Policy Brief • April 2016 GPE's Work in Conflict-affected and Fragile Countries Accelerated Support in Emergency and Early Recovery Situa-tions, GPE has successfully promoted coordinated deci-sions about the best way to utilize resources in crisis settings, such as shifting them to non- governmental 28 GPE's developing country partners are classified providers for direct service provision during acute as fragile and conflict-affected countries (FCAC).1 That's 43 percent of all of GPE's developing country partners.
According to a 2013 Brookings study, GPE has intro-duced "modalities that not only allow GPE to support new 12 transitional education plans are currently being FCAS entering the partnership but also continue sup- used with GPE support.
porting the education needs of young people when stable countries experience crises and disasters."2 4 countries have benefited from accelerated funding, totaling more than US$22 million (99 percent dis-bursed as of January 31, 2016).
1. Overview
CAR: US$3,690,000 Chad: US$6,955,170 Millions of children around the world are affected Somalia (Federal government): US$1,380,000 by conflict, natural disasters, complex humanitarian Yemen: US$10,000,000 emergencies, internal strife, and fragility. Increasingly, the world's out-of-school children live in countries fac- GPE has provided a foundation for coordination and ing war and violence.3 As a result, they are deprived of dialogue among development and humanitarian their right to education. Ensuring access to education actors in countries as diverse as Chad, Burundi, Central protects the rights of children and youth in the midst African Republic, South Sudan, Somalia, and Yemen. of chaos while instilling a sense of normalcy and shor- Through its Operational Framework for Effective Support ing up resilience. in Fragile and Conf lict-affected States, and its Guidelines for 1 Twenty-two are classified as fragile by the World Bank and 18 are classified as conflict-affected by UNESCO; 12 fall into both lists.
2 Rebecca Winthrop and Elena Matsui, "A New Agenda for Education in Fragile States" (Working Paper 10, Center for Universal Education, Brookings Institution, 2013), 42–44.
3 UNESCO (2015). "Education for All 2000–2015: Achievements and Challenges." Policy Brief • April 2016 Many of these children have not been given an oppor- GPE's approach to FCAC begins with the allocation tunity to go to school or have been taken away from of GPE financing, using an eligibility and allocation schooling. Children cross borders or become perma- framework that places an emphasis on low- and lower- nently displaced without a guarantee that they can go middle-income countries with high levels of out-of- to school when they finally arrive at a safer destina- school children. It specifically weights allocations tion. Over one-third of the world's refugee children are toward countries affected by fragility and conflict. This still missing out on primary education, and three out has led to a significant increase in the proportion of of four have no access to secondary education. More grants disbursed to FCAC (Chart 1) and the growth in than one-third of countries hosting refugees do not rec- the number of FCAC in the partnership (Chart 2).
ognize their right to education; more than 60 percent of these refugee children live within the boundaries of GPE deploys a progressive approach in emergencies GPE partner countries. and during protracted crises, providing f lexibility to address challenges and optimize program results. GPE The Global Partnership for Education is strongly finances education interventions that accompany committed to addressing this crisis. GPE 2020, the children throughout a country's progress from pre- partnership's new strategic plan, makes support for paredness through to recovery to reduce the impact of conflict-affected and fragile countries (FCAC) a focus any future crises. It recognizes that securing a contin- over the next five years. This continues what has been uum of education services across the divide between a steady increase in GPE support to FCAC. Such a focus humanitarian and development interventions is cru- is supported by participation of countries affected cial to maintaining the important progress made by by conflict and fragility on GPE's Board and Board school-going children and youth, teachers, and educa- Chart 1: GPE alloCations to FCaC
GPE Allocations to F ragile and Conflict Aff e Allocations to Fr agile and Conflict-aff (in USD millions) 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 source: GPE Secretariat, 2016

Policy Brief • April 2016 Chart 2: numbEr oF ConFliCt-aFFECtEd and FraGilE CountriEs within thE Global PartnErshiP
For EduCation, 2002–2016

Total fragile and conflict-affected countries 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 source: GPE Secretariat, GEMR Conflict-Affected States, World Bank "Harmonized List of Fragile Situations"
GPE support in emergency contexts has three main GPE grants can also be restructured to meet urgent emergency needs, and can be deployed for direct service provision to address urgent needs, under the GPE supports education sector plans that reinforce
GPE operational Framework for Effective support in
emergency readiness, preparedness, and planning
Fragile and Conflict-affected states.
through its sector planning grants.
GPE supports transitional education planning, which
offers a unique starting point for policy coordina-tion when countries are emerging from a crisis—specifically recognizing the need to link between development actors (organized within a local educa-tion group (LEG) and humanitarian actors (through the education cluster). Through its accelerated financing mechanism, coun-
tries with existing GPE allocation are able to draw down on up to 20 percent of this allocation to meet immediate needs when a crisis strikes. CHAD. Credit: Educate a Child Policy Brief • April 2016 2. GPE mechanisms
a sense of ownership among those involved in the
planning process, which will aid the implementa- for support in Conflict-
tion of the plan.
affected and Fragile
A "road map" for a few priority education programs
for three years.
In addition, GPE prioritizes and incentivizes the inclu- transitional EduCation PlanninG and
sion of crisis preparedness and planning in sector dia- PrEParEdnEss PlanninG aCross thE
logue mechanisms and education planning exercises. Revised guidelines for education sector plan (ESP) prep-aration, created in cooperation with the International During early recovery, GPE can provide financial and Institute for Education Planning (IIEP), are used by GPE technical support to help countries to establish a tran- to establish minimum standards for all ESPs, which GPE sitional (or interim) education plan (TEP), which forms has committed to monitoring as part of GPE 2020. To the basis for a coordinated approach by identifying qualify as credible, a plan must include "an analysis of priority actions in the medium term. the country vulnerabilities, such as conflict, disasters, and economic crises, and shall address preparedness, preven- A TEP enables a government and its partners to develop tion, and risk mitigation for the resilience of the system."3 a structured plan to maintain progress toward ensuring the right to education and meeting longer-term edu- aCCElEratEd suPPort in EmErGEnCy
cational goals. It further seeks to address immediate and Early rECovEry situations (adoPtEd
needs relevant to the context, as well as actions needed by thE board in 2012)
to strengthen education system capacities. GPE accelerated funding allows disbursement within A TEP results in: eight weeks of up to 20 percent of GPE's indicative allo-cation for a partner country. The use of funds is based a common framework to help the government align
on the education cluster needs assessment and agreed development and humanitarian partners in support
upon by the local education group and the education of education. This alignment is especially important
cluster at the country level. in situations where both development and human-itarian partners and their funding are present. The Through this mechanism, GPE can provide rapid assis- TEP can then also serve as a vehicle for harmonizing tance to countries that are: (i) eligible for education emergency or early recovery education activities sector plan implementation grants (ESPIG); (ii) affected that may be specified in a humanitarian response by a crisis for which a humanitarian appeal has been plan with longer-term development priorities for launched and published by the UN Office for the the education sector.
Coordination for Humanitarian Affairs, with educa-tion as a part of that appeal; and (iii) able to demon- accelerated timelines so that urgently needed funds
strate that GPE funds will not displace government can be received in transition contexts. and/or other donor funds, but will be in addition to other resources. robust plans that will facilitate access to external
education financing opportunities.
Activities can include, but are not limited to, emergency activities such as temporary shelters, school meals, 3 See Guidelines for Education Sector Plan Preparation and Guidelines for Education Sector Plan Appraisal, 2015.
Policy Brief • April 2016 and distribution of school supplies, as well as activities are needed in order to address education needs arising critical to establishing or rebuilding education services, from an emergency. such as classroom construction, teacher remunera-tion, and school grants. Accelerated support should be Under this policy GPE is able to redirect resources to implemented within one year, by which time the coun- priority activities arising from the emergency—with try should have applied for the remaining 80 percent the same grant agent (as in Yemen in 2015), or to an allocation for longer-term development programming. alternative grant agent who can ensure continuity of This promotes a link between shorter-term emergency services and salaries, as occurred in Madagascar in response and longer-term development needs.
2009 and is currently underway in Burundi.
GPE oPErational FramEwork For EFFECtivE
suPPort in FraGilE and ConFliCt-aFFECtEd
statEs (adoPtEd in may 2013)

3. GPE's increased
In 2013, GPE adopted an Operational Framework Focus on refugee and
for Effective Support in Fragile and Conflict-affected States. This policy aims to provide more effective sup- port when emergencies occur during ESPIG implemen-tation, calling for a rapid review of the situation by the local education group, immediate notification and GPE partner developing countries are home to just exploration of alternatives in cases where a grant agent over 3 million refugee children, about 63 percent of can no longer implement planned activities due to a the world's refugee children population.4 Yet few GPE crisis, and efficient grant revisions where adjustments Chart 3: GPE Grant alloCations
GPE Cumulative Grant Allocations—2003–2015 (in USD millions) 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Fragile and Conflict-Affected source: GPE Secretariat, 2016
4 UNHCR and GPE data. UNHCR data only accounts for refugees for whom demographic data is available.
Policy Brief • April 2016 partner countries include refugees in their educa- 4. GPE's results in
tion sector planning, and many lack the capacity and resources to address the educational needs of refugees. In response, GPE is reaching out to strengthen the part- CEntral aFriCan rEPubliC (Car):
nership by bringing in key partners that address the Early rECovEry and Coordination
needs of displaced children affected by conflict and crisis, and also by encouraging greater attention to the In the Central African Republic, GPE contributed to an education of refugees and displaced populations in early recovery intervention through the provision of education sector plans.
accelerated funding and support for the development of a transitional education plan. After the 2013 crisis, GPE and unhCr signed a memorandum of understand-
over one-third of schools were damaged and non- ing (mou) on april 15, 2016, that aims to enhance their
functioning. A GPE grant for US$15.5 million for 2014 collaboration and further strengthen GPE's work on ref-
to 2015, managed by UNICEF, has helped more than ugee education. Some of the activities under the MoU
100,000 children return to school. The grant has also delivered school kits to more than 250,000 children, rehabilitated more than 250 classrooms, and supported Strengthened engagement by UNHCR in local edu- catch-up classes in target schools. cation groups, and by education partners working with UNHCR on refugee education GPE played a unique role in promoting donor coordi-nation through the creation of the first local education Focused work with national education partners group in CAR, which in turn proved to be an important on the inclusion of refugees in national and sub- mechanism for planning when crisis struck. It also national education policies, sector plans, and budgets helped to leverage additional financing, aligned with the transitional education plan. Today, donors are fully Provision of technical advice to national partners in aligned around CAR's sector plan: a European Union design and implementation of programs to address program, fully aligned to the transitional education key challenges in meeting the educational needs of plan, complements the GPE program (targeting prov- inces not covered by the GPE program but with the same package of interventions). A program of Agence Leveraging of development partners for program- ming and funds to benefit refugees in protracted settings and/or where enhancement of national sys-tems is required to absorb refugees Targeted support to address critical gaps in refugee education service provision, including education for girls and adolescents, quality, and learning achievement CAR. Credit: UNICEF/Y. Kim Policy Brief • April 2016 Française de Développement helps to re-establish the teachers, school feeding, micronutrients, dignity kits capacity of the Ministry of Education in coordination for girls, and support for civics education, in addition with the GPE program, NGOs provide co-funding to to classroom construction, latrines and water supply implement activities through the GPE program, and the for schools, in-service teacher training, textbook distri- humanitarian education cluster works closely with the bution, and literacy for out-of-school youth. local education group.
The Chadian authorities submitted a final proposal Chad: suPPortinG a CoordinatEd national
for accelerated financing to GPE on January 8, 2016. rEsPonsE to a humanitarian Crisis
Funding was approved by the Country Grants and Per-formance Committee on February 4, 2016, meeting GPE's commitment to processing accelerated funding The humanitarian crisis in the Lake Chad region involves proposals within a four-week window. Funds were rap- large numbers of refugees and returnees fleeing violence idly disbursed to GPE implementing partner UNICEF by in northeastern Nigeria. The crisis is exacerbated by February 9, 2016, demonstrating the speed with which declining oil prices, which challenge the government's GPE can move to support accelerated financing for ability to meet spending targets in education. Using GPE support, Chad set a strong example for GPE partner countries by becoming the first GPE part- dEmoCratiC rEPubliC oF ConGo (drC): suPPort
ner to include refugees in its transitional education For bEttEr PlanninG and domEstiC FinanCinG
plan in 2013. GPE subsequently provided Chad with two grants to implement the TEP (US$7.06 million Access to a free, quality education for all Congolese and US$40.14 million for the period 2013–2016.) An children was introduced in 2010 by the government. existing humanitarian appeal includes education, and But in many towns and villages, parents still contribute GPE confirmed in May 2015 an indicative allocation to school costs to cover school maintenance, adminis- of US$34.8 million in new funding for Chad. GPE is tration, and even supplies and teachers' salaries. supporting Chad's development of an education sector plan for the period 2017 to 2026.
GPE has supported DRC to prepare a transitional edu-cation plan for the period 2012 to 2014—the coun- In March 2015, during Chad's annual education joint try's first education sector plan since independence. sector review (JSR), a discussion between the Ministry Motivated by the new TEP, the government increased of Education and its development partners led to a the share of its budget allocated to education, from decision to mobilize additional funding to respond to its humanitarian crisis. Under GPE's accelerated support policy, Chad was eligible to request US$6.96 million as accelerated funding to focus on basic service delivery in August 2015. GPE and the members of the local education group worked closely with the country's education cluster to develop an emergency project aimed at address-ing the education crisis in the Lake Chad region. The Chadian government's approach has been to shore up the school system in the most troubled areas so that affected populations will not feel abandoned in the context of severe national spending cuts. This has included payment of subsidies for community school DRC. Credit: GPE/C. Horton Policy Brief • April 2016 9 percent in 2010 to 16 percent in 2013, with the goal plan, and provided US$36.1 million in funding to sup- of reaching 18 percent by 2018. port it during the 2013–2016 period. GPE is presently supporting the government's efforts In December 2013, renewed conflict broke out in with a US$100 million grant that covers school reha- South Sudan, creating another humanitarian crisis bilitation and construction in the most deprived prov- in which an estimated 2 million people, including inces, distribution of 20 million textbooks around the 500,000 children, were displaced in three states. Using country, and improvements in sector management. It GPE's Operational Framework for Effective Support in is also investing in a new education sector plan, which Fragile and Conflict-affected States, the local educa- includes a vulnerability analysis conducted with the tion group, in consultation with the education cluster, support of IIEP. including the Ministry of Education, donors, and UN agencies, was activated to plan for the best use of GPE GPE is supporting the DRC to develop a new ESP for the and other funds to address this crisis. period 2016 to 2025, and to prepare its application for a second grant of US$100 million for consideration by GPE played an important role in facilitating consen- the GPE Board in 2016.
sus among these stakeholders to leverage funds from other donors to support educational programming siErra lEonE: Grant rEstruCturinG
in the three conflict-affected states. This allowed durinG a hEalth EmErGEnCy
GPE funding to protect the rights of children in the unaffected states, as well as to support the transition from emergency to long-term development in the In 2015, education progress in Sierra Leone was signifi- conflict-affected states.
cantly affected by the Ebola crisis. In response, Sierra Leone, a GPE partner since 2007, used GPE's Operational Framework for Effective Support in Fragile and Conflict-affected Today, South Sudan is concluding its second sector analysis with support from GPE, and preparing for a to restructure a part of its US$17.9 million GPE GPE education sector plan implementation grant. The grant to meet immediate educational needs. GPE funds sector analysis has included a vulnerability analysis were used to support emergency radio and television in order to integrate emergency needs within the ESP. school programs when schools were closed and to ensure As a result, the Ministry of Education is planning to safe and secure learning environments when schools establish an education-in-emergency unit within the ministry so as to better coordinate development and emergency activities in the future.
GPE stood ready to similarly restructure its funding in Guinea and Liberia, staying in contact with local edu-cation groups and monitoring each situation closely. somalia: innovativE aPProaCh to
This however proved unnecessary as other sources of transitional EduCation PlanninG
funding were available in these countries, allowing GPE financing to focus support on the transition out of After years of civil war, in 2012 Somalia joined GPE crisis response to allow development efforts to resume.
as a federal state. More than 75 percent of Somalia's public schools were destroyed or closed, and two gener- south sudan: linkinG humanitarian rEsPonsE
ations of children had grown up largely without access and lonG-tErm dEvEloPmEnt
to basic education. GPE provided critical funding and helped Somalia Two years after its independence, South Sudan joined rally support for a plan to rebuild the nation's school the Global Partnership for Education. GPE supported system, working in an innovative fashion with three the development of the country's education sector regions to develop transitional education plans. For

Policy Brief • April 2016 the first time ever, there are TEPs in place for all three Somali regions: Somalia (Federal government), Soma-liland, and Puntland. As a result, Somalia is shifting away from fragmented, emergency activities and toward better planning and program implementation. Since 2012, GPE has supported Somalia with grants to each of these regions, providing US$14.5 million in total. These grants have supported payment of teach-ers' salaries, girls' access to schools, and accelerated training programs that allowed children access to public schools from the beginning of the 2013–2014 school year.
YEMEN. Credit: UNICEF/G. Pirozzi Somalia is presently eligible for an additional alloca-tion of US$33.1 million for a second grant phase.
country to be involved in the sector dialogue and so yEmEn: ContinuinG EduCation aGainst
enabled them to remain engaged during the crisis. Yemen, a GPE partner since 2003, has received over US$120 million in funding from the partnership. GPE supported the country's most recent TEP for 2013–2015.
GPE's three main mechanisms for support in fragile In 2015, escalating conflict led to considerable disrup- and conflict-affected contexts—accelerated financ- tion of education in Yemen. An emergency meeting of ing, transitional education plans, and the Operational the local education group was convened by the Min- Framework for Effective Engagement in Fragile and istry of Education to determine how best to use GPE Conflict-affected States—ensure that GPE's funding to funds to respond to the conflict that left 1.8 million the education sector does not stop when emergencies children out of school. strike, and that partners work together to identify needs and the best use of GPE funds, as has happened in CAR, Using the GPE Operational Framework for Effective Chad, Somalia, South Sudan, and Yemen. Support in Fragile and Conflict-affected States, approxi-mately US$10 million (of a US$72.6 million grant) were Moreover, the process to receive accelerated funding subsequently redirected for rebuilding 150 schools, requires development and humanitarian actors to psycho-social support to 37,500 girls and boys, and work together in a way that helps strengthen the link basic school supplies for nearly 91,000 children. between emergency response, recovery, and develop-ment, and promotes improved coordination. Notably, More recently, during the meeting of the local educa- this model has ensured rapid response, sustained tion group in Amman, Jordan, Yemeni partners sup- financing, and improved donor alignment and coor- ported the TEP to ensure the continuation of education dination in countries such as CAR, DRC, Madagascar, activities in the country. The LEG in Yemen helped Yemen, and more recently Chad.5 As demonstrated in partners who have suspended their operations in the 5 See GPE Portfolio Review 2015 and Menashy and Dryden-Peterson, 2015a and 2015b.
Policy Brief • April 2016 Chad and Sierra Leone, GPE financing can be moved can be done to include refugee education within rapidly and effectively to meet emergency needs. nationally owned planning and programming. GPE is continuing to refine policy and program GPE's eligibility and allocation models are not respon- approaches to improve support for education in crisis sive when there is a rapid deterioration of educa- environments and address gaps and challenges: tional opportunities in countries and regions that are not already GPE partners. For example, as of the The Operational Framework for Effective Engage- 2014 data released in 2016, Syria is now eligible for ment in Fragile and Conflict-affected States and its GPE financing because it has more than 15 percent accelerated financing mechanism forces a choice of children out of primary school and a per capita between emergency and development needs, income of under US$2,500. However, GPE was not whereby funds for crisis are not additional to exist- positioned to support Syria as the crisis unfolded, ing development funds. Some countries choose to missing the chance to provide education for the mil- use GPE funding to address emergency needs; on lions of out-of-school children who are the victims of the whole, however, governments tend to choose to try to raise funds from other sources if possible and retain GPE funds to address longer-term develop- Given the significant gap in education emergency fund- ment goals, as South Sudan chose to do when the cri- ing, and the fact that so many out-of-school children sis intensified and the potential reallocation of GPE affected by conflict and crises live within GPE part- funds was discussed and decided against in 2014. ner countries, GPE recognizes the need for enhanced action. GPE's current approach should be seen as a Although more than half of the world's refugee chil- solid foundation and model for future efforts, but also dren live within GPE partner countries, few countries warrants further elaboration in order to meet these include them in their national education sector plans and programs—a notable exception being Chad. More Policy Brief • April 2016 Global Partnership for Education. Guidelines for Accelerated Support in Emergency and Early Recovery Situations. Washington, DC: Global Partnership for Central African Republic. Transitional Education Sector Global Partnership for Education. Strategic Plan Global Partnership for Education. GPE Annual Portfolio 2012–2015. Washington, DC: Global Partnership for Review 2015. Washington, DC: Global Partnership for Education, 2015. Global Partnership for Education. Results for Learning Report: Facing the Challenges of Data, Financing and Fragility. Global Partnership for Education. The GPE Funding Model. Washington, DC: Global Partnership for Education, Washington, DC: Global Partnership for Education, Global Partnership for Education. GPE Operational Menashy, Francine, and Sarah Dryden-Peterson. "The Framework for Effective Support in Fragile and Global Partnership for Education's evolving support to fragile Conf lict-affected States. Washington, DC: Global and conf lict-affected states." The International Journal of Partnership for Education, 2013. http://www Educational Development 44 (2015): 82–94.
Menashy, Francine, and Sarah Dryden-Peterson. "The Global Partnership for Education and the Evolution of Engagement in Contexts of Conf lict and Fragility." NORRAG Global Partnership for Education. GPE's Role in NEWSbite (blog), February 16, 2015. https://norrag.
Humanitarian and Complex Emergency Contexts. Washington, DC: Global Partnership for Education, Republic of Mali. Interim Education Sector Plan. http:// Global Partnership for Education. Guidelines for Education Sector Plan Preparation. Washington, DC: Global Partnership for Education, 2015. Winthrop, Rebecca, and Elena Matsui. "A New Agenda for Education in Fragile States." Working Paper 10, Center for Universal Education, Brookings Institution, Global Partnership for Education. Guidelines Washington, DC, 2013. / for Education Sector Plan Appraisal. Washington, DC: Global Partnership for Education, 2015. Office Location:1850 K Street N.W.
Suite 625Washington D.C., 20006USA Global Partnership for EducationMSN IS6-600 1818 H Street NWWashington D.C., 20433USA



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British Journal of Haematology, 2003, 120, 177–186 THE ROLE OF HYDROXYUREA IN SICKLE CELL DISEASE Although the molecular basis for the sickling disorders was ism by which hydroxyurea induces HbF is still unclear. identified more than 50 years ago (reviewed in Weatherall Unlike several of the other HbF-inducing agents, such as 2001), progress towards definitive therapy for sickle cell