission. HSC 2001/011. London: Department of Health. Chapters in Books
b) Electronic government circular
Order of details: Order of details: Author of chapter. (Date of publication). „Title of chapter‟. in Editor . Title Government Department. (Date of publication). Title of circular. [online]. of book. Place of publication: Publisher, Page numbers(s). Circular details.P lace of publication: Publisher. Available from: URL Lloyd, L. (2001). „Social policy‟. in J. Naidoo & J. Wil s (eds.). Health studies: an introduction. Basingstoke: Palgrave, p163-192. Department of Health. (2001). Care Standards Act 2000: transition arrangements for the creation of the National Care Standards Commission. [online]. HSC 2001/011. London:Department of Health. Available ReadForm [Accessed 25 August 2001]

Source: http://www.btuheks.nhs.uk/publications/referencing_2013.pdf

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Bariatric Surgical and Procedural in the Treatment of Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes A position statement from the International Diabetes Federation Taskforce on Epidemiology and Prevention Table of Contents 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . 1 2. BACKGROUND . 3

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Pseudotumor Cerebri: Brief Review of Clinical Syndrome and Imaging Findings SUMMARY: PTC is a clinical entity of uncertain etiology characterized by intracranial hypertension. The syndrome classically manifests with headaches and visual changes in women with obesity. Tradition-ally, imaging ruled out secondary causes of elevated CSF pressure but now may reveal findingsfrequently seen in patients with PTC, including the following: flattening of the globe, an empty sella,an enlarged ONS, protrusion and enhancement of the optic nerve head, and increased tortuosity of theoptic nerve. Novel imaging methods, including MR venography, have additionally identified sinovenousstenosis as a potential indicator of PTC.